VATIS Update Food Processing . Jan-Mar 2015

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Food Processing Jan-Mar 2015

ISSN: 0971-5649

VATIS Update Food Processing is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Food Processing. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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WHO to help countries reduce promoting fatty food

Across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, children are still regularly exposed to marketing that promotes foods and drinks high in energy, saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars or salt. Despite progress in some countries, government action to restrict such marketing remains less than optimal. However, to meet this need, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has developed a nutrient profile model for countries to adapt and use to classify foods according to their nutritional composition. Policy-makers across the Region will be able to use this tool to determine whether a food product may not be marketed to children.

Marketing of foods high in energy, fats, sugars or salt has a documented harmful impact on children: it promotes the development of unhealthy food preferences and diets, and childhood obesity, thus contributing to the later development of diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Policies that introduce tighter controls on the marketing of foods to children will be central to fight childhood obesity. The Regional Office’s nutrient profile model is intended to reduce the pressure of marketing on children by helping countries identify foods for which marketing should not be permitted. This task was set by the WHO European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015-2020.

The WHO Regional Office for Europe developed its nutrient profile model through extensive consultation with countries in the European Region, with significant input from those belonging to the WHO European action network on reducing marketing pressure on children. The model is largely based on the Danish and Norwegian models, which are used to restrict food marketing to children. Health authorities developed the Norwegian model, while the Danish model was developed by the Forum for Responsible Food Marketing Communication (a trade association) but endorsed for use by the Danish Government.

Food safety tops China’s rural agenda

In a statement released by the Communist Party’s Central Committee and the State Council, the central government has prepared a key policy document to address food safety and modernise agriculture while raising the income of growers, as it sought to address concerns about future food supply. It sets priorities for the 12 months ahead and has focused on rural matters for the past 12 years. This blueprint mapped out five goals – modernising agriculture, raising farmers’ income, improving infrastructure, deepening land reforms, and strengthening rule of law in rural matters.

According to preliminary data, harvests had increased for 11 consecutive years, but as economic growth slowed, it became necessary to reinforce agriculture’s position and raise farmers’ incomes. Agriculture accounted for 9.2 per cent of gross domestic product last year, down from 9.4 per cent in 2013. But the industry suffered from overdevelopment, which had contributed to environmental problems, so securing supply and ensuring safety were great challenges. It said the government would strengthen the supervision system at the county and village level. It also encouraged wholesale enterprises to set up an integrated tracking system so the origins of products could be traced.

On boosting technology within the sector, the government would do more to study genetically modified (GM) food and the safety concerns surrounding it. The government would narrow the gap between domestic and global food prices by using modern methods to help gauge costs and productivity. It would also review a pilot scheme to allow the price of cotton and soybean to fluctuate and subsidise farmers when their incomes fell too low.

India to verify quality standard of mangoes

According to the data released by the Commerce Ministry’s Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), India exported about 41,000 tones of fresh mangoes valued at Rs 285 crore in 2013-14. For perspective, this is just a fraction of the agriculture and processed foods exports of Rs 1,36,920 crore. Major export destinations are UAE, UK, Saudi Arabia and US. Interestingly, export of mango pulp (processed from mango) was much higher at Rs 773 crore. This is significant because the food processing industry is at a nascent stage in India.

However, for maintaining the quality standards, India has set up state-of-the-art packing houses in major production zones. Keeping in view the importing countries’ requirements, internationally recognized treatment facilities like hot water treatment, vapour heat treatment and irradiation facilities have also been set up at various locations. A unique product identification system, compliant with the traceability networking and Residue Monitoring Plan, has been developed for consumer safety.

India to streamline food products approval process

Union Health Minister J.P. Nadda said that the government of India has been working towards streamlining the process for time-bound approval of food products. The health ministry along with the Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) is working on this. “This will not only clear the approval of several pending proposals for food products but will also give a much needed push to the domestic food processing industry, while not compromising with quality and safety of food products,” said Nadda.

Nadda also stressed on the need to have safe and wholesome food, and the local manufacturing of food products under the government’s Make in India campaign. The health ministry held a review meeting with all the stakeholders under the mandate of the Food Safety and Standard Authority (FSSA) Act, 2006, to ensure that food that is consumed is safe, healthy and wholesome, and the manufacturing process adheres to all standards and procedures. At the meeting stakeholders from the food processing industries, the secretary of the department of industrial policy and promotions, the secretary of the department of food processing, and the chairman and CEO of FSSAI were present.

Processed food exports rise by 14% in Sri Lanka

At the launch ceremony of the Pro Food-Pro Pack & Agbiz 2015 in Colombo, the Sri Lankan Minister of Industries and Commerce Rishad Bathiudeen has revealed that the country’s processed food industry which experienced a decline in 2013 has recovered in last year surging 14 percent. In 2014, Sri Lanka’s exports of food, feed, beverages and tobacco increased 14 percent to US$ 317 million from 2013’s US$ 278 million. The Minister stated that the processed food industry, despite lower export revenues, is the largest of industries in Sri Lanka in terms of input and output values by industry as well as value addition and is standing even above the apparel sector.

“The about 850 Lankan establishments with more than 25 workers each are employing 100,000 persons and are annually producing about US$ 4 billion of processed food in Sri Lanka increasing their share in the exports. The packaging industry is also at the center of most of Sri Lanka’s exports as well as local and international marketing and branding of Lankan products,” said Bathiudeen. According to the Export Development Board, 200 Lankan companies are directly involved in packaging industry and Sri Lanka’s direct packaging exports stood at US$ 74 million in 2013.

The main sub sector is corrugated packaging for transports. About 20 companies supply to the other sub sector, flexible packaging which includes plastic packaging. As Sri Lanka’s only agriculture, food and beverage and packaging event, it attracts all stakeholders from the retail and wholesale food/beverage service sectors generating new connections and new business for everyone involved.

Scientists develop low-cost potato chips technology

Scientists at the Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), India, has developed a low-cost technology for making potato chips. It has also developed new potato varieties, which are suitable for making chips and french fries in the state. “We have developed new technology for making home-made potato chips and french fries for small entrepreneurs, who can set up their own units. We first developed new potato varieties like Kufri Sona. These varieties can be stored for eight months on an elevated temperature and is good for making chips and french fries,” said Dr. RP Singh, director, CPRI.

According to the scientists, potato chips are crispy and light cream in colour, which makes them tempting to eat. We can preserve them for three months in plastic packs at ambient temperatures. The technology for making good quality chips with higher yield recovery and low oil contents has been standardised. As compared to chips produced in an unorganised sector, Kufri chips are of better quality with higher yield and low oil content. The chips plant, which includes a peeler, slicer, blancher, fryer and a packaging unit, costs Rs 15 lakh. It is affordable for small entrepreneurs, including mahila mandal and self help groups. It can process 100 kg potatoes every day.

The CPRI is developing training modules for farmers as it is getting a good response from farmers, who are seeking training in growing chips potatoes and how to set up plant. The technology has been evaluated successfully and standardised from raw material, storage to final production. Small-scale entrepreneurs can adopt it across the country. The CPRI also charges technology commercialisation fee, which is extra. Target industry and groups are fast food, potato processing, mahila mandals, self-help groups, dehydrated product markets and cooperatives.

Census of small food processing units in India

As per the latest census [Fourth All India Census of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME)] conducted (with base reference year 2006-07), wherein the data was collected till 2009 and results published in 2011-12, the estimated number of registered food processing units in MSME sector are 2.23 lakh in the country. The contribution of food processing units in MSME sector, in terms of value addition, is Rs. 42, 659 crore. In terms of employment, the total number of persons engaged in registered food processing units in MSME sector are 14.68 lakh. The information was given by the Minister of State for Food Processing Industries Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti.

The Government facilitates the promotion and development of MSME sector including food processing units, through implementation of various schemes/programmes relating to credit, infrastructure development, technology upgradation, marketing, entrepreneurial/skill development etc. The major schemes include Credit Guarantee Scheme, Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme, Performance and Credit Rating Scheme, Cluster Development Programme, National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme, Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme and Skill Development Programme.

China officially adds potatoes as staple diet

In a statement the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) has said that the potato will soon be China’s latest staple diet after rice, wheat and corn and 50 per cent of annual production of potatoes will be consumed as a staple food by 2020 to improve the food security in the world’s most populous nation. China will turn potatoes into noodles, steamed bread and other staple food products, converting potatoes to a series of manufactured food items, leading to a healthier diet. “The addition of potatoes as another staple food was consistent with the government’s policy of adjusting the agriculture structure to achieve sustainable development,” said Yu Xinrong, deputy director of the MOA.

The MOA also vowed to make a “distinct” increase in potato production in the next few years. Popularising the consumption of potatoes would not compromise the existing cultivated land for wheat, rice and corn. Many potato-lovers supported the policy, while others doubted if the policy was a result of inadequate production of traditional staple food in China.

China is under pressure with a huge population but limited farmland, which makes potatoes a perfect supplement to the present staple food system of China. “The potato is of higher nutritional value compared with rice and wheat flour, which lose considerable dietary fiber and nutrients during processing,” said Liu Lan, at the China Dietitian Association. The decision would encourage the increased planting of potatoes and bring some improvements to the food processing industry, but this would require greater government support.

New food processing center in Philippines

Philippines, has been declared a priority of the newly-opened Food Processing Innovation Center (FPIC) granted by the European Union’s (EU) Generalized Scheme of Preferences Plus (GSP+), for the development of preserved fruit products. “The FPIC aims to produce up to 250 new products every year,” said Dr. Antonio Sales, of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), which will fund the center’s operations. Among the six priority products are banana, durian, pomelo, vegetables, coconut, and dairy. At the same time, development of processed meat and poultry products will also be accommodated, Mr. Sales added.

“With its upgraded processing systems and manufacturing operations, the FPIC is crucial in helping producers preserve their bountiful fresh fruit harvest,” said Mr. Sales. The main target beneficiaries are micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) that do not have easy access to funding sources and technical expertise for product development. Under the EU GSP+ program, 6,274 products, including preserved fruit, will now enjoy zero tariff status in EU member countries. While DOST will provide the funds for manpower for supervision as well as research and development, students and faculty of various universities in Region 11 will be tapped for product ideas and development.

The DOST has already signified support for the FPIC’s expansion should there be demand from MSMEs and other users. Consultation services on quality improvement, marketing and logistics will also be offered at the center.


Philippines implement guidelines of Food Safety Act

The Philippines Agriculture Secretary Proceso Alcala and Health Secretary Janet Garin, recently signed the implementing Rules and Regulations of the Food Safety Act or Republic Act 10611 (An Act to Strengthen the Food Safety Regulatory System in the Country to Protect Consumer Health and Facilitate Market Access of Local Foods and Food Products, and For Other Purposes). The IRR spells out the regulatory requirements to be complied with by food businesses and the specific functions of the Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Health (DOH), the Department of Interior and Local Government and the Local Government Units (LGUs) in the implementation of science-based food safety regulations.

For their part, local government units (LGUs) will enforce food safety regulations (including implementation of the Code of Sanitation of the Philippines) of food businesses within their territorial jurisdiction, including that of street food and ambulant vendors. The supervision of food safety enforcement will be the guard of the Department of the Interior and Local Government, including collection and documentation of food-borne illness data, monitoring and research.

Tougher food safety law in Bangladesh

The Food Minister of Bangladesh, Qamrul Islam has announced that mobile courts would be empowered to judge food crimes, while Pure Food Courts would be formed to ensure safe food. The Safe Food Act will replace the Pure Food Ordinance-1959. But pending work, and cases and appeals filed under the ordinance would be allowed to continue. Parliament passed the Safe Food Bill-2013 on Oct 7, 2013 and on Nov 23 last year, the High Court ordered the food ministry to implement the law within three months.

According to the previous ordinance, no one could directly file a case against an unsafe food producer, processor or seller. Now, that could be done under the new law, said Islam. A letter had already been sent to the law ministry to form the Pure Food Courts. “The ministry has been sent a letter to include the Act in ‘Mobile Court Act-2009’ to have mobile courts under the Safe Food Act,” said Islam. The minister said the ‘Safe Food Regulations-2014’ was formulated in accordance with the Act.

A five-member panel, to be known as the Safe Food Authority, would coordinate the work of all bodies associated with safe food management. It would supervise safe food management activities including food production, processing, manufacturing, marketing, monitoring, and better practices and risk analysis. The chairman of the Safe Food Authority would head a 28-member Central Food Management Committee to be formed with high-ranking representatives from the ministries, departments, agencies, and organisations. The committee would coordinate all administrations and organisations directly or indirectly involved with safe food management.

Global standard for food safety revised by BRC

The British Retail Consortium (BRC) has published the seventh issue of its internationally recognised BRC Global Standard for Food Safety on 7 January 2015, and audits against Issue 7 will begin in July 2015. The BRC Global Standards are internationally recognised as the market leaders setting the benchmark for good manufacturing practices in food, packaging, storage and distribution, agents and brokers, and consumer products. Certification enables customers to have confidence in their suppliers, and helps suppliers by allowing them to show they are maintaining high standards of safety, quality and legal compliance.

The development of Issue 7 followed a wide consultation to understand stakeholders’ requirements, and a review of emerging issues in the food industry. The information has been developed and reviewed by working groups made up of international stakeholders representing food manufacturers, retailers, food service companies, certification bodies and independent technical experts.

The objective has been to direct the focus of the audit towards the implementation of good manufacturing practices within the production areas with increased emphasis on areas which have traditionally resulted in recalls and withdrawals (e.g. label and packing management). “The development of Issue 7 has been based on the values of the previous issues while ensuring that the update reflects the latest best practices. The consultation with the users of the Standard set the main focus for the rewrite which was to reduce the need for multiple audits and encourage consistency of the audit process; we believe the working groups have achieved this aim,” said David Brackston, Technical Director, BRC Global Standards.


New study shows orange juice is 10 times healthier

A new technique developed by researchers from the University of Granada (UGR), Spain, for antioxidants in food have shown that orange juice is ten times more beneficial than believed so far. The study highlights the need to rewrite the tables on the antioxidant capacities of food products. Orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit juices of citrus fruits have emerged many times more beneficial under the new lab technique. For example, in the case of orange juice, the value jumps from traditional 2.3 mmol Trolox/L (units for the antioxidant capacity) to 23 mmol Trolox/L with the new GAR method.

“The antioxidant activity is, on average, ten times higher than that which everyone thought up until now, and not just in juices, but also in any other kind of food analysed with this methodology,” said José Ángel Rufián Henares, at the UGR. Traditional methods to calculate antioxidants have used a simulation that analysed only the liquid fraction of what we eat. It calculated the antioxidant capacities of only those substances that can potentially be absorbed in the small intestine. But the current work shows that there is an antioxidant activity of the solid fraction (the fibre) which isn’t measured.

The large intestinal microbiota are able to extract more antioxidants from this insoluble fraction and this can be measured by the new methodology. The technique called ‘global antioxidant response’ (GAR) includes an in vitro simulation of the gastrointestinal digestion that occurs in our body, whilst taking into account the ‘forgotten’ antioxidant capacity of the solid fraction. The work has been published in the journal Food Chemistry.

Researchers simplify beverage quality analysis

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP), Germany, in collaboration with GEN-IAL, Germany, have developed a polymer powder that significantly simplifies quality control tests and shortens the time that they require. With a new polymer powder, monitoring the production process for quality will be able to be faster and simpler in the future. Manufacturers can also test drinks such as milk, juice, cola and red wine with the quick check. Until recently, beer has been filtered in special equipment, where the bacteria remain on a membrane and is cultivated in a special culture medium before they can be examined microscopically.

The new polymer powder from the IAP replaces this process: The powder is added to the liquid sample. The powder’s functionalized surface binds the bacteria efficiently. The pathogens adhere to the 100 to 200 micron powder particles. These can be easily removed along with the microbes in a specially developed system and analysed directly using various microbiological methods. The time-consuming enrichment in a nutrient medium is no longer necessary. With the new method, food experts can investigate beer and other beverages for infection by pathogens.

“Membrane filtration is not suitable for the quality control of beverages such as fruit juices, milk, cola and red wine. They contain so much solid or suspended matter that the filter clogs quickly,” said Dr. Andreas Holländer, scientist at the IAP. Breweries have also only been able to examine small sample volumes of up to one liter via membrane filtration. With the polymer powder, tests with 30 liters or more are possible. Through the use of the powder, food safety has been increased, since it is more likely to find trace contaminants in large volumes of the beverages.

World’s first sensor to measure fat level in milk

National University of Singapore (NUS), has developed the world’s first fluorescent sensor that rapidly measures the level of fat in milk. The light purple sensor is mixed with a milk sample and transmits fluorescent orange signals under light when fat is detected. The more fat present, the brighter the orange colour. The sensor is being used with a device currently in development that will enable rapid, on-site measurement of milk fat. The researchers say it will be useful in applications such as dairy farms in developing countries. They also believe it could help enhance the current milk quality control process, particularly in areas with limited resources.

As fat content is associated with the levels of protein and vitamins in milk, it is directly correlated with the nutritional and marketing value of milk. Small-scale dairy farmers who sell milk to large organisations need an inexpensive way to detect the level of fat in milk. Such a device would help farmers separate and price the milk for sale, as well as enhancing the milk quality control process. Current milk fat measurement methods are impractical – and often too complex and expensive – for use in such situations. To address this need, the NUS team set out to develop a method that is low-cost, easy to use and efficient.

The team screened more than 10,000 fluorescent dyes that are part of the Diversity Oriented Fluorescence Library (DOFL), which has been developed by Professor Change Young-Tae. Having identified a light purple, non-toxic compound that responded well to increasing concentrations of milk fat, the researchers conducted further experiments to ensure that the compound responds only to fat and not to other milk substances such as proteins. The researcher has been published in the journal Chemical Communications.

New tracking system for contaminated food

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the United States, and DNA Trek, the United States, has teamed up to develop a cost-effective way to track sources of contaminated food. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in every 6 people is likely to get a foodborne illness. These types of illnesses kill approximately 3,000 people in the U.S. annually. Current methods to track the source of foodborne illnesses require a series of interviews with consumers, suppliers, restaurants and farms. This can be a tedious process that can take several weeks.

The new technology, DNATrax, was originally developed to track airflow patterns. LLNL staff later realized its capabilities to track where produce had come from. “One of the unexpected capabilities from DNATrax was being able to apply it to food products. You can spray it on food products in the field to identify and track the source of the food,” said said George Farquar, at LLNL. The system utilizes non-viable strands of DNA and sugar particles that can collect data from the substance that it is sprayed on, allowing researchers to analyze the product in question and find the source of the item.

“We are not prepared to deal with an outbreak of pathogens such as E. Coli and salmonella in tainted foods,” However, DNATrax is a quick and efficient way to stop these foods from sickening more people and costing producers more money due to massive recalls triggered by poor traceability,” said Anthony Zografos, CEO DNA Trek. Another application the technology can serve is the determination of fraudulent products, specifically premium products such as olive oil being diluted with other kinds of oils and certain wines.

Researchers develop quick test for fish toxin

Researchers from Flinders University, Australia, have invented a revolutionary method to test for food poisoning in fish. Using a credit card-sized device called a microfluidic chip, the researchers have developed a way to test for histamine – a potentially toxic compound – without the need to use complex chemical additives to the fish. Histamine is a naturally occurring organic compound found in a range of products, including fish and red wine. A known allergen, histamine concentrations can increase when food spoils, leading to potentially fatal food poisoning.

Resembling a credit card, the purpose-built microfluidic chip is fitted with electrodes that detect histamine levels as the sample passes through a tiny pipe in the plastic device. “We extract different compounds from the fish in liquid form, and these compounds will pass through the device at different rates. We can tell what compounds are histamine, and how much histamine is contained in the sample, based on the rate at which the compounds pass through the device,” said Claire Lenehan, associate professor at Flinders.

According to Lenehan, the method is a much more efficient and cost-effective way to test for potentially toxic histamine levels in fish. “At the moment the extraction of compounds takes longer than the actual analysis because you have to pulverise the fish, add a chemical to turn it into a different chemical and then test it. Our method is a much simpler way because all you do is extract the sample and pipette it into the device without having to chemically treat it first,” she said. In addition to preventing food poisoning, the device could be used by consumers who are allergic to histamine. The research has been published in the journal Analytical Methods.


Baking and coating substitutes for frying food

The University of Arkansas System (UASys) Division of Agriculture, the United States, has developed technology for the new patent-pending coating and has licensed it to Tekcapital PLC, the United Kingdom. Ya-Jane Wang, a professor at the Division of Agriculture, is a co-inventor of the technology. Tekcapital said, the technology represents an important opportunity with potential adoption for mass marketing. “The Division of Agriculture has entered into this agreement with Tekcapital as a way of advancing our work for the public good,” said Mark Cochran, at UASys. The invention is an improved composition and process to bring liquid oil into a coating system, which consists of “predust,” batter and breading for food products.

The predust is a base component of the coating that helps the batter cling better. Wang said this reduces the fat content in the finished product by about 60 percent and enables baked products to successfully substitute for higher fat content fried foods. Traditional coating systems use a low amount of oil because too much oil causes the predust and breading to turn into dough-like clumps. Added oil will also separate and float to the top of the batter. Because the starch – modified by enzymes to create a honeycomb-like structure that absorbs oil – delivers oil at each step into the coating system, it increases the oil content in the coating and consequently improves the sensory quality of baked products to give them the taste of being fried.

The cooking process also requires exposure to steam in addition to baking. The tests were run on chicken nuggets, but Wang noted the process can be applied to other foods that consumers like to eat fried such as chicken drumsticks and wings and onion rings. Tekcapital said it believes the new technology has the potential to enable consumers who enjoy fried foods to benefit from a food with the taste, texture and appearance of fried food but with lower fat concentration. Health professionals advise that lower-fat diets can protect against obesity and obesity-related diseases. Contact: David Edmark, Agricultural Communication Services, Tel: +479-575-6940, E-mail:

An innovative way of using leftover lobster shells

Flinders University, Australia, and the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) have teamed up to find innovative ways of using leftover shells and parts from the processing of lobsters.

The two institutes are working with Adelaide-based lobster exporter Ferguson Australia to help the company generate new products from lobster “offcuts”, and to develop a cost-effective manufacturing process to improve Ferguson’s annual turnover and environmental stewardship. Prototypes developed so far at Flinders University’s Centre for Marine Bioproducts Development include lobster essence oil, protein powder and chitin; derived 100 per cent from lobsters.

“The lobster oil and protein powder could be used as functional ingredients in a range of foodstuffs, from stock bases to crackers, while the chitin, chitosan and its derivatives could have a wide range of applications, from food and cosmetics to biomedicines, agriculture and the environment. We have extracted a variety of items, including protein hydrolysates, chitin, chitosan and oil, from food-grade lobster parts that would usually be thrown away. The oil has quite a strong smell so it could be used as a lobster flavour in chips and crackers, and it is also rich in astaxanthin which is a powerful antioxidant,” said Trung Nguyen at Flinders.

Nguyen said the extraction of lobster compounds uses cutting-edge advanced manufacturing processes such as supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction and microwave-assisted extraction, which produces a product that is of high purity while also being cost effective and environmentally sustainable. The products, once refined, will be marketed to potential partners in the food industry. Researchers has shown that they can create these products in very large quantities using sustainable technologies, ultimately increasing the competitiveness of South Australian foods in the national and international marketplace.

Patent applied for high-protein cream cheese

Kraft Foods Group, the United States, has submitted an application to patent a method of making high-protein cream cheese. In its worldwide patent application, the Philadelphia-maker said it has developed a method that overcomes problems around poor texture typical in high-protein cream cheese. “Attempts to increase the protein level in conventional cream cheese compositions tend to result in processing and/or textural shortcomings such that the cream cheese with higher protein level relative to conventional cream cheeses may compromise undesirable texture, smoothness, and/or other organoleptic properties,” the company noted.

According to Kraft, the present disclosure generally relates to cream cheese compositions including a higher level of protein and/or calcium relative to conventional cream cheeses while maintaining a desirable texture, smoothness, and organoleptic properties of cream cheese products with lower amount of protein and/or calcium, as well as methods of making the same. The higher protein or calcium fortified content is achieved without sacrificing texture through a composition of cheese curd, cultured dairy liquid, protein powders and moisture in “select relationships”. Kraft has developed a composition that produces cream cheese containing twice as much protein as conventional products – 4–5 gm of protein per 28–32 gm serving – with no more than around a 14% fat content.

Gluten-free faba bean for bread and pasta

VTT, Finland, has developed food application technologies for an ancient domestic protein crop – faba beans. The nutritious and protein-rich faba beans are mostly used for feed. VTT introduced food product concepts that enable the use of the beans as a food ingredient. Hybrid processing technologies; mechanical separation combined with bioprocessing resulted in a tasty, nutritious and protein-rich bread made from 70% faba bean flour. VTT’s methods can also be used to make 100% faba bean pasta. The sensory characteristics, structure and colour of the faba bean bread are better than those of, for example, products made by combining maize, rice and soy flours.

Using similar methods, VTT has also developed a gluten-free pasta product from 100% faba bean flour or faba bean fractions with or without fermentation treatment. VTT solved these problems by combining mechanical fractionation with bioprocessing, thus improving the faba bean’s nutritional, technological and sensory characteristics. The method is green as it doesn’t involve the use of organic solvents and also cost effective.

Faba bean is an excellent source of protein, and is thus a good meat substitute. Its protein content can be up to 25 to 35%, which is twice that of wheat grain. The faba bean contains plenty of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and bioactive compounds that are important to your health. However, the cultivation is expected to increase due to climate changes and the governmental push towards more domestic proteins. The market prices of the bean are clearly lower than those of peas and soybeans.

Scientists develop food additives to prevent obesity

Researchers at Imperial College London, the United Kingdom, and the University of Glasgow, the United Kingdom, have successfully developed and tested in humans an ingredient that can be added to foods to make people feel full and also prevent weight gain. According to their study, published in the journal Gut, the additive, inulin-propionate ester (IPE) could help overweight people prevent additional weight gain and, in an unanticipated finding, also lose heart-damaging abdominal fat. The additive is made from propionate, a natural byproduct of the stomach’s fermentation of dietary fiber. It is this chemical reaction that stimulates release of satiety hormones – meaning hormones that signal to the brain that the body is full.

It is well-established that a high-fiber diet contributes to weight maintenance and feelings of fullness. We typically generate propionate from a diet containing fiber, but IPE delivers more of the molecule by several magnitudes. “Molecules like propionate stimulate the release of gut hormones that control appetite, but you need to eat huge amounts of fiber to achieve a strong effect,” said Gary Frost, at Imperial College London. In the study, 20 volunteers were given either IPE or inulin, a dietary fibre, and were allowed to eat as much as they liked from a buffet. Those given IPE ate 14 percent less on average, and had higher concentrations of appetite-reducing hormones in their blood.

Next, 60 overweight volunteers took part in a 24-week study in which half were given IPE as a powder to add to their food and half given inulin. One out of 25 volunteers given IPE who completed the study gained more than three percent of their body weight, compared with six out of 24 given inulin. While the goal of the study was to prove that IPE prevented weight gain, the researchers found that the IPE group also lost a statistically significant amount of subcutaneous and visceral fat around the abdomen, meaning belly fat and fatty deposits around organs like the liver. This study shows encouraging signs that supplementing one’s diet with the ingredient researchers developed prevents weight gain in overweight people.


UN launch improved fish drying technique

In an effort to boost food safety and working conditions in West Africa, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), has launched its newly developed fish drying technology to improve food quality and saving lives in the region. With smoked fish remaining a staple food product and vital source of income for many African coastal communities, the innovative FAO-Thiaroye Processing Technique, otherwise known as FTT and pioneered by the UN agency, will now seek to transform the kiln-drying method traditionally used for smoking fish into a healthier and more environmentally friendly process. “Traditional smoking techniques often involve a massive burning of wood which leads to a variety of problems,” said Yvette Diei-Ouadi, at FAO.

Smoked fish accounts for a large part of the West African diet. In Côte d’Ivoire, where the FTT is being rolled out, an estimated 20 to 30 per cent of local marine and freshwater catch is consumed in smoked form. Throughout the region, smoked fish is generally preferred by locals for its taste, nutritional benefits, competitive prices and long shelf-life, which ranges from three to 6 months. Nonetheless, traditional smoking techniques also leave high amounts of tar particles on the smoked fish, affecting taste and quality and occasionally making it much more difficult to sell. As a result, the new FTT technology permits users to easily upgrade their traditional ovens while slashing the amount of carcinogenic contaminants and residue produced during smoking.

At the same time, the technology also reduces the amount of fuel needed and provides a load capacity five times greater than traditional barrel ovens. In Ivorian fishing village of Abobodoumé, the FTT technique is already proving to be a success, according to the FAO, which noted that female fish processors “took immediate liking to the new FTT additions,” including a collection plate which traps dripping fish oils they can re-use for manufacturing soap or as cooking oil. The new technology is also proving popular in other African fishing nations and its use is starting to spread in Senegal, Côte d’Ivoire, Tanzania and Ghana.

Researchers increase the life span of cheese

Researchers at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain, have incorporated oregano and rosemary essential oils along with chitosan, a by-product that comes from crustacean shells, into a totally edible film which they claim increases the life span of soft cheese. “The most common causes of deterioration are excessive surface dehydration and the growth of microorganisms such as fungus or yeasts, which produce a strange flavour or odour, a slimy texture and a significant visual alteration,” said Chelo González, at UPV. Today, the most widely used method of avoiding fungal growth in cheese is the application of natamycin (or pimaricin), a common antifungal polyene macrolide that binds specifically to ergosterol and blocks fungal growth and a coating of polyvinyl acetate plastic.

Currently the life span of commercial soft cheese treated with pimaricin is about 21 days in cold storage. However, the edible coating developed by the UPV researchers offers processors a natural alternative to the pimaricin and polyvinyl combination that is commonly used on commercial cheeses. “The product that we have obtained is an alternative to the use of pimaricin and non-edible plastics. Moreover, using a natural and edible product reduces the fungal problems and controls the weight loss during the maturing,” said González. Another possible application for the antimicrobial film is in mature cheese where it can be used to decrease the growth of fungus on the surface of the cheese during the maturing process.

If these cheeses have pressing faults or fissures the surface fungus can enter into the pieces and significantly reduce their value. In this case, applying the coatings that researchers have developed will reduce the proportion of product losses in the cheese factories and therefore the important economic losses that this implies. Of the oils used, the oregano oil was the most effective, inhibiting the fungal growth in a similar way to a conventional pimaricin treatment. Moreover, the researchers conducted a sensory study that enabled them to adjust the concentration of the essential oil in order to obtain formulations with antifungal activity together with good sensory acceptance.

New technique for fish salting and smoking

Researchers at the Food Research and Innovation Group (CUINA) of the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain, have developed a technique for fish salting and smoking using water vapour permeable bags. This technique, which combines a ‘controlled salting’ with the use of smoke flavourings and packaging, allows a better control of the amount of salt in the final product as well as better food safety by minimising the risk of microbial contamination caused by handling the product. “In the production process of smoked products, salt is used as a preservative, so the greater the amount of salt used, the longer the product is preserved. However, this can affect the organoleptic properties of the product and, ultimately, the consumer’s health,” said Ana Fuentes, researcher at UPV.

The technique allows the necessary dose to be precisely calculated depending on the product weight and the type of fish: the bag facilitates the salt absorption and the evaporation of the exudated fluid. This permits better control of the characteristics of the final product, a reduction in the amount of salt used in the preparation process and, therefore, a reduction in brine residue. Application of this technique could also bring significant competitive advantages to companies in the food industry, as it reduces both the time and costs of the product processing. In order to prove the advantages of this new technique, different sensory analyses were performed to compare the new smoked fish with other commercial products. The sensory tests verified that the consumers did not perceive any differences between them. The results of the research has been published in the Journal of Food Engineering.

Ultrahigh-pressure process extends salmon shelf-life

A new study done by Republic of Korean researchers from Dongshin University, Mokpo National University, and Korea Food Research Institute, has found that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) processing of salmon flesh improves shelf life. UHP does not require heat and preserves the quality of salmon flesh while allowing for an increase in the chilled storage period, the researchers say. The findings of the study has been published in the Journal of Food Science. Researchers exposed salmon flesh to pressures of 200, 400 or 600 MPa – as well as a control with no UHP – then stored samples at 4°C and compared the quality after 30 days of storage.

They analysed the degree of changes in the interspacing of muscle bundles, colour, texture profiles (hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness and elasticity) and microbial growth. Pressures greater than 400 MPa improved the colour, hardness and chewiness of the flesh. According to the researchers, these results suggest that UHP may be useful for preserving salmon flesh and could have applications in the salmon aquaculture and distribution industries. The Journal of Food Science is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).

Mango treatment for exports in Pakistan

Mr A.Q. Khan Durrani, a researcher from Pakistan is working towards saving and promoting Pakistan’s mango exports especially at a time when Indian mango exports to the European Union were banned. Different countries have their own requirements for processing and treatment, but the most commonly used method in vogue is hot water treatment (HWT), radiation and vapour treatment. Around 300 rejected mango consignments led to the imposition of a ban by the EU on the import of Indian mangoes at the start of the mango season on May 30, 2014 for two years. But Pakistan, whose rejected consignments to the EU during 2013 stood at a lesser 234, was warned that it will face a ban if five more of its shipments were rejected.

At this critical juncture, Mr Durrani, who has invested 27 years of his life on research for developing an indigenous HWT technology came to the exporters’ rescue, which helped the country earn $57m from mango exports in 2014. Mr Durrani has designed world’s three largest HWT plants, each with the capacity to process 12 tonnes of mangoes per hour. According to international quarantine standards for HWT, the recommended temperature is 48°C, and the time for processing is 60 minutes. This results in producing pulp (mango) temperature at 46.6°C. However, Mr Durrani’s research showed that under HWT, the temperature should be kept at 50 degrees, so that pulp’s temperature of 47.5 degree could be achieved. This is necessary to completely destroy or de-fertile fruit fly eggs.

According to Mr Durrani, the mango produced in India and Pakistan has a very thin skin and the fruit fly thus easily manages to sting deeper into the fruit to lay eggs. Yet, a number of issues crop up with the higher temperature, particularly the excessive opening up of mango pores and cells. In order to deal with this situation, a system has been developed where these pores and cells are semi-sealed by use of wax and shellac during the HWT process. Surprisingly, the world standard for the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is not more than 7-8 days, but Pakistan has managed to develop an indigenous technology that has increased it to 35-40 days.


New active packaging makes shelf-life longer

Researchers at the A*STAR‘s Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Singapore, have developed an active packaging which protects perishables with a layered plastic that not only keeps out oxygen and moisture but also extends the shelf-life of foods by absorbing oxygen that may be present in packaging. Combining this new packaging with other technologies like a sensor that can accurately indicate the freshness of packaged meat, fish or poultry could significantly extend the shelf-life of perishable foods. IMRE has signed an agreement with key industry partners to develop and test the packaging for industry use. The plastic packaging incorporates nanotechnology based on non-toxic ferric compounds.

The plastic also has a unique dual-purpose, high-barrier plate silicate sheet that effectively blocks moisture and oxygen from seeping into the packaging, and scavenges oxygen to create an anaerobic environment that helps perishables last longer than they would in regular plastic packaging. “Improvements to mundane materials like the plastic wrapping in your local supermarket are often taken for granted but technology proves that such innovations could significantly change the world we live in. Our new material will help reduce food wastage considerably and allow consumers to more accurately identify when food actually spoils,” said Professor Andy Hor, at IMRE. The industry partners that are supporting the research are part of the IMRE-led Industrial Coatings and Packaging (ICAP) consortium.

Resealable food packaging

FLEXcon, the United States, has launched optiFLEX® RESEAL™ BARRIER Clear, a new PVDC-coated film that serves as a barrier against moisture to maintain food freshness and the moistness of wet wipe products. The product was developed specially for resealable packaging to retain moisture and prevent drying of produce, meats, cheeses and wet wipes, or to keep moisture out to prevent staling of nuts and other snack foods. The polypropylene leveraged in this product offers excellent tear resistance and durability for repeated opening and reclosure of flexible packaging substrates, and the superior film conformability provides maximum label and graphic coverage.

Further, the film clarity is ideal for achieving the no-label-look on printed flexible packaging material. The food packaging market continues to grow, largely due to the increased demand for resealable packaging, which is moving far beyond wet and dry wipes and into the food packaging arena. Resealable packaging has become very popular with food packaging manufacturers as an alternate packaging design, and with consumers for its convenience. “As the use of resealable packaging continues to increase, there is a growing need in the food market for packaging materials that enhance shelf-life by maintaining food freshness,” said Michelle Lamontagne, at FLEXcon.

The film complies with 21 CFR 175.320 and 21 CFR 177.1520 for food contact, and the adhesive complies with 21 CFR 175.105 for indirect food contact. The resealable pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive bonds well to low- and high-surface energy laminated flexible packaging substrates with clean and consistent reclosure, and the adhesive offers excellent wet out characteristics. optiFLEX RESEAL BARRIER Clear utilizes a 2 mil clear PVDC-coated flexible BOPP film with a resealable adhesive and TRACrite™ 120 polyester release liner which offers superior on-press performance for tight-registration graphics. Further, the print-receptive surface of the film is compatible with flexo, rotary screen, rotary letterpress and hotstamping, and its excellent surface smoothness allows for optimum ink laydown.

Special packaging developed for mango boxes

An international team of researchers has developed special packaging that will help ensure mangoes reach their destination in prime condition. The researchers, from Canada, Sri Lanka and India, discovered that a natural compound called hexanal delays the ripening of mangoes. From there, they used nanotechnology to develop hexanal-impregnated packaging and biowax coatings to improve the fruit’s resilience and shipping. The team is now expanding its work to include other fruit and look at ways to commercialise the technologies. The research has received funding from the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF).

According to Jean Lebel, president of Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC), this project will improve the lives of poor small-holder farmers and strengthen rural economies. “At the same time, we are identifying the most effective ways of taking these food security solutions and achieving large-scale impacts with them,” said Lebel. Along with the IDRC and Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the CIFSRF has also announced two other projects to prevent livestock disease. To date, more than 100,000 farmers in poor communities around the world have worked with researchers to develop many promising CIFSRF research results.

Recyclable fast-food packaging

Chemicals giant BASF, Germany, and Schuster Karton, Germany, are working on a recycled cardboard product that can be used by the fast-food packaging industry. To date, the use of recycled cardboard in this application sector has been limited owing to ink substances that can migrate from the packaging into food. BASF has developed a biopolymer called Ecovio PS 1606 that has been applied to recycled cardboard in an extrusion coating process.

According to the companies, this ‘enables the proportion of recycled paper fibres in fast-food packaging to be increased, while simultaneously making it industrially compostable’. Ecovio PS 1606 is said to be ‘biobased and biodegradable’, according to both the American standard ASTM 6400 and the European standard EN 13432. ‘Cardboard packaging produced with the coating is more than 90% recyclable and industrially compostable,’ it is underlined.

Shelf-life extends in fresh cut

StePac, a plastics division of DS Smith, the United Kingdom, has modified its atmosphere humidity freshness packaging solutions ‘Xtend®’, which is currently used in over 60 countries worldwide. StePac has launched two new exciting products to the fresh produce industry: retail modified atmosphere packaging solutions for fresh cut vegetables and bulk modified atmosphere packaging for table grapes without sulfur pads. “The results of applying Xtend modified atmosphere packaging technology to prolong the shelf-life of fresh cut vegetables is very exciting. We are seeing great results and the unique qualities of Xtend fresh cut retail packaging allow it to outsell that of competitor packed fresh cut vegetables in Brazil and Argentina”, said Dr. Gary Ward at StePac.

Engineered to meet the specific conditions needed for each produce item, Xtend Fresh Cut retail packaging is available for a variety of cut and leafy vegetables. The specific climate of the grape growing regions of Peru have given rise to the development of Xtend bulk modified atmosphere packaging exclusive for Peruvian grapes as an alternative to using sulfur pads during long term storage and transportation. “Peruvian grape growers stand to benefit greatly by using Xtend packaging instead of sulfur pads since it reduces the occurrence of fruit bleaching and stem dehydration during typical supply chains from Peru,” said Dr. Gary Ward. The packaging is now successfully being used in commercial shipments from Peru.”

Perforated packaging extends shelf-life

PerfoTec, the Netherlands, is working with Marks&Spencers’ fruit and vegetable department by extending the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables by poking tiny holes in the packaging with lasers. The products’ longer shelf-life offers opportunities to the fruit and vegetable sector. The action radius of suppliers is extended, for instance. Due to the longer shelf-life you can transport the product further, or choose a cheaper form of transport. It is also possible to keep a bigger supply. Due to PerfoTec’s technique the chain can also be better controlled. Perforation has no influence on the speed of packaging. However, it is a good idea to put a sample in the respiration metre regularly, every day.

PerfoTec’s system has now been around for almost ten years and more and more companies are choosing it. This year another new challenge for the company has started. Together with soft fruit growers, PerfoTec was already supplying soft fruit packaging for Marks&Spencers. As of this year the retailer has sent the entire fresh department to company. Maintaining quality and pushing back decay has priority in retail now more than ever. Saving costs and raising sales is of huge importance now that the margins are tight.


New biosensor to help machines smell like humans

Researchers at the University of Manchester, the United Kingdom, have created a biosensor that will enable machines to smell like humans. One of the possible use case of this is letting machines smell food and tell when it has gone bad or how much pollution is present in the atmosphere. “It has been challenging to get machines to be able to differentiate between smells that are mirror images of each other, which was a real barrier to creating machines which are able to smell as well or better than humans,” said professor Krishna Persaud, lead author of the paper.

To develop the biosensor, Persaud along with colleagues from University of Bari, Italy, utilised an odourant-binding protein. Such proteins are found in the mucus of the nose which work olfactory receptors helping us to create our perception of smell. The team has found a method of manufacturing these proteins in quantities that would allow them to be used in biosensors.

Using a type of transistor incorporating these proteins, the scientists were able to measure the unique changes in current as the proteins reacted to odours and record them. This is, in effect, the machine smelling the odour and then sending the message which can then be decoded. The system is incredibly sensitive with a detection limit that approaches that of the human nose.

Machine designed for fresh-cut melons processing

A research group led by Victor Rodov at the Agricultural Research Organization of Israel – The Volcani Centre, has concluded the deliverable N. 4.25 regarding the development of an automatic prototype for fresh-cut melon processing. The general aim of the work was improving efficacy and safety of fresh-cut melon and watermelon processing by substituting manual peeling and cutting operations by an automatic hands-off machine.

The study has been designed to develop technology and machinery able to mechanically cut and peel melons and watermelons in order to prepare fresh-cut fruits. “As part of this study we have examined several alternatives to perform the whole process, ranging from laser-cut to high-pressure water using artificial vision systems as utilized in sorting processes in the production industry. We have evaluated, analysed and developed a number of special puncturing tools: fixed, rotating, solid and perforated,” said Rodov.

The efficacy of the technology was evaluated measuring the quality parameters of fresh-cut fruits during shelf-life. It was found that a round, disk shaped slice as a final product is achievable and maintains quality requirements for more than a week in a cooled and sealed plastic package. The results of these trials have led to the design of the system performing peeling/cutting operations without a human hand touching the cut fruit. The main parts of the machinery have been built and tested successfully.

New device to convert food waste into grey water

BioHitech, the United States, has developed a device that breaks food waste down into grey water and connects to a cloud system to allow the company to tap the power of big data to monitor and improve the performance of the units. The device ‘Eco-Safe Digester’ is an aerobic unit designed for on-site installation to help clients reduce how much of their food waste ends up in a landfill. BioHiTech compares its digester to a “mechanical stomach,” where an ideal combination of heat, moisture and oxygen enables microorganisms to thrive and break down the waste. With the exception of things such as large bones, mussel and clam shells, and pineapple tops, all the food waste is broken down and discharged to the drain as grey water with traces of undigested solids.

This is then transported through standard sewer lines, eliminating the need for smelly compactors and transportation of waste to landfills or compost facilities. The largest of BioHitech’s machines consumes up to 300 gal (1,135 L) of fresh water and discharges 400 to 500 gal (1,514 to 1,893 L) of effluent when operating over a 24 hour period. But the Eco Digester is more than just an aerobic digester. It is also a smart system linked to BioHitech’s cloud (Biobrain) that adds intelligence to the mechanical work. The system can identify trends and inefficiencies that lead to waste, allowing customers to understand the historical patterns of food waste and take steps to avoid it in the first place.

The analytical tool provides technicians with information about digestion rates, utility usage, hours of operation, maintenance issues and other features of the digester’s work. If problems arise, such as interruption of digestion or any other anomalies, a real time notification system allows BioHitech to respond quickly. It can remotely control any unit through its cloud and make performance adjustments from anywhere in the world at any time. For customers, besides giving them a green solution to waste, the digester can help them back their claims on compliance with waste disposal regulations. BioHitech also pitches it as a method for organizations to publicize their environmental efforts and boost a company’s green credentials.

Solar powered dehydrator developed

Following recent advances in solar energy, Jaime Espinoza from the Mechanical Engineering and Energy Innovation Department at the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (USM), Chile, has developed a prototype that is powered by sunlight and can be easily installed and removed. The prototype can even function while it is being transported by truck, and is capable of processing between 500-1000kg (1,102-2,204lbs) of produce per day. The invention is ideal for small farmers looking to process up to one metric ton (MT) of almost any kind of food per day.

“The initiative was a response to a need in the agricultural sector. The USM has maintained its almost permanent work on solar energy, and in this case it has allowed me to focus on the subject of solar drying and dehydrating as a technological challenge. We developed the concept of solar-active roofs, which means we allowed the roofs to capture the warm solar air using a system called a ‘false roof’, which can heat the air to almost 70°C (158°C) and reduce the humidity levels to almost 10%. We then continued with the development of the ‘solar dehydration container’, which is a modular unit that comes in two different sizes and can be used for almost any type of food,” said Espinoza.

According to Espinoza, the container could be manufactured using available construction material for any cold storage unit, and so its availability would essentially be guaranteed throughout the country. The initiative is currency being financed by the Ministry of Energy to support the dehydrated produce sector in an area of Chile’s V region (Valparaiso) and improve the quality of certain dried products like peaches. He added the container provided many benefits to the produce over traditional methods, as the process could be fully controlled and the products were free from any external agents which could otherwise affect the quality.

New cartoning machine launched

Bosch Packaging Technology, Germany, has launched a new horizontal cartoning machine CFC 2012, developed specially for large-scale secondary packaging formats of the food industry with a width of up to 12 inches. It can be used for producing different products including bags with or without side gusseting, and stand-up bags with gable top. “The development of the CFC 2012 is based on our long-term experience with bag-in-box machines and in-feed solutions, and backed by our profound line competence. “Thanks to an optimized control and conveying technology, the cartoning machine ensures quick format changes, as well as safe and reliable product handling,” said Daniel Sanwald at Bosch Packaging Technology.

The new CFC 2012 is capable of achieving an output of up to 200 folded cartons per minute even with the largest folded carton and product formats like for cereals. The product comes with the advantage of having lubricant-free transportation which ensures that no grease compromises the product infeed. A robust strap conveyor belt is used to transport products which can be expanded segmentally. A three-star rotor with patented dual drive helps in the safe removal from the large stock of folded cartons to ensure highest process safety throughout the entire format range.


Advances in Postharvest Fruit and Vegetable Technology

The postharvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables plays a critical role in facilitating a continuous supply of high-quality fresh produce to the consumer. Many new technologies developed and refined in recent years continue to make possible an ever-expanding supply of fresh products. This volume examines a range of recently developed technologies and systems that will help the horticulture industry to become more environmentally sustainable and economically competitive, and to minimize postharvest quality loss and generate products that are appealing and acceptable to consumers.

Edible Food Packaging: Materials and Processing Technologies

This book reviews edible packing technologies, recent developments in the field, and practical information on new applications. Topics covered include nanotechnology and edible packaging, processing technologies for the application and production of edible coatings/films, application of bioactive compounds using edible packaging, and the development of active and smart edible packaging.

For the above two publications, contact: CRC Press, Bookpoint, 130 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB, UK. Tel: +44-1235-400-400; Fax: +44-1235-400-401; E-mail:

Membrane Processes for Dairy Ingredient Separation

This book explores various applications such as pressure driven processes, electrical field driven processes, and concentration driven processes, for the recovery of various dairy streams and ingredients. The topics covered place emphasis on new applications, including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and pervaporation. The text also presents in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of each membrane separation process, as well as membrane types and the equipment used in these processes. Combining their educational backgrounds and substantial industrial experience in dairy ingredients processes, the authors address cutting-edge technologies that have been thoroughly researched and have great potential to be commercialized in the near future.

Contact: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01 Solaris South TowerSingapore 138628. Tel: +65-6643-8333; Fax: +65-6643-8397; E-mail:


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