rilpoint_mw113

VATIS Update Food Processing . Sep-Oct 2005

Register FREE
for additional services
Food Processing Sep-Oct 2007

ISSN: 0971-5649

VATIS Update Food Processing is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Food Processing. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

Editorial Board
Latest Issues
New and Renewable
Energy
VATIS Update Non-conventional Energy Jul-Sep 2017
Bio
Technology
VATIS Update Biotechnology Jul-Sep 2017
Waste
Management
VATIS Update Waste Management Oct-Dec 2016
Food
Processing
VATIS Update Food Processing Oct-Dec 2016
Ozone Layer
Protection
VATIS Update Ozone Layer Protection Sep-Oct 2016
Tech
Monitor
Asia-Pacific Tech Monitor Oct-Dec 2014

Contents

__NOTOCNUM__

IN THE NEWS

Global tea imports rise

Global tea imports rose 1.5 per cent in 2004, helped by rising demand in the United States, reported the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Global net tea imports in 2004 reached 1.42 million tonnes, with the United States accounting for 99,000 t, 5.3 per cent more than in 2003. That is more than double the growth in the European Union, where imports rose by about 2.4 per cent to 215,000 t. Most of the growth in these markets is reportedly in response to promotional efforts on the health benefits of tea consumption, FAO said. Rising consumption of the beverage helped buoy tea prices, which traded at US$1.56/kg on 1 January 2004, and ended the year at 11 per cent higher at US$1.73/kg, FAO reported.


Kenya and Sri Lanka are the worlds biggest tea suppliers. Unilever NVs Lipton, Tata Tea Ltd., which owns the Tetley brand, and Associated British Foods Plcs Twinings Business are the worlds top suppliers of the beverage. According to FAI, global tea production rose 2 per cent to an estimated 3.2 million tonnes, in response to higher demand. The expansion in production was due mainly to the increases recorded in Turkey, China, Kenya, Malawi, Sri Lanka and Indonesia, said FAO. The growth in output from these countries more than offsets declines in other major producing countries, including India and Bangladesh.


Chinas production approached 800,000 t in 2004, helped by government policies to promote output. In Sri Lanka, production increased by 1.3 per cent to 309,000 t in 2004, reflecting the recovery from crop losses after devastating floods in low-grown tea areas of the island in 2003. Indonesian production rose 1.2 per cent to 170,000 t and output in Turkey jumped 32 per cent to 205,500 t. Tea production in Kenya increased by more than 11 per cent to 328,000 t, while output in Malawi rose 19 per cent to 50,000 t. In India, production fell by 4.3 per cent to about 820,200 t because of unfavourable weather conditions and the closure of as many as 70 tea gardens in the north-eastern state of Assam.


Website: www.presstrust.com

China to take the lead in tomato paste production

The world trade of processed tomatoes such as puree, paste, sauce and tinned tomatoes has intensified in recent years, as world exports of tomato products continue to increase. China is one of the largest exporters of tomatoes in the world, producing over 1 million tonnes of tomatoes each year and accounting for 25 per cent of tomato paste exports by volume. Other key countries that supply tomato paste include the European Union, the United States, China, Turkey and Chile. But as the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates, production is down in other countries, such as in Turkey and the United States, and it appears that China has the potential to become the largest exporter of tomato paste in the world.


Last year, the Chinese producer Xinjiang Production and Construction Corporation (XPCC) had a revenue of US$133 million from tomato paste export alone. In the first five months of this year, exports of XPCC tomato paste reached US$43 million, a rise of 46.2 per cent year-on-year. It is expected that the revenue from the companys tomato paste will rise to US$217.6 million this year a 63 per cent increase on last year with a further rise to US$302.3 million next year, making XPCC by far the largest tomato paste producer in China.


Chinas exports of canned tomatoes reached 4,000 tonnes (US$1.8 million) in 2003 and the export of tomato paste reached 400,000 tonnes (US$206 million). Most of the production growth for tomato products is occurring in Asia, which accounts for approximately 50 per cent of global tomato production. China leads the world with over 30 million tonnes of tomatoes produced every year followed by the United States and then India. India produces 7.6 million tonnes of tomato products a year but its exports are limited due to the lack of proper processing.


Website: www.ap-foodtechnology.com

Vegetable juice firms target booming Chinese market

China is one of the worlds largest consumers of food, chomping through 51 per cent of the worlds pork, 33 per cent of rice and 19 per cent of ice cream. Official statistics report that the Chinese food processing industry grew a considerable 16 per cent in 2001-02 and 23 per cent in 2002-03. Demands for healthier choices, convenience, variety and quality are opening the door to high quality imported ingredients.


Grasping the booming opportunities in the Chinese food and beverage market, Japanese food conglomerate Kagome has linked up with a Chinese firm to bring vegetable and fruit juices to the market. Kagome has signed an agreement with Tianjin Tyngyi International Food, a subsidiary of Chinese food group Tingyi and the Itochu Corporation. From spring 2006, Kagome branded juices will be sold through the joint venture, called Kagome (Hangzhou) Foods. Kagome will hold a 61 per cent stake in the new company while Itochu and Tianjin Tygyi International Food will own 10 per cent and the remaining 29 per cent, respectively.


Website: www.ap-foodtechnology.com

Increase in Indian processed foods exports

Indian exports of agricultural and processed foods grew by 15.6 per cent in the year ended March 2005 to Rs 165.59 billion (US$3,696 million) over the previous years Rs 143.24 billion (US$3,155 million). Mr. K.S. Money, Chairman of the Agricultural and Processed Food Export Development Authority (Apeda), said the export growth of 17.14 per cent (in dollar terms) exceeded the target set by Apeda.


Exports of scheduled products including livestock products, floriculture and vegetables grew by 23 per cent during the year, whereas the exports of non-scheduled products such as basmati rice, wheat and ccereals grew by 5.6 per cent. Exports of basmati rice grew by 39.42 per cent, whereas cereals grew by 97.98 per cent over the previous year. Wheat exports, however, declined by 38 per cent. Exports of dairy, poultry, meat and meat products grew 12 per cent to Rs 24 billion, compared with Rs 21 billion in the previous year.


Mr. Money said Apeda was on the lookout out for newer markets even while focusing on increasing share in the existing markets. We want to maintain and grow our market share in these products, he added. Apeda was exploring new market opportunities in countries in Africa for basmati rice, and in Russia, Japan and Thailand for poultry, meat and meat products.


Website: www.sify.com

Race on to mechanize production of Indian foods

Indias indigenous foods, which have proven export potential, have been hampered by their inherent small scale, as well as by the hygiene issues borne of producing foods manually and in batches. More than half of the 88.1 million tonnes of milk produced in India is used as the raw material for food products, of which about 60 per cent are indigenous products such as cottage cheese and dairy-based confectionaries. However, the indigenous food sector is built around cottage industries.


Indian food technologists are now prioritizing efforts to engineer mechanized production lines for these sectors. One of Indias largest and oldest technology institutes, IIT Kharapur in West Bengal, has unveiled mechanized production methods for cottage cheese and the popular Bengali sweet, rasogalla, and is now working on a production line for another dairy-based sweetmeat, sandesh.


Sandesh, a fudge-style confectionary made from cottage cheese, is traditionally made in batches. In a programme sponsored by Indias National Dairy Development Board, IIT has built equipment that will produce sandesh on a semi-batch production line, which combines and automates several of the previously distinct production phases. According to Mr. Jatindra Kumar Sahu, who is developing the sandesh production line, mechanized production reduces the chances of micro-organisms entering the food and cuts down on the energy requirements of the production process, thus offering additional benefits as a cost-saver. Earlier research at IIT Kharagpur had suggested that the mechanization of sandesh production would extend the shelf-life and the nutritional value of the product. This could provide a further boon to the fortunes of the product on the export market.


Website: www.ap-foodtechnology.com

Pakistan allows duty-free import of wheat flour

The government of Pakistan has removed the 10 per cent customs on import of wheat flour into the country and has withdrawn all conditions attached to the import of raw sugar with immediate effect. The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) has issued a customs notification in this regard, in a measure to help reduce the prices of sugar and wheat flour to a reasonable level. The price of wheat flour has been on the rise in the recent past and the measures taken to reduce prices to a reasonable level are yet to show impact.


The government has also allowed duty-free import of raw sugar, doing away with the conditions that the import is in bulk (not bagged) and supported by a pre-shipment certificate certifying the sugar to be above 600 ICUMSA (a colour measure of sugar). The letter of credit opened needed to be registered with the State Bank of Pakistan for the purpose of notification and letters of credit for import opened only on C&F free out basis.


Website: www.dailytimes.com.pk

Philippines seek to boost exports of biscuits, snacks

The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) of the Philippines is working closely with key players in the food sector in drawing up a roadmap to bolster exports of biscuits and confectionery products. The DTI data showed confectionery and honey exports reached US$24.27 million in 2004, up 12.5 per cent from 2003. Exports of cereal and flour preparations, including biscuits, were estimated at US$43 million in 2004, up 3.62 per cent from 2003.


DTIs Foreign Trade Service Corps met with representatives of biscuit producers and other food companies in a dialogue on potentials of Philippine food in global markets. The commercial attachs noted promotional marketing events for Philippine biscuits and confectionery in the past. They said that as a result, the biscuits penetrated key distribution channels in South Korea and Japan.


Website: www.money.inq7.net

Viet Nam tea trademark will up its value

Copyright for the Viet Nam tea logo was issued by the Culture and Information Ministry at the end of last year and a trademark was registered this June, a move that is expected to raise the value of the countrys tea products and bring benefits to growers, processors and traders. The trademark guarantees that the quality of tea accords with regulations of both the government and the Viet Nam Tea Association. It may be carried by any tea processed to the requirements of the Association and meets Viet Nams food safety standards. The trademark has been registered in 24 European countries.


The area of tea plantation increased by 5,870 ha to almost 122,000 ha last year and export revenue crossed US$100 million. About 60 countries and territories import Vietnamese tea, with 15 largest buyers accounting for almost 80 per cent.


Yet, Viet Nams tea is of poor and inconsistent quality, mainly because of the low quality of raw material. The number of tea processing factories has risen sharply from 120 in 2000 to 650 in 2005, and competition has led to over-exploitation of tea plants. Consequently, Viet Nam tea fetches lower prices than countries such as Turkey and Argentina that produce less tea than Viet Nam. The price of Viet Nam tea is half that of Sri Lanka and India, while the price of tea from China is 45 per cent higher. Viet Nam tea price has fallen by 50 per cent in the last seven years because of inferior quality.


The Tea Association has suggested measures to check this: only enterprises that have invested in new tea plantation be allowed to trade; growers who breach contracts with processors be fined; processors who create unhealthy competition be penalized for each kilogram of raw tea they buy; apply intensive cultivation and advanced technology; and diversify products to meet the needs of specific markets.


Website: www.vneconomy.com.vn

SAFETY/QUALITY CONTROL

Detection of foreign objects in processed food products

Although metal detectors help commercial food processors keep metal fragments from ending up in finished products, these detectors cannot identify plastic and other foreign objects. As plastic becomes more widespread, used in everything from conveyor belts to latex gloves, plastic contamination is a growing concern for many food processing operations. A development team led by Mr. John Stewart, a research engineer at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), is field-testing a computer-vision system developed to identify plastic and other unwanted elements in finished food products.


To help food processors ensure product quality, GTRIs innovative inspection tool combines computer vision technology with sophisticated colour discrimination algorithms. The computer-vision system, placed above the production line adjacent to metal detectors, is first trained to identify the conveyor belt background and desired characteristics for the food product. This information is stored in the computers hard drive, and as the product moves along the conveyor, the computer-vision system captures digital pictures and analyses them. If the system captures an object it doesnt recognize, it records the digital image and activates an alarm and kick-off device that removes the product from the line. In lab tests, the system has been able to identify foreign objects as small as 1.5 mm with few false alarms and high accuracy rates (approaching 100 per cent).


Website: www.beverageonline.com

Ultrasound technique offers faster, safer dairy processing

The ultrasound technique is intended to prevent the porous membranes used in ultrafiltration from getting clogged. Dr Muthupandian Ashokkumar, a dairy researcher from the University of Melbourne working on the project, said that membrane fouling remained the most significant barrier to greater adoption of ultrafiltration by the dairy industry. Ultrasonic enhancement of membrane operations could increase flux rates by 20 to 70 per cent, by reducing the extent of this fouling and enhancing mass transfer, he added.


Ultrafiltration uses porous membranes to siphon off whey, a by-product of cheese production, and separate different proteins according to their size. Some proteins recovered by this method can be re-used in food processing. The problem is that, over time, proteins get lodged in the pores on the membrane surface, making it less effective as a membrane and less hygienic as a food processor. This means membranes have to be cleaned and sanitized after each batch, adding to the time and cost of dairy processing.


Ashokkumar said lab trials of the new ultrasound technique were already complete and that the researchers were working with collaborators, at Food Science Australia and the Dairy Ingredients Group of Australia, to develop pilot-scale trials on a full size spiral wound membrane unit.


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com

Nano detector fingers pathogens

Biofinger, a portable nano detection tool being developed by team of European researchers, could be used by processors for chemical and food analysis. It could also be used in the diagnosis of diseases such as cancer, said Biofingers project coordinator, Dr. Joan Bausells of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cinetificas, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Spain.


The new system, now in final development stages, would help food processors in their battle to maintain the safety of their products. The machine detects and analyses molecules in fluids using nano and micro cantilevers. When coated with antibodies, the cantilevers bend and resonate to changes in surface tension and mass when fluids containing disease-related protein molecules attach to them. This helps doctors to determine whether or not a disease is present.


Biofinger incorporates the cantilevers on a disposable microchip, allowing it to be reconfigured with new on-chip cantilevers to detect different substances. The analysis, which can be performed anywhere, anytime, takes between 15 and 20 minutes. The system is likely to be considerably cheaper than traditional diagnosis techniques with each disposable chip expected to cost about 8. It is extremely versatile, and could be used to detect virtually bacteria in food, any disease or analyse chemicals.


Contact: Dr. Joan Bausells, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cinetificas, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Campus Universita Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E-08193, Barcelona, Spain. Tel: +34 (93) 5947700; Fax: +34 (93) 5801496


E-mail: joan.bausells@cnm.es


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com

Lab test for GM maize contamination

Helping food and feed firms to overcome the hurdle of detection, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan is using Bt10 testing developed by Genetic ID, the United States, for imports into Japan. Genetic ID employs the third-party validated MHLW Bt10 detection protocol, which Japan accepts as official protocol, and the European Union protocol. The polymerase chain reaction protocol uses target-specific oligonucleotides that have been designed to amplify a 130 bp DNA sequence specific to Bt10 event.


MAFF confirmed the tests acceptance under 17 SHOUAN 2395, which specifies that Bt10 testing at the export port must fulfil the following criteria: corn sample size must be more than 500 g; the testing protocol must be third-party validated; the testing lab must be accredited by an independent third party under ISO17025 or equivalent standard.


Website: www.foodqualitynews.com

Food analyser measures fat, protein

A new food analyser developed by NIR Technology Australia uses near infrared (NI) transmission spectroscopy to measure the components of a broad range of foods. The companys series 3000 Food Analyser can detect protein, fat, moisture, alcohol, sugars and other components in foods. Near infrared reflection (NIR) or near infrared transmission (NIT), microwave and X-rays have become three of the most widespread techniques used by processors to determine content in foods.

The series 3000 Food Analyser includes a diode array spectrophotometer, a laptop computer and software, and three sample cells for measuring liquids, solids and semi-solids. The machine works by passing NIR light through a 10-20 mm thick sample where the chemical bonds absorb energy in proportion to the concentration of the water, alcohol, sugar, fat and protein. The measurement takes less than one minute. The process can be monitored in real time using the software. Up to 100 calibrations can be stored in memory.


Contact: NIR Technology Australia, Suite 103, 56 Kitchner Pde., Bankstown, NSW 2200, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 9708 5068; Fax: +61 (2) 9708 5537


E-mail: nirtech@zipworld.com.au


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com

Measuring fat faster with spectral X-ray analysis

MasterTrack machine, from CFS B.V., the Netherlands, aims to speed up the measuring of fat content in fresh and frozen meat while on the processing line. Controlling fat content is vital for food processors who need to ensure the quality of the meat used in recipes and to comply with food legislation.


Fat analysis machines can either be in the form of bench instruments, which analyse small samples taken manually from the overall batch, or as automatic devices connected to the production line. Production line devices are more accurate and faster than the bench machines, which are dependent upon operating personnel to choose representative samples.


When tested using meat with fat content levels that varied from a low of 0.9 per cent to a high of 80.7 per cent, the MasterTrack had an error rate below one per cent. MasterTrack uses X-rays and spectral or wavelength analysis to determine fat content.


MasterTracks analysis method allows accurate reading on meat, frozen as well as room-temperature, with one calibration of the instrument, while other machines usually need calibration for each type of meat used in production. The instru-ment is used in combination with a grinder and an optional weighing belt. The belt can be used to weigh the meat while MasterTrack is analysing it for fat content.


Contact: CFS B.V., P.O. Box 1, 5760 AA Bakel, Beekakker 11, 5761 En Bakel, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (492) 349349; Fax: +31 (492) 349369


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com

A shelf life test quicker than conventional means

A new study suggests that SolerisTM technology is over five times faster than conventional test methods in determining the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Centrus International of the United States, the company behind the technology, also claims that the study demonstrates that it can provide rapid, accurate test results within 38 hours, as opposed to more than eight to nine days, allowing dairies to ensure the highest quality through the shelf life of their product. For over 30 years, microbiological estimate has been used as the standard for measuring the shelf life of milk.


The results of the study, conducted by the Mississippi State University Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion, show that Soleris technology is more effective than the conventionally used Moseley Keeping-Quality test in indicating the shelf life of milk. For decades, dairies have been relying on conventional plating methods to estimate the shelf life of milk, said Dr. C.H. White, Professor of Dairy Foods, Mississippi State University. Soleris technology reduces the time it takes to determine the shelf-life of milk, allowing dairies to ensure the highest level of quality possible, he added.


Indian Dairyman, June 2005

INGREDIENTS

Separation of active ingredients in natural products

The identification of both beneficial and potentially harmful ingredients in natural products is under increased scrutiny, especially in the food and nutraceutical industries. Using its Series 8000 Oven, Selerity Technologies of the United States, has conducted research on the separation of catechin and caffeine-related compounds in cocoa, green tea and a commercially available ginseng tablet.


A mixture of acidified water and methanol (80:20) was used in all extractions in the temperature-programmed runs and all runs were made under isocratic conditions. Separations were obtained using a Selerity Technologies Blaze C8 column that withstands temperatures up to 100C. In these separations, Selerity Technologies did not attempt to identify all components: the major compounds of interest were the catechins (catechin and epicatechin) and caffeine-related compounds (caffeine and theobromine).


The analysis of cocoa is typically done using a solvent gradient of acidified water and methanol. This separation consisted of a commercial cocoa preparation (Hershey Company). The second experiment consisted of a commercially available ginseng tablet. Finally, the compounds in a green tea preparation were separated. For each of these experiments, the natural products tested could be separated using a thermal gradient in place of a solvent gradient. The thermal gradients had better peak shape and method development was rapid. The results were obtained after only two or three preliminary runs.


Seleritys Series 8000 column oven with solvent pre-heater operates from ambient to 250C under programmed or isothermal modes resulting in faster run times and higher resolution separations. Most silica-based HPLC columns can only be used to temperatures up to 60C and a pH range of 3-8. Seleritys new Blaze 200 column overcomes this with a unique chemistry that protects the silica backbone against hydrolytic attack, and creates better adherence of the bonded phase.


Website: www.beverageonline.com

Minerals and vitaminsin micro encapsulation

New chewable micro-encapsulated vitamins and minerals from Biodar Ltd., Israel, could help improve diets and save money for food makers. Besides the vitamin content, there is growing interest in taste masking the metallic tang of minerals, as that taste is often a barrier of entrance into the market.


By micro-encapsulating the mineral or vitamin in a children friendly and tasty application such as chewing gum, children will be able to get their daily-recommended intake of minerals and vitamins. In addition, taste masking through encapsulation can help reduce the high sugar content used to mask the taste of minerals in products. Most gummy bear supplements contain a high dosage of sugar to avoid the taste of the nutrients, said Mr. Udi Ulroy, marketing director of Biodar.


Chew&Eat, is an encapsulated ingredient with a pleasant taste and low amount of sugar. The micro-encapsulation prevents cross-interactions and oxidation of ingredients, and help withstand tough environments. Chew&Eat is available as single ingredients, or in a sugar-free drum-to-hopper premix. It can be used in a variety of delivery systems: gums, chewables, lozenges and functional foods.


Contact: Mr. Udi Ulroy, Marketing Director, Biodar Ltd., Yavne Technology Park, P.O. Box 344, Yavne 81103, Israel. Tel: +972 (8) 9420930; Fax: +972 (8) 9420928


E-mail: biodar@biodar.com


Website: www.foodnavigator.com

Natural salt alternative for low-sodium diet

AlsoSalt, developed by AlsoSalt from the United States, is a salt alternative that it is both palatable and all-natural. Until now, there really hasnt been an acceptable solution to reducing the sodium content in processed foods while maintaining flavour, said AlsoSalt managing director Ms. Joan Watsabaugh, adding that most low-sodium products in the market were either flavourless or left a bitter aftertaste.


The problem of finding a palatable low-sodium alternative is that the salty taste is physically unique. Taste receptors inside the human tongue require the shape and size of the sodium ion in order to register a salty taste.


Potassium chloride has been the closest alternative, but it has an undesirable metallic taste. AlsoSalt is a patented combination of potassium chloride and L-lysine, an essential amino acid. The combination masks the bitterness of the potassium chloride.


Contact: AlsoSalt, P.O. Box 953, Maple Valley, WA 98038, United States of America. Tel: +1 (425) 4324300; Fax: +1 (425) 4321353


E-mail: info@alsosalt.com


Website: www.bakeryandsnacks.com

Recombinant human lactoferrin patented

Dutch biotech company Pharming has been granted a Japanese patent on its recombinant human lactoferrin, an ingredient being targeted at nutraceutical and food makers. The patent covers the production and purification of the lactoferrin, as well as the substances use in food formulations. Japan, where bovine lactoferrin is currently used as an additive in food products as well as a nutritional supplement, would be a significant geographic market for recombinant human lactoferrin.


Lactoferrin is found in both cows and human milk and is particularly concentrated in colostrum, the substance newborns receive at birth before breast milk is fully established. The natural protein helps to fight and prevent infections and plays an important role in the defence system of infants. It is also present in various body fluids and continues to play an crucial role against a wide range of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens in adults. According to Pharming, its recombinant human lactoferrin is virtually identical structure of lactoferrin found in the human body.


Contact: Pharming Group N.V., P.O. Box 451, 2300 Al Leiden, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (71) 5247400; Fax: +31 (71) 5247445


E-mail: info@pharming.com


Website: www.pharming.com


Website: www.foodnavigator.com

A modified whey protein, low carbohydrate food ingredient

Protein-carbohydrate conjugates have an important influence on the structure and stability of food systems. Many chemical and enzymatic methods have been developed to improve the functional properties of whey proteins by covalent coupling of protein with polysaccharides. However, most of these methods do not have food applications because of potential health hazards. This may be addressed by inducing a Maillard-type reaction between the free amino groups in proteins and the reducing-end carbonyl groups in polysaccharides during thermal treatment, reports researchers at the Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, the United States.


The study focused on a process to simplify protein-carbohydrate complex formation. Modified whey protein (MWP) and corn syrup solids served as protein and carbohydrate sources, respectively, for the development of these complexes. Colour measurement, O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assays, SDS-PAGE, scanning electron microscopy, and rheological techniques verified complex formation and functionality. The new modified protein-carbohydrate complexes, slightly brown in colour, represent a high-protein, low carbohydrate food ingredient. As the complexes also showed stabilizing function, they could potentially function as a stabilizer, replacing carbohydrate components.


Contact: Dr. P. Pichan, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, 127 Withers Hall, Box 7624, Raleigh, NC 27695-7624, United States of America.


Website: www.ift.confex.com 

Soy protein enrichment and purification

Soy whey protein enrichment and purification technology and associated commercial applications, a key project initiated by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology for agri-food deep processing, have achieved substantial progress. The research team developed an innovative oscillation membrane filter that can retrieve whey protein from waste soy whey water.


The system can be used to separate solids with a concentration up to 2.0 per cent. It extracts 70 per cent of protein from soy whey. A 100 tpd trial run showed that the new system offered a contamination resistance several dozen times that of regular membrane filters. The new system can work continuously, and needs only one hour for cleaning. In the case treating whey water with COD at 12,000 mg/l, the super filter reduced COD content to 4,000 mg/l. Further treatment brings down COD to 100 mg/l or lower, fit for direct discharge.


Website: www.most.gov.cn

STANDARDS/REGULATIONS

Food industry gears up for new ISO safety standard

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is in the process of developing a specific standard for food processors setting out safety management procedures. The development of ISO 22000 will become a key part in the efforts by governments and regulators to keep contaminants out of the food chain. The introduction of a global standard will aid multinational food producers by helping to harmonize the growing number of national standards being introduced by various governments. ISO has already circulated a final draft of the standard to national standard bodies that make up its membership.


ISO 22000 on food safety management systems will affect organizations ranging from feed producers, primary producers, food manufacturers, transport and storage operators and sub-contractors to retail and food service outlets. Related organizations such as producers of equipment, packaging material, cleaning agents, additives and ingredients will also be affected.


The standard specifies requirements on planning, implementing, operating, maintaining and updating a food safety management system. Experts from 23 countries are participating in the formation of ISO 22000. The Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the European Union, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, International Hotel and Restaurant Association, CIES/Global Food Safety Initiative and the World Food Safety Organization are participating as advisors.


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com

Codex adopts twenty food standards

International food body Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) adopted more than 20 new and amended food standards during its 28th annual meeting, including a code of practice to minimise antimicrobial resistance, and a decision to split the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants. The session held in Rome, where some 120 countries participated, tentatively agreed to a task force addressing antimicrobial resistance.


Antimicrobial resistance had been debated for several years and agreement has been difficult because it involves collaboration from different sectors: animal health and production, human health and drug manufacturing. A new task force will develop a holistic approach to this problem.


In one of its first decisions, CAC also moved to adopt global guidelines for vitamin and mineral food supplements. The guidelines recommend labelling that contains information on maximum consumption levels of vitamin and mineral food supplements, assisting countries to increase consumer information, which will help consumers use them in a safe and effective way. Only in cases where food does not provide sufficient vitamins and minerals should supplements be used, say the guidelines.


The group, however, failed to deliver a decision on the outstanding issue of intellectual property concerns over the labelling and composition of Parmesan cheese. No consensus was reached and the CAC put the issue on hold, leaving the interested countries to continue consultations among themselves to seek a resolution of the issue.


Website: www.foodnavigator.com

India bans sale of non-iodised salt

Following a Supreme Court judgement that recognized the Central governments full powers to issue a ban in the interest of public health under Section 23 of the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, the Indian government has decided to re-impose the ban notification on sale of non-iodised salt. A study carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, had earlier shown a drop in the consumption of iodine from 49 per cent in 1998-99 to 37 per cent in 2002-03.


In India, iodised salt coverage is less than 80 per cent and about 13 million new born (50 per cent) go unprotected every year without non-iodised salt. A survey carried out by a group of health organizations in the country covering 321 districts in all the 35 States and Union Territories showed that 260 districts are endemic to Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) where the prevalence is more than 10 per cent. About 200 million people in India are at the risk of IDD, while the number of people currently suffering from IDD is about 71 million.


Website: www.pib.nic.in  

China to regulate health food market

China will tighten supervision over health food market by monitoring the registered health food products and lifting the market access standard, according to Chinas State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Addressing a national seminar on food and drug supervision held in Beijing, Mr. Shao Mingli, Director of SFDA, said that China will strictly regulate the examination and approval of health food products to put the health food market in order from the source.


SFDA started registration of health food products in October of 2003. By the end of June this year, 7,231 kinds of health food products were approved to enter the market, including 6,694 Chinese and 537 foreign ones. A trial regulation on registration of health food products issued by SFDA has come into effect on 1 July 2005. (Website: english.people. com.cn)
 

Viet Nam tough on antibiotic residues in seafood

Viet Nams Foreign Ministry has stated that the country strictly controls the use of antibiotics in the production and trade of seafood. The statement comes as fluoroquinolone, a banned antibiotic in the United States, was suspected to be contained in a recent catfish shipment to the United States. The Ministry of Fisheries has issued a list of 17 banned antibiotics covering 10 banned in Europe and 11 banned in the United States and 34 of restricted use. The Ministry then put out another list of 11 antibiotics of the fluoroquinolone group, which are banned in the production of seafood for export to the North American markets. The European Union Committee and the United States Food and Drug Administration annually inspect Viet Nams aquatic product for safety and hygiene. (Website: www2.thanhniennews.com)

PRESERVATION

Drying with steam

Many foodstuffs are dried, normally using hot air, to prolong their storage life without preservatives. Drying currently accounts for roughly four-fifths of the industrys total energy consumption. The drawbacks of the hot air method are that it is expensive, the machines used are often very bulky, and the drying process may take anything from a few hours to several days.


Superheated airless steam is faster and more efficient with respect to energy consumption. Superheated steam between 130 and 180C works twice as fast as dry air at the same temperature, cutting the drying time to even one-fifth in certain cases. Further, as the steam is cycled, the system needs to be supplied with only as much heat as it needs to evaporate the water in the product. Surplus humidity is continuously condensed to form water, and readily volatile ingredients such as essential oils can be separated out as potentially valuable recyclables. As the steam is airless, no oxidation of product can occur.


The process was developed by the Fraunhofer Technology Development Group (TEG), Germany, and patented by the British company Ceramic Drying Systems, a project partner of TEG. As the process works at normal pressure, operation can be continuous without sluices or shut-offs, using simple conveyor technology.


Contact: Dipl.-Ing. Siegfried Egner, Fraunhofer Technologie-Entwicklungsgruppe TEG, Nobelstrae 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. Tel: +49 (711) 9703643; Fax: +49 (711) 9703999


E-mail: siegfried@teg.fraunhofer.de


Website: www.fraunhofer.de

Non-thermal food preservation

Thermal treatment can cause undesirable alterations of sensory attributes (texture, flavour, smell and colour), and nutritional qualities (vitamins, minerals and proteins). Among non-thermal processes, ultrasound such as the one from, from Hielscher USA, is emerging as the simple, safe, efficient, reliable and versatile method for the disruption of cells and for the production of food extracts.


Ultrasonic cavitation creates shear forces that break cell walls mechanically, faster and more complete than maceration or stirring, and improve material transfer. This effect is being used in the extraction of liquid compounds from solid cells (solid-liquid extraction). The particle size reduction by ultrasonic cavitation vastly increases the surface area in contact between the solid and the liquid phase, while the mechanical activity of ultrasound enhances the diffusion of the solvent into the tissue.


Ultrasound process can be employed for several applications such as:
  • Extraction of phenolic compounds from vacuolar structures by disrupting plant tissue;
     
  • Extraction of Betacyanin (red pigments, e.g from beets) and Betaxanthin (yellow pigments);
     
  • Extraction of lipids and proteins from plant seeds, such as soybean;
     
  • Cell membrane permeabilization of fruits, such as grapes, plums and mango;
     
  • Processing of fruit juices and purees;
     
  • Processing of sauces from fruits and vegetables; and
     
  • Processing of dairy products.
     

Unlike other non-thermal processes, such as high hydrostatic pressure, compressed carbon dioxide, supercritical carbon dioxide and high electric field pulses, Hielscher Ultrasound can be easily tested in lab or bench-top scale, generating reproducible results for scale-up. Amplitude and pressure can be varied in a wide range, for example, to identify the most energy efficient extraction set-up. The process is also used for microbial and enzyme inactivation (preservation), emulsifying, dispersing and homogenizing, as well as to improve chemical reactions and surface chemistry or to influence crystallization process.


Contact: Hielscher USA Inc., 19 Forest Road, Ringwood, NJ 07456, United States of America. Tel: +1 (973) 6169136; Fax: +1 (973) 6169131


E-mail: usa@hielscher.com


Website: www.processingtalk.com


Drying process that does not damage vitamins

In Germany, food technologists from Dresden Technical University and nutritional scientists from Jena Friedrich Schiller University co-operated with Zittauer Fruchtveredelungs GmbH (ZIFRU) to optimize a microwave vacuum drying (MVT) process to dry fruits gentle enough to retain the existing vitamins and secondary plant substances.


We succeeded in reducing the losses of the substances contained to less than 35 per cent by optimising the MVT process parameters, said Dr. Volker Bhm from Friedrich Schiller University. The Jena scientist investigated the bioavailability of the contents of frozen strawberries and MVT strawberries in a human study. The result: 50 g of MVT strawberries provide just as many nutritionally and physiologically valuable substances as 600 g of frozen strawberries.


After the analytical procedures had been adapted, the methods established and the storage properties, the researchers were able to apply the MVT process to other berries, apples and some vegetables.


Contact: Dr. Volker Bhm, Institute for Nutritional sciences, Friedrich Schiller University, Dornburger Str. 29, 07743 Jena, Germany. Tel: +49 (3641) 949633


E-mail: volker.boehm@uni-jena.de


Website: www.11.interpack.com 

Safer, better preservative for meat and fish

Food scientists in Russia have developed a new, safer preservative for meat and fish that they claim improves resistance to harmful bacteria and could extend shelf life by up to 50 per cent. The preservative Dilactin-S is claimed to have a unique combination of physical and chemical, biochemical and technological properties, which increase a products resistance to microbes.


Dilactin-S, jointly developed by Nijnyi Novgorod Fat-and-Oil factory and the Russian Scientific Research Institute for Food Aromatisers and Acids, also slows down the oxidation to increase shelf life by 30-50 per cent.
Besides preservation, the new ingredient is capable of saving production time, increasing products moisture retention, improving products pH levels and cutting the amount of nitrate present in meat products. Dialactin-S could be used in a range of products including meat, fish, confectionery and cosmetics, and is said to be safer for the humans than many other preservatives of its kind.


Website: www.foodqualitynews.com 


BEVERAGES

Instant tea processing

Scientists at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, have developed a new technology to process instant tea. The invention is said to cut processing time by 15 hours, making it considerably less labour intensive and reducing costs. The technology uses green tea leaves and buds, instead of the usual process of using manufactured black tea. The process is also said to produce a more distinct aroma as well a full flavour.


The process steps involve crushing fresh green tea leaves, extracting the juice and subjecting it to oxidation for an hour in a controlled chamber at a temperature of 30-35C. Oxidization creates new compounds and the green juice turns coppery brown. The oxidized juice is then steamed and centrifuged to arrest fermentation and remove the colloidal and suspended materials. It is then dried to obtain instant tea. The residue of the leaves can then be subjected to fermentation and drying for manufacturing black tea, minimizing on waste and contributing to further cost savings.


Website: www.ap-foodtechnology.com

Ultrasonic fluid handling system

The PDX Sonic batch processing system from Pursuit Dynamics plc, the United Kingdom, has brought innovation to beverage processing. PDX Sonic is a self-contained, fully integrated processing system that uses low-pressure supersonic shockwave technology to achieve dramatically increased throughput and energy savings. It is capable of delivering significant improvements in the dispersion of artificial sweeteners and gums, and is ideal for beverage manufacturers who need to add syrups, flavourings, sweeteners, colourings, stabilizers and gums to the process flow.


PDX Sonic replaces conventional multi-stage drinks production processes with supersonic shockwave technology to mix, pump, homogenize and heat ingredients simultaneously. It can reduce the time taken to dissolve the sugar in water by 50 per cent. PDX Sonic system allows ingredients to be simultaneously wetted, hydrated and dispersed, thereby eliminating the need for any pre-mixing.


Contact: Pursuit Dynamics plc., Unit 1, Anglian Business Park, Orchard Road, Royston, SG8 5TW, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1763) 250 592; Fax: +44 (1763) 250596


E-mail: sales@pursuitdynamics.com  


Website: www.foodprocessing.com

New technique for beverage fortification

The Germany-based chemicals giant BASF has recently demonstrated how it can help beverage makers meet increasing consumer demand for vitamin-enriched products without compromising clarity or taste. Oil-soluble molecules are usually large. Vitamin E molecules, for example, have a diameter of 400 to 1,000 nanometers. This makes them unstable. The BASF technology has shrunk vitamin E molecules to only 10 nanometers in diameter, making them thermodynamically stable and unlikely to rise and cloud a beverage.


BASFs Solu E 200 Clear, a water-soluble vitamin E fortification, is a yellowish, transparent and slightly viscous liquid. It consists of dl-alpha-topopherol, dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate. BASF says that the active ingredients conform to the applicable monographs in the current Food Chemicals Codex.


Website: www.beveragedaily.com

Passion fruit juice processing

Liwell Science & Technology Development Co. Ltd., China, offers a passion fruit processing line with a handling capacity of 800-2,000 kg fruits/hour. Fruits are first washed in the washing unit and sorted to remove unusable fruits. An elevator then transports the fruits for processing, which begins with crushing of the fruits and removing the peels in a crusher-extractor. The crushed mass is fed into a pulping machine, where seeds are removed and juice extracted. The juice collected in a tank is pumped to a pasteurizer-cooler unit. The cooled juice is homogenized and packed. The processing line is automated. An electronic control panel provides the interface for controlling operations.


Contact: Liwell Science & Technology Development Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 2328, 2 Yifu Yuan, Beijing 100023, China. Tel: +86 (10) 8538 1182; Fax: +86 (10) 8538 5582


Website: www.liwellcn.com


Website: www.ebigchina.com

MACHINERY / EQUIPMENT

Filtration equipment for dairy separation

North Carolina Society of Radiology Technologists (NCSRT), the United States, has introduced SmartFlow technology that provides unprecedented separation and purification of milk, whey and colostrum while minimizing waste, protecting the environment and providing enhanced economic benefits to dairy producers. Employing cross-flow filtration, chromatography and fermentation to separate and fully fractionate usable milk components, the system contributes to the production of a wide variety of consumer and nutraceutical products, including baby formula, process cheese and nutritional supplements.


According to NCSRT CEO, Mr. Henry Kopf III, the superior fluid dynamics in SmartFlow technology optimize membrane use and expand the performance limits of traditional cross-flow filtration and tangential flow filtration. The ability to produce inexpensive dairy fractions provides the opportunity to manufacture a number of end products with improved nutrition such as infant formula, sports supplements and other value-added dairy-based products, said Mr. Kopf.


Indian Dairyman, June 2005

Coconut processing equipment

Liwell Science & Technology Development Co., China, offers coconut processing equipment. The equipment for both coconut milk processing and desiccated coconut processing come with hourly processing capacities of 500 kg, 1,000 kg, 2,000 kg and 3,000 kg.


In both equipments, a scraper elevator delivers the coconut kernel into the machine, where it gets washed, and then macerated in a hammer mill. In the coconut milk processing equipment, the macerated coconut meat is fed into a screw press to extract the milk into a tank. A vibrating separator separates small pieces of coconut from the milk, which is then pasteurized, homogenized and vacuum-evaporated. The semi-dry coconut powder is fed into a spray-drying tower to remove all traces of water. Screening the coconut milk powder for consistency and packaging it are the final steps.


In the desiccated coconut processing equipment, the comminuted coconut meat is dried using air flow and then packed.


Contact: Liwell Science & Technology Development Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 2328, 2 Yifu Yuan, Beijing 100023, China. Tel: +86 (10) 8538 1182; Fax: +86 (10) 8538 5582


Website: www.liwellcn.com


Website: www.ebigchina.com

Precision mill for consistent, uniform throughputs

The Comitrol Processor 1700 milling machine, from Urschel Laboratories in the United States, produces slices, flakes, shreds, viscous slurries or purees from a myriad of products. The mill provides quality, uniform size reduction through the process of incremental shearing of the product without grinding, smashing or tearing, which may degrade product quality and produce excessive heat. It features continuous operation for uninterrupted production.


The mills applications are:
 
  • Puree fruits and vegetables for baby and geriatric food;
     
  • Milling of carrots, celery and tomatoes for production of vegetable juices;
     
  • Reduce fruits, nuts and berries for fillings;
     
  • Mill pineapple, guava, pears and peaches into single strength purees;
     
  • Uniform particle size reduction of flour for dehydrated potato flakes;
     
  • Reduction of broken bakery and confectionary items for rework, toppings and coating;
     
  • Reduce aloe vera and soy products for product bases; and
     
  • Size reduction of peppers for hot sauces and flavourings.
     

Contact: Urschel Laboratories Inc., P.O. Box 2200, 2503 Calumet Avenue, Valparaiso, Indiana 46384-2200, United States of America. Tel: +1 (219) 464 4811; Fax: +1 (219) 462 3879


E-mail: info@urschel.com


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com


Butter making machine

The Food Processing Machinery Unit of HMT Ltd., India, has developed a cost-effective continuous butter making machine with 400 kg/h capacity. The machine, catering to the needs of small- and medium-scale dairy units, is ideal for the conventional batch-type butter churner. Ease of operation, higher output and consistent quality are the highlights of the machine. In the higher capacity range, HMT has a 800 kg/h model that has won wide acceptance in the dairy sector.


Contact: HMT Limited, Food Processing Machinery Unit, 110, Shastrinagar, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. Tel: +91 (240) 2336 923


E-mail: aurangabad@hmtmtm.com


Website: www.greaterkashmir.com

Equipment for fruit juice production

Invensys APV, the United Kingdom, has considerable experience in the design and supply of process equipment to fruit juice manufacturers throughout the world. APV is able to offer key equipment for juice extraction, enzyme treatments, homogenization, pasteurization, clarification, membrane processing, de-aeration, concentration and re-constitution.


APV has installed over 500 evaporation systems throughout the world. The range of equipment options that ensure cost-effective, cost-efficient solution include: heat evaporator, tubular evaporator, rising- and falling-film evaporator, falling-film plate evaporator and hybrid tubular / falling-film evaporator. APVs evaporator innovations are:
 
  • Extended APV falling-film plate evaporator, which achieves a similar concentration performance in a much shorter flow path than an equivalent tubular evaporator;
     
  • Hybrid tubular and falling-film plate evaporator, which is used in the last four stages to enhance quality; and
     
  • Hybrid tubular and extended falling-film plate evaporator, which is a low-temperature 5-effect hybrid unit processing 50 t/h of juice to 65/75 Brix.
     

APVs range of membrane filtration equipment can be applied to different stages of fruit juice processing, such as reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration.


Website: www.apv.com


PACKAGING

Modular liquid filling system

The Servo/Fill modular liquid filling system from Oden Corporation, the United States, allows packagers to use the integrated fillers to suit their packaging needs; each head is a bench-top filler that can be operated independently. The newly designed configuration facilitates moving one or more bench-top fillers to a separate filling location, leaving the remaining heads to be operated in fully automatic mode. Other system benefits include low cost, rapid filling and superior accuracy.


The system fills free-flowing to viscous products at volumes from 10 ml to 19 l, and can accommodate up to 4 heads. Equipped with unique CleanGear sanitary stainless steel gear pumps, Servo/ Fill systems are easy to use, easy to clean and quick to change over. Oden-designed 316L stainless steel positive shut-off nozzles provide clean, no-drip product cut-off.


Contact: Oden Corporation, 199 Fire Tower Drive, Tonawanda, NY 14150, United States of America. Tel: +1 (716) 874 3000; Fax: +1 (716) 874 1589


E-mail: sales@odencorp.com


Website: www.foodprocessingmachinery.com

Oxygen-scavenging technology

Food Science Australias ZerO2 is a patented oxygen-scavenging polymer that helps keep food fresher for longer, while maintaining nutritional value and extending storage times. It slows down the loss of nutrients, and the development of off-flavours, colour change and microbial spoilage. In collaboration with industry partners, scientists at Food Science Australia are now developing innovative packaging incorporating ZerO2 to overcome the problems caused by the exposure of packaged foods to oxygen.


ZerO2 is an alternative to modified atmosphere packaging or the insertion of oxygen-absorbing sachets. It forms a layer in a multi-layer package structure and can be used to:
 
  • Package oxygen-sensitive beverages (such as juices, tea and beer) in PET (polyethylene terephthalate) to deliver substantial improvements in shelf life and quality;
     
  • Control mould growth on packaged baked goods (cakes and crumpets) and packaged cheese to extend the mould-free life of these products; and
     
  • Reduce discolouration of sliced meats and sauces.
     

Contact: Food Science Australia, Private Bag 16, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia. Tel: +61 (3) 9731 3200; Fax: +61 (3) 9731 3201


Website: www.foodscience.afisc.csiro.au


High-speed, double-twist wrapping machine

Wenling Jinhong Food Machinery Co. Ltd., China, offers a high-speed, fully automatic double-twist wrapping machine for pre-formed candies. The machine can use one or two layers of wrapping paper (cellophane, PVC, polypropylene, waxed paper or composite) and offers accurate wrapping, thanks to the computerized photoelectrical sensor. The throughput speed is adjustable from 1 to 600 pieces/minute of candies shaped square, ellipse, cylindrical, spherical or round. The size of candies handled can vary from 12 mm to 32 mm in length, 12 mm to 26 mm in width and 6 mm to 20 mm in height.


Contact: Wenling Jinhong Food Machinery Co. Ltd., Guangchang Road, Ruoheng Town, Wenling City, Zhejiang Province, China 317507. Tel: +86 (576) 683 7138, 683 7139; Fax: +86 (576) 683 7137


Website: www.jin-hong.com.cn

Modular shrink wrapping machine

The Shanklin Omni shrink wrapping machine, from Sealed Air Corporation of the United States, is built to be taken apart for cleaning and for adding other accessories. The Omni machine features plug-and-play in-feed modules that can be changed over in as little as three minutes, advanced control and dual product flow configurations. Omnis servo motion-control technology instantly recognises a new in-feed product. The machine can seal large package sizes, with a software allowing users to program up to 100 package types or recipes on the touch screen.


Contact: Sealed Air Corporation, Park 80 East, Saddle Brook, New Jersey 07663, United States of America. Tel: +1 (201) 791 7600


E-mail: shrinkpackaging@sealedair.com


Website: www.foodproductiondaily.com

PUBLICATIONS

Snack Food Processing

Snack Food Processing is the definitive book on developing, preparing and processing shelf-stable savoury snacks. Chapters cover a wide range of topics, including ingredients, raw material specifications, equipment, materials handling, sensory evaluation and quality control methods.


Contact: CTI Publications Inc., 2 Oakway Road, Timonium, Maryland, MD 21093-4247, United States of America. Tel: +1 (410) 308 2080; Fax: +1 (410) 308 2079


E-mail: books@ctipubs.com

Vine Production Vine to Bottle

The standard of wines made today is arguably higher than any time in the six thousand years of vinous history. The book details these processes, from vine production to bottling, looking at key factors such as geography, winemaking techniques, the impact of decisions made upon style and quality, and potential problems. The authors discuss even practices that may be regarded as controversial.



Contact: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1865) 776 868; Fax: +44 (1865) 714 591

Understanding Pathogen Behaviour

In the advancing world of microbiology, this book is an essential resource for all in the food safety industry. Contemporary research is discussed to give a thorough account of pathogen behaviour in terms of stress responses, preservation techniques and resistance to sanitation methods. Main chapter areas covered by Understanding Pathogen Behaviour include proteome and metabolome analysis, understanding pathogen survival and resistance, and detecting sublethally damaged cells.


Contact: Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AH, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1223) 891 358; Fax: +44 (1223) 893 694


E-mail: wp@woodhead-publishing.com


ASIAN AND PACIFIC CENTRE FOR TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

This website is optimized for IE 8.0 with screen resolution 1024 x 768
For queries regarding this website, contact us
Copyright © 2010 APCTT | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Feedback