VATIS Update Food Processing . Sep-Oct 2009

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Food Processing Sep-Oct 2009

ISSN: 0971-5649

VATIS Update Food Processing is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Food Processing. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Food safety and HACCP manuals for food manufacturers

With the increase in food recalls, consumers confidence in food safety is at an all time low. As a result, an increasing number of businesses throughout the food supply chain are seeking to develop a food safety management system that complies with a recognized global food safety certification standard. The International Food Safety Network has released the first in a series of Off-the-Shelf Food Quality and HACCP Manuals for Food Manufacturers. The manuals are written by industry experts with extensive experiences in developing food safety management systems that comply with local, national, as well as recognized certification standards such as the BRC Global Standard Food (version 5), IFS, SQF and ISO 9001:2008.

The manuals come with the benefit of e-support to assist the organization in tailoring the manuals to their own specific products and processes to ensure they are suitable, effective and sustainable in the long term. The manuals offer comprehensive policies, procedures, records, guidance documents and checklists; with the HACCP manual including an innovative HACCP Calculator, which guides the organization through the HACCP development process and the determination of critical control points. Contact: International Food Safety Network. Website:; Or International Food Safety & Quality Network, c/o SaferPak Limited, 5 Westgate Avenue, Holcombe Brook, Ramsbottom, Bury, Lancashire BL0 9SS, the United Kingdom.

Boost to Indias food processing

The Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI), India, is powering the nations food processing sector by helping to set up 350 food processing units as part of its target to create 10 million jobs by 2015 at a total investment of US$21.5 billion. As part of its Vision 2015 action plan, the Ministry has already helped create 4.7 million incremental jobs in the last four years through a series of measures. The Vision 2015 targets formulated in 2005 included increasing Indias level of food processing from an abysmal 6 per cent in 2004 to 20 per cent by 2015, value addition from 20 per cent in 2004 to 35 per cent, and share in global trade from 1.5 per cent to 3 per cent. As a result of the slew of initiatives introduced by the national government and MFPI during the last five years, the food processing sector has made rapid strides and is well on its way to achieve the targets set for 2015. To achieve the Vision 2015 targets, the Ministry has identified as many as 13 key areas where action needs to be taken. The Ministry has also identified nearly 100 measures to facilitate and enable rapid development of the food processing sector.

Pact to promote food industry

The Pakistan Food Association (PFA) and Pakistan Flour Mills Association signed a Memorandum of Understanding to promote the local food industry. According to Mr. Rafiq Rangoonwala, President of PFA, the objective of PFA is to provide a single platform to all the stakeholders in the local food industry to experience and share problems. Moreover, PFA is keen to disseminate information about the chain process in the food industry and to show that Pakistans food industry is well equipped with state-of-the-art, world-class standards.

Halal food production in the Philippines

The Department of Agriculture (DA), the Philippines, is promoting halal activities, especially in Mindanao. At a recent International Halal Assurance Seminar, DA Secretary Mr. Arthur Yap stated that the DA is conducting training and seminars on the proper production, processing and marketing of halal cereal and vegetable crops, fruits, meat, milk, fish and other commodities. DA reports that Mindanao has a competitive edge over other nations in the region because it is free of the foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza (bird flu). In addition, Mindanao has a reliable supply of feed ingredients for halal food production, such as corn, rice, copra meal, fish meal and palm oil. DA has arranged separate discussions with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Brunei, which are looking at investments worth billions in the domestic halal sector, particularly in Mindanao. The global halal food market is estimated at about US$500 billion annually and the Philippines is aiming to capture an initial 1 per cent share (US$5 billion) of this market through exports.

Food firms to set up safety lab in China

Over a dozen food companies from the Republic of Korea will set up a joint inspection lab in China to check the safety of products and ingredients used by their plants in the country. This move is a result of Seouls measure to impose tougher sanitation rules for food imported under an original equipment manufacturing arrangement between local companies and their overseas suppliers. The Korea Food and Drug Administration said 14 companies that are operating food ingredient and production plants in China have reached an understanding to invest a total of US$2.97 million to build a testing facility in Chinas Qingdao province. Food and beverage companies have agreed on the total and are currently reviewing investment details.

Mixed sentiments in production for tea giants

In 2008, tea production in Sri Lanka recorded an increase while Kenya saw a significant drop; this is according to John Keells PLCs 2008 edition of its annual Tea Review. Discussing the impact of the global economy on the tea industry, the Review also portrays a comprehensive account of global and local tea production and exports together with the performances of the Westerns, Nuwara Eliya, Uva, CTC, Low Growns, Dust and Off-Grades markets. According to the Review, 2008 witnessed unprecedented volatility for tea prices around the world. Sri Lankas tea prices touched historical heights up to the third quarter due to restricted supply from major tea producing countries, mainly Kenya. The uncertainty created in the tea industry by the world cash crunch left a large percentage of teas offered at the Colombo auctions unsold owing to the absence of equitable bids. This created a cash flow crisis right through the supply chain. The tea industry benefited by timely state intervention while action by the Sri Lanka Tea Board also facilitated a reduction in the percentage of unsold teas and in the process, injected much needed cash flows for the producer.

World tea production in 2008 stood at 3.7 billion kilograms 12 million kilograms less than that recorded in 2007. A significant drop in production was recorded from Kenya, with about 24 million kilograms deficit compared with 2007. Meanwhile, China and Sri Lanka achieved an increase in production by about 20 million kilograms and 14 million kilograms, respectively. India too recorded an increase of 36 million kilograms. World tea exports stood at 1.6 billion kilograms 71 million kilograms more than the previous year. Kenya retained its position as the largest exporter with a volume of 383.4 million kilograms, which is an increase of 11.6 per cent over 2007. Sri Lanka was the second largest exporter. India, Indonesia and China also recorded increases in their exports for 2008, while exports by Argentina, Tanzania, Uganda and Malawi decreased.

Russia cancels import sales tax for food equipment

The decision by the Russian government to cancel import sales tax for a wide range of machines and plants has made technology suppliers happy. The regulation no. 372 defines a list of machines and equipment for which no import sales tax will be charged starting in July 2009. Some food and packaging commodity groups are also affected by this. It is estimated that foreign manufacturers can achieve savings of up to 18 per cent due to this new regulation.

India to upgrade quality of street food

A scheme to upgrade the hygiene and quality of street food in India has been pending since last year. This proposal is likely to be cleared within a few months as the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI) has initiated discussions with stakeholders and other authorities. MFPI will bring out guidelines for all the street food joints, besides launching several initiatives to spread awareness among the vendors. It plans to bring 10,000 street food vendors under its scanner once the proposed programme is introduced. As per the programme, 10 food streets with ethnic cuisines will be identified and the majority of stakeholders will be upgraded in terms of quality and hygiene.

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India will work along with the Quality Council of India to identify the agencies to ensure the quality of street food joints, instead of appointing food inspectors. Efforts would be made to make it mandatory for the food vendors to register with the local authorities. The government is also considering introducing food safety programmes in the school curriculum. Mr. Ashok Sinha, Secretary, MFPI, stated that the Ministry has been in touch with the industry, academia and institutes to take up the concept of quality because the Indian food industry should ensure high standards of quality in order to achieve the goal of becoming the food factory of the world.

Trade policy lacking in steps to boost agriculture

In its upcoming trade policy for 2009-2010 the Ministry of Commerce, Pakistan, has not made any significant interventions to boost agricultural produce, even with trade imbalance of over US$17 billion in the outgoing fiscal year. Like previous trade policies, the Ministry is only introducing cosmetic measures for enhancing agri exports and curtailing foreign imports to meet the local demand. The trade imbalance of the whole fiscal year 2008-2009 was a record US$17.04 billion against the previous years US$20.91 billion, with exports of US$17.78 billion against the target of US$22.1 billion, while imports stood at US$34.82 billion against last years imports of US$39.96 billion. A major incentive of granting 6 per cent R&D on exports of processed food is proposed for encouraging research and development in the food sector and it will also help the farming community to minimize the post-harvest losses, an official document revealing agriculture incentives in the policy said.

Food safety team assists banana processors

The Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Regional Office No. XIs Davao Food Safety Team (DFST) has helped three banana processors in the region. It conducted trainings on good manufacturing practices (GMP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for Sagrex Foods Inc. (SFI), a manufacturer and exporter of frozen Saba banana products. DFST is committed to assist SFI in aligning its manufacturing systems to GMP and facilitating HACCP certification. SFI is also being assisted by DFST in the laboratory analysis of its products such as microwaveable banana, banana fries and turon.

DFST assisted Tropical Synergy International, a banana chips manufacturer and exporter, align its procedures and plant facility to GMP. GMP documentation and HACCP training were conducted for the firms management and employees. DFST is focusing on providing consultancy assistance to Tropical Synergys plant layout and design of their newly constructed manufacturing facility. DFST has been helping Koki Food International, another banana chips manufacturer and exporter, improve its plant layout and the existing manufacturing practices. In January 2009, the processing plant was assessed by the DFST in terms of its compliance to basic food hygiene and GMP. Subsequently, an in-house GMP training was conducted for the companys food handlers and employees. DFST continues to provide technical support for the banana processors in order to ensure food safety and high quality of products.

Traditional food products get recognition

The Republic of Koreas traditional chilli paste, fermented bean products and ginseng-derived goods have received recognition as distinct foods from an international standard-setting commission. The Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries reported that food standards forwarded by the Republic of Korea on chilli paste, known as gochujang, fermented soybean paste and ginseng products have passed all review processes set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The Ministry said members of the regional standard commission agreed to recognize the three types of food. Gochujang is a spicy sauce made from powdered red chilli peppers, salt and vinegar, while the ginseng root is widely used as a health food and dietary supplement. The bean paste, used widely in soups and sauces, is a distinct part of the culinary heritage.


Call to adhere to safety standards

Food industries in Malaysia must play an important role in ensuring food products produced by them adhere to safety standards set by the government as well as by importing countries, states Director General of Health Dr. Ismail Merican. Industries must be more innovative, imaginative as well as display the willingness to implement food safety programmes and reform as they would greatly benefit, Dr. Merican opined when opening the Malaysian Institute of Food Technology Seminar and Workshop. The Health Ministry has taken steps to improve and ensure all food industries implement food safety assurances, which include adoption of a risk based regulatory framework, policies, enforcement and standard setting. For example, the Food Hygiene Regulation 2009 requires that all industries implement a food safety assurance system, where it would boost the implementation of such a system including good manufacturing practices.

Food standards commission targets bacteria and chemicals

Recently, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted more than 30 new international standards, codes of practice and guidelines to improve worldwide food safety and to protect consumer health. New standards adopted by Codex include:

Reduction of acrylamide in foods;

Reduction of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (potential carcinogens);

Prevention of Ochratoxin A, a fungal toxin that contaminate coffee and considered a possible human carcinogen;

Powdered follow-up formulae for Salmonella and other bacteria in powdered follow-up formulae for children six months of age or older; and

Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.

Codex also launched new work projects, including establishing maximum levels for melamine in food and feed. Other new work proposals adopted are:

Principles and guidelines to aid governments in the development and operation of comprehensive national food control systems that protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices;

Practices to control viruses in food, especially noroviruses and hepatitis A in mulluscan shell fish, fresh produce and ready-to-eat foods;

Prevention of aflatoxin (toxic substances formed by moulds and known to cause cancer in animals) contamination of Brazil nuts; and

Setting maximum levels and defining sampling plans for Fumonisins (toxic substances produced by fungi) in maize and maize products.

Dairy products require import permits in China

Chinese importers of fresh milk, milk powder and whey will have to apply for import permits from the Ministry of Commerce. This measure is aimed at monitoring rising imports following the domestic industry being hit by a tainted milk scandal in 2008. Chinese buyers of dairy products would also have to report their cargoes to the Ministrys Chamber of Commerce twice a month, as per the Ministrys statement on its website ( According to figures released by Chinas Dairy Association, milk powder imports surged 156.6 per cent to 107,200 t in the first five months of this year, mainly from Australia and New Zealand, as many consumers switched to imported brands after last years tainted milk scandal resulted in the deaths of at least six children.

Guangdong province had imported 150 per cent more dairy products in the first half of this year. The milk scandal coupled with a reduction in tariffs since late last year spurred imports. Imports rose 64.2 per cent in the second half of last year. China has cut the import tax on milk powder to 5 per cent from 25 per cent since the second half of last year. Prices for imported milk powder were 29 per cent below costs for domestic producers. Chinas major domestic dairy producers include Mengniu Dairy, Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co. Limited and Bright Dairy & Food Co. Limited.


Enhanced metal detector for increased productivity

Mettler-Toledo Safeline, the United States-based global leader in product inspection equipment, has introduced a highly sensitive and user-friendly PowerPhasePRO metal detector now available on Pipeline, Gravity Flow and Tablex 2 pharmaceutical units. With significant new enhancements to the software platform, PowerPhasePRO offers manufacturers lower overall manufacturing costs, increased productivity and improved competitiveness. The PowerPhasePRO metal detector is extremely simple to operate with its Windows style full-colour touch screen. Combined with high detection sensitivity and exceptional on-line stability, the PowerPhasePRO provides maximum uptime for increased profits. By detecting and automatically rejecting ferrous, non-ferrous, as well as irregularly shaped and difficult-to-detect non-magnetic stainless steel in wet or conductive products, PowerPhasePRO is claimed to deliver the ultimate in protection for manufacturers and product safety for consumers. PowerPhasePRO metal detectors offer the unique benefit of an advanced change-free running mode enabling multiple products to be run at a single setting, thereby eliminating the need to change settings at product changeovers. The inclusion of advanced, built-in condition monitoring feature provides advanced warning of maintenance needs before failure to further enhance plant efficiency. Critical messages can be easily communicated directly to key individuals within the manufacturers organization via e-mail or SMS text messaging.

Retaining colour of lychee fruitListeria

Yangdong Jiasheng Produce Trading Co. Ltd., China, has reported an innovation that allows for retaining the colour of lychee fruit. It is now known that desiccation, or dehydration, and water loss of the pericarp (skin) of lychee are main factors of lychee browning. Senescence (aging), improper storage temperature, mechanical damage and pathogen attacks are all attributed as causes to lychee browning. A lychee post-harvest treatment has been established after extensive study and practice. The new commercial-scale treatment which employs chlorine dioxide as the initial disinfectant, followed by organic acid dipping to fix colour pigments of lychee skin, and finishing up with edible coating to reduce water loss is opening up a new frontier in the lychee export market. Contact: Ms. Lynn Sun, Yangdong Jiasheng Produce Trading Co. Limited, China. E-mail:

Kit to detect melamine

In the United States, Mr. Michael Sadowsky and Mr. Larry Wackett, members of the University of Minnesotas BioTechnology Institute, developed an enzyme that is being used in Bioo Scientifics new MaxDiscovery Melamine Test kit, which simplifies the detection of melamine contamination in food. The test kit can detect melamine in various dairy products such as milk, powdered milk, cream, ice cream and chocolate drink. Further, Bioo Scientific has plans to adapt the kit to detect melamine in seafood and meat. The enzyme, melamine deaminase, works by breaking one of the C-N bonds in melamine to release ammonia that can be easily detected by a simple test that turns the liquid blue. Ms. Jennifer Seffernick, a research associate in Mr. Wacketts lab, discovered the enzyme while conducting research on biodegradation of s-triazine herbicides. Research to develop the enzyme for the melamine test was supported by the Universitys Biocatalysis Initiative. Contact: Bioo Scientific, United States of America. E-mail:

X-ray inspection system

PowerChekPlus X-ray inspection system from Mettler-Toledo Safeline, the worldwide leader in product inspection equipment, features AMI sanitary specifications, NEMA 4X environmental protection and Allen Bradley controls. Specifically designed for harsh wash-down environments, the system is ideal for the meat and dairy industries. An extremely user-friendly touch screen interface lets operators to be quickly trained for maximum uptime. Based on low energy and electronically generated X-ray technology for optimal sensitivity, PowerChekPlus detects dense contaminants such as metal, stone, bone and glass. The system can also measure product mass, monitor overfill and underfill, as well as find a damaged or incorrectly packaged product even in metal foil. Typical applications include finding stainless steel fragments in large packages of shredded cheese or in packages of yoghurt with metallic closures, detecting bone chips in hot dogs or identifying metal contaminants in meat patties. PowerChekPlus offers a low lifetime cost of ownership and unmatched reliability for brand protection.

New quality control solution

Labthink Instruments Co. Ltd., China, offers a new gas analyser that can evaluate gas content of plastic bags, packages and cans to help prolong shelf-life. Param HGA-01 headspace gas analyser can be used to measure rapidly and accurately the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and mixing proportion in sealed bags, cans, bottles and other packages. It has a portable design that is easy to carry and use, and a one-click operation that efficiently tests and yields accurate and reliable data. The analyser is built using standard parts that guarantee long lifetime and high reliability.

The analyser is equipped with standard RS232 port for computer communication and professional software featuring functions of data re-analysis, processing and report output. It also has a TCP/IP-supported Internet communication port. Contact: Mr. Mark Won, Labthink Instruments Co. Ltd., China. Tel: +86 (531) 8586 4214-8058; Fax: +86 (531) 8581 2140; E-mail:; Website:


Concentrated components from broccoli and tomato

In the Unites States, food scientists have isolated glucosinolates from broccoli. Glucosinolates are the biologically active components in broccoli that are highly touted as antioxidants, boosting immune health, respiratory health and cardiovascular health. According to Mr. Howard Constant, President of Seminis Vegetable Seeds, companies are making strides in breeding plant varieties that will deliver more concentrated amounts of the bioactives to consumers. Lycopene is a substance in tomatoes that is high in beneficial carotene. Ms. Diane M. Barrett, University of California, is looking at the quality of bioactives in produce during and after processing. Nutrients can be drastically affected, depending on type of harvest, washing, cooling, packing, sorting, processing and transportation. Storage temperature can also have a large effect on bioactives, with refrigeration slowing enzyme activity that breaks down cells containing bioactives. Tomatoes are loaded with vitamins, carotenoids, potassium, flavonoids, phenolic acids and glycoalkaloids.

Sustainable process for citrus oil extraction developed

Symrise AG, with headquarters in Germany, has developed a new process to improve the quality, solubility and sustainability of its citrus oils for flavouring beverages, sweets and dairy products. Developed at its Global Citrus Centre in Brazil, the process involves utilizing differences in the solubility of various components in the oils to isolate those that relate to flavour and aroma.

The oils are derived from South American citrus fruits, including Brazilian oranges, Argentinean lemons, and Mexican and Peruvian limes. Symrise claims that having a base on the continent also makes its citrus oils more environmentally sustainable. Unlike traditional distillation, Symrises citrus oil extraction technology does not use heat to isolate the flavour and fragrance components. Symrise states the intense flavours of its concentrated oils are in line with the megatrend towards naturalness as well as consumer demands for authentic fruit flavours.

Anti-cancer patent for cranberry seed oil

Ocean Spray Cranberries Inc., the United States, has patented methods of use of cranberry seed oil in applications designed to treat or prevent cancer and a host of other diseases. The patent approval was received almost six years after application by inventor Mr. Wassef Nawar. The company claims that the isolated cranberry seed oil or its compositions can be used as anti-cancer, hypocholesterolemic, antithrombotic, antioxidizing, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory agents. The anti-cancer property of the oil is currently backed only by preliminary studies, and more research is necessary. Nevertheless, the patent covers the use of the oil in food, beverage, supplement and drug applications designed to treat or reduce the occurrence of all these conditions. The seed oil could be used in different oils or oil-based foods (e.g. margarine, mayonnaise or peanut butter). In addition, grain flour fortified with the compounds may be used in baked goods, cereals, pastas and soups. The oil or its components can also be emulsified and used in a variety of water-based products (e.g. juice drinks, sports drinks and drink mixes).

Nanotechnology to improve vegetable oil production

Cavitation Technologies, the United States, has developed Green D+ Plus Degumming (GDP) chemical-free system for refining vegetable oils. GDP utilizes special patented nanotechnology to cut down on the time and cost for processing vegetable oil. Cavitation Technologies uses a flow through nano cavitation reactor (NCR) to modify vegetable oils without chemicals normally needed to process raw vegetable oil into usable edible oil. NCR promotes the formation, growth and implosive collapse of gas or vapour-filled bubbles in liquids. Just the addition of water and running the oil/water fluid through NCR reportedly brings higher oil yields.

In reality, the mixture of water and oil goes through a multistage cavinator that implodes bubbles within the water/oil fluid. As the bubbles implode, the liquid creates progressively greater pressures and temperatures, generating local jet streams, shock waves, vigorous shearing forces, [and the] emission of ultraviolet and/or visible light that synthesize and modify the mixture at the nano-molecular level. According to the company, using NCR to replace existing technology will result in savings on several fronts. To refine the oils, the oil mills and refineries will require less equipment and energy, 90 per cent less acid, and hardly any neutralization. These lead to savings of approximately US$6.00 per tonne of oil processed and another US$1.25 in additional oil yield per tonne. The new process was tested by Mr. Stan Loft, a member of the American Oil Chemists Society, who found that NCR reduced phosphorus gums 80 per cent more than standard methods, making this process a much better choice for processing vegetable oils.

Grape seed may boost health and safety profile of bread

Addition of a grape seed extract (GSE) to bread may not only increase the antioxidant content of the staple but also inhibit formation of a potential toxin, new research in Hong Kong reveals. Led by Mr. Xiaofang Peng from the University of Hong Kong, researchers state N15-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is an undesirable by-product of glycation (simple sugar molecules combining with proteins or fats) and is widely found in bread, particularly in the crust. Currently it is viewed as a potential toxicant in food. Moreover, it has become a biomarker associated with oxidative stress, diabetes and atherosclerosis in humans. Addition of GSE was found to not only boost the antioxidant activity of the bread, thereby offering the promise of a functional food, but also reduce CML levels, thereby lowering potential health risks associated with this compound. An improvement in the antioxidant activity was also recorded in bread samples prepared with the extract, but compared with free GSE, thermal processing reduced the antioxidant activity by 30 to 40 per cent. Sensorial tests by a panel of tasters revealed no significant difference in hardness in bread samples with and without GSE, up to levels of 1 g of GSE per 500 g of bread. Further, a change in colour was found on adding the extract.


Citrus peel juice with nutritional and Brix benefits

Tropicana Products Inc., the United States, offers a method to process citrus fruit peel by-product sources into unique peel juice products that retain the positive nutritional and Brix benefits of the peel while also being relatively low in bitterness attributes. The by-product from extracting citrus juice from whole fruit is made into a slurry and extracted to provide a rudimentary peel juice. This is processed into a raw peel juice and microfiltered to prepare a clarified raw peel juice. The peel juice is processed to remove naturally occurring components that detract from the quality of the fruit juice. All such constituents are removed by contacting the peel juice with an adsorptive rein to provide an enhanced peel citrus juice, which can be blended with other juices.

Groundnut milk for beverages

The Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), India, has developed a commercially viable process for inactivation of the lipoxygenase enzyme in groundnut (Arachis hypogea) before processing. Coupled with the use of modern air-less grinding and deodorizing technique, the new process prepared groundnut milk with negligible nutty flavour. By using this prepared groundnut milk, highly acceptable chocolate/vanilla flavoured beverages have been developed with about 12 per cent total solids and 3.25 per cent protein. Groundnut is commonly called poor mans almond and is one of the most nourishing foods available in the world. Based on this technology and using modern processing equipment available at CIPHET, the institute is planning to offer a course on production of groundnut milk and its products for upcoming entrepreneurs.

Traditionally, eating fresh, roasted groundnut with jaggery and goat milk is a very nutritious food for children, pregnant women and nursing mothers. Groundnut contains about 25 per cent good quality protein, 40 per cent oil rich in essential fatty acids, 3 per cent fibre and 2.5 per cent minerals. The process for the preparation of acceptable curd with 15 per cent total solids and 4.25 per cent protein has also been optimized. Groundnut is the richest source of niacin (19.9 mg/100 g) and thiamine (0.90 mg/100 g). Like soybeans, groundnut has been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals particularly isoflavones (genistein, daidzein and biochanin A) and trans-resveratrol. The high levels of isoflavones in groundnut products are mainly due to heat-induced conversion of conjugate glycosides to aglycons. Genistein and trans-resveratrol availability has been reported as significantly higher in processed groundnuts; hence, groundnut milk is also highly healthful, like soybean milk, with the added benefit of not having a beany flavour.

High-yield process for industrial production of carrot juice

A new carrot juice production process has been developed at the University of LAquila, Italy, to improve the yield of product to values higher than 80 per cent. This result was obtained by properly processing, with consolidated technologies, both the liquid and the solid streams coming from the decanter of a traditional carrot juice industrial plant. In particular, the above-mentioned solid stream (waste from the decanter) was further processed using an aqueous washing stream consisting of the endogenous vegetation water contained in processed carrots. This stream can be obtained, in the required amount, in a reverse osmosis section that is fed with the liquid stream coming from the decanter.

A special feature of the proposed process is that it uses an endogenous washing vegetation water stream, thus avoiding any kind of contamination of the final product. Contact: Mr. G. Di Giacomo, Dept. of Chemistry Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of LAquila, Monteluco di Roio, I-67100 LAquila, Italy. E-mail: gabriele.digia

Natural chitosan extends orange juice shelf-life

According to a new study, chitosan, an emerging ingredient extracted from fungi cell walls and the shells of sea crustaceans, may act as an anti-microbial ingredient for orange juice and remove the need for pasteurization. In Ireland, scientists led by Ms. Ana Martin-Diana from the Post-Harvest Technology Unit and Functional Ingredient Food Unit at the Dublin Institute of Technology enriched orange juice with chitosan in concentrations ranging from 0 g/l to 2 g/l of juice. Addition of chitosan, produced via deacetylation of chitin a natural non-digestible polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of crustaceans was found to reduce both the counts of bacteria and browning of the juice. But, while chitosan concentrations over 1 g/l favourably impacted the quality, they adversely affected the vitamin C content of the juice as well as increased the bitterness of the juice.

Test improves quality of fruit and vegetable juice

In the United States, a rapid, reliable and efficient technique has been developed to ensure fruit and vegetable juice products adhere to federal and international quality standards. Collaborating with scientists in the United States and from around the world Mr. Mengshi Lin, an assistant professor of food science in the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Missouri - Columbia has successfully used a new approach that combines DNA sequencing technique with mid-infrared spectroscopy to identify rapidly and accurately Alicyclobacillus, a common bacterium found in apple, carrot, tomato, orange and pear juices; tropical fruit juices; and juice blends. The bacterium does not cause sickness, but it affects flavour and results in spoilage.

Identification of the bacterium is a challenge, as spoilage can be difficult to distinguish visibly until tests confirm it or the juice products have been opened and tasted by consumers. Besides agitating taste buds, the latter can affect consumer confidence. The new technique is important as it identifies the organism in a few hours unlike traditional methods that are time-consuming and require 5-7 days to process. Testing time is critical for juice processing firms that monitor for the bacteria during the processing and final product stage. The DNA technique in combination with infrared spectroscopy technique will not cause delays in production.


Solar food dryers

In the United States, a solar food dryer devised in the early 1990s at Appalachian State University by Prof. Dennis Scanlin has become an efficient and economical food preserver used worldwide. The solar food dryers designed at Appalachian are basically wooden boxes with vents at the top and bottom. Food is placed on screened frames that slide into the boxes. A properly sized solar air heater with south-facing plastic glazing and a black metal absorber is connected to the bottom of the boxes. Air enters the bottom of the solar air heater and is heated by the black metal absorber. Warm air rises up past the food and out through the vents at the top.

The dryers produce temperatures of 54C-82C, a desirable range for most food drying and for pasteurization. With these dryers, it is possible to dry food in a day, even when it is partly cloudy, hazy and very humid. The flavour and most of the nutritional value is preserved and concentrated, and these foods can be preserved for several years in many cases, said Prof. Scanlin. Contact: Dept. of Technology, Appalachian State University, the United States. Website:

Polysaccharides may provide edible coatings for cheese

New research suggests natural polysaccharides may provide edible coatings for cheese. According to lead researcher Mr. Miguel Cerqueira from the Universidade do Minho, Portugal, galactomannan from Gleditsia triacanthos was found to give the best cheese coating properties and prevented mould growth. In collaboration with researchers in Brazil, the Portuguese scientists investigated three different polysaccharides from non-traditional sources to coat cheese: Galactomannan from Gleditsia triacanthos, chitosan, and agar from Glacilaria birdiae.

Tests included how coatings affected wettability of the cheese and how much water, oxygen and carbon dioxide passed through, either in or out. The coatings were made from the polysaccharide, glycerol (as a plasticizer) and corn oil. Results have shown that the solutions of G. triacanthos made from 1.5 per cent galactomannan, 2.0 per cent glycerol and 0.5 per cent corn oil had the best properties. The consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by the cheese with and without the coating showed that the edible coating decreased the cheeses respiration rate.

NASA technology increases air quality and shelf-life

Aswaaq, an LLC company owned by the Dubai government, has deployed the NASA-developed AiroCide photocatalytic air purification system. The air purifier provides clean air in a variety of industries and was deployed in the supermarket chains Nad Al Hamar Community Centre throughout its various sections supermarket, distribution centre and backroom coolers.

The AiroCide air purifier is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. It helps eliminate odours produced by certain products (such as fish) and recycles the smell through its systems to release an odourless non-bacteria air. Additionally, AiroCide is clinically proven to provide one of the best controls in health and food safety, as it eliminates every type of airborne bacteria, mould, fungi and all airborne infectious diseases. The newly deployed AiroCide air purifier is also known for decreasing allergic symptoms, benefiting the customers who suffer from sinusitis, asthma and coughing.

Inactivity of proteins behind longer shelf-life when freezing

Scientists at Swedens University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, together with a group of United States researchers, have used advanced experimental techniques to study how movements in the water surrounding protein cause movements in the protein itself. The study indicates that dynamics in the surrounding water have a direct effect on the proteins dynamics, which, in turn, should affect the activity. The results explain, for example, why biological material such as foodstuffs or research material can be stored at low temperatures for a long period of time without perishing. When the global movements in the surrounding water freeze, significant movements within the protein also come to a stop. This results in the protein being preserved in a state of minimum energy and biological activity comes to a stop, according to Ms. Helen Jansson, a researcher at the Swedish NMR Centre, University of Gothenburg.

Edible coating makes fish fillets more nutritious

Researchers at Oregon State University (OSU), the United States, have extended the shelf-life of lingcod fillets and, possibly, made them more nutritious by dipping them into an edible, protective coating enriched with fish oil. With this coating, you can easily keep the fillets in the display case for two to three more days, states OSUs Prof. Yanyun Zhao, the lead researcher of the study. The liquid coating contained chitosan and can be made into films for food wrapping to keep out bacteria and fungi and prolong storage life.

Fish oil added to the chitosan coating is not visible once it dries. After the coating was applied, some fillets were refrigerated for three weeks while others were frozen for three months. It was found that the coating tripled the omega-3 fatty acids in the refrigerated and frozen fish when compared with uncoated fish. Further, the coating reduced lipid oxidation and kept the fish moister than uncoated samples as the frozen ones were thawing. Moreover, the coating delayed the growth of microorganisms in fresh fillets and prevented their growth in frozen ones.


Cheese flavouring systems prepared with bacteriocins

Kraft Foods Global Brands LLC, the United States, offers a stabilized cheese flavouring system that could be used to prepare very different cheeses with desired flavour profiles in which the flavouring system is stabilized against the growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms therein, while the flavour development can be accelerated in one more of its flavour elements thereof. The stabilized flavouring systems are obtained by the addition of a bacteriocin source as part of the fermentation process that accelerates the fermentation time needed for flavour development in one or more of its flavour components, and in at least a sulphur-cheddary component in one of the embodiments cited. Therefore, production time can be greatly reduced for one or more of the flavour components of the flavouring system without loss of flavour while improving its microbial stability. According to the patent information on the present invention, bacteriocins or bacteriocin sources include antimicrobial agents suitable for use in food products. Preferred antimicrobial agents are lantibiotics (i.e. polypeptides containing lanthionine and -methyl lanthionine).

Fermented native drink on par with sake

In the Philippines, Dr. Priscilla Chinte-Sanchez reports that the golden-yellow traditional rice wine, popularly known as tapuy, is as good as, if not superior, to the internationally popular Japanese sake. In our study, we found out that tapuy has better flavour and aroma than sake, says the food scientist who chairs the Biological Sciences Division of the National Research Council of the Philippines. Tapuy is made from fermented rice. Dr. Sanchez says that tapuy was being studied by scientists as early as 1912. The scientists found that the process of preparing the starter culture for the local wine differs from one locality to another, depending on the rice variety.

Apart from the rice wine, Dr. Sanchez cites the commercial potential of different fruit wines using the same source of yeast culture, like in grape wine-making, despite the absence of vineyards in the country. For instance, mango wine can be developed because, just like grape, mango has a significant amount of antioxidants and high vitamin C content. Basi, a sugar cane-based alcoholic beverage, was described in 1686 in a London liquor journal as being similar in colour and taste to English beer. Basis alcohol content becomes stronger as it ages, from 11.61 per cent after one year to 16.24 per cent after three years. Basis popularity was due to its peculiar taste and aroma not present in local/imported alcoholic beverages, Dr. Sanchez said.

New enzyme for reduction of acrylamide

A German biotechnology company, c-LEcta, has established a pilot-scale production process for the enzyme 4-LEss Acryl. The highly effective asparaginase prevents the formation of the potential carcinogen acrylamide during the processing of coffee, corn flakes and other food products. The enzyme can easily be integrated into existing manufacturing processes during which acrylamide is formed, making it a valuable tool in the enhancement of food safety. The enzyme 4-LEss Acryl can be added at temperatures up to 100C, for example, during boiling or blanching phases, with no adjustments needed to the food production process. The product distinguishes itself through its very high efficiency in a variety of applications. In the manufacturing of coffee beans and corn flakes, the formation of acrylamide can be reduced by at least 50 per cent, and in some cases, by more than 90 per cent. The enzyme is manufactured using an industrial production strain with high yields. The Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status of the microorganism and the optimized purification process ensure the safety and purity of the product and make it suitable for direct application in the food industry. 4-LEss Acryl is a trademark of c-LEcta GmbH, registered with the European Patent and Trademark Office. Contact: Ms. Ira Kiesewetter, c-LEcta GmbH, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Tel: +49 (341) 3552 1418; E-mail:


Environmental packaging

Pro-Pac Packaging, Australia, is offering Green-Pak environmental packaging manufactured from Australia-grown wheat, ground by local millers. Green-Pak packaging is a natural renewable raw material, compostable, reusable and can be easily disposed of in landfill. As a biodegradable loose-fill protective packaging material, Green-Pak is presented in the form of flowable logs, which can fill all voids within a carton thereby preventing movement and damage of goods in transit. The packaging features shock-absorbing traits and offers superior protective cushioning to packaged fragile products. The flowable nature of Green-Pak ensures speed of packing is increased. Green-Pak can be distributed through ceiling hoppers and silos, saving on valuable floor space. Contact: Pro-Pac Packaging, 40-48 Geddes Street, Mulgrave, VIC 3170, Australia. Tel: +61 (3) 9545 1111; Fax: +61 (3) 9545 1122.

Cost-effective, efficient and gentle sealing technology

A highly cost-effective ultrasonic sealing technology from Sigpack Systems, a company of Germany-based Bosch Packaging Technology, provides an efficient solution for the horizontal pillow-packing of solid products. The new sealing technology means seals at the longitudinal and transverse seams are narrower; so less packaging material is required. Further, compared with conventional heat-sealing, the material itself could be of a lower thickness, thereby reducing energy costs. The agglutination of hot-sealing jaws with foil leftovers cause a high-maintenance effort associated with machine down time. Ultrasonic sealing eliminates this challenge with sound-based sealing that removes heat from the sealing process.

The quality of the hermetically sealed joints protects moisture- and oxygen-sensitive products. Heating of the sealing jaws is eliminated, avoiding the generation of unneeded radiant heat. A very positive side-effect is the improved hot-tack performance of the pillow packs, because the temperature of the film material immediately after sealing is that at which the sealed joints have maximum strength. As a result, the securely packaged products can move on to downstream processes more quickly.

Versatile robotic packaging with new gearheads

Customized robotic packaging systems from Cama Group, Italy, simplify food industry product handling. Its partnership with quality suppliers facilitates innovation; even something as small as gearheads (essential parts within a machine) have contributed to its success.

Camas new Delta Triaflex robot is equipped with Wittenstein alpha TP+ series gearboxes. A Triaflex machine can reach a speed of up to 150 cycles per minute, work in single- and double-line tracking and perform particularly complicated operations, such as the management and loading of products on to a continuously working machine. Combined with an intelligent vision system, Triaflex is able to work on three dimensions, rotate its head 360, collect products at random from a conveyor belt and position them correctly into their packaging. It is equipped with four controlled axes, carbon fibre arms for collecting and depositing from any position or to load a moving flow pack or horizontal cartoning machine.

MAP expands variety of food packaging

In Germany, Bauer Funken turned to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology to package a variety of foods using machinery from Arpac-Hefestus USA. One reason for selecting Arpac-Hefestus was its fast turn-around time. Bauer began with a semi-automatic Hefestus Athena SLB manual MAP sealing machine. That proved successful and Bauer followed with a larger Hera SLB automatic linear MAP sealing machine. SLB is Hefestus registered patent for MAP achieved without any mechanical vacuum. The technology guarantees shelf-life-extending residual oxygen levels below 1 per cent while maintaining production speeds and operational simplicity. Contact: Arpac-Hefestus USA, Schiller Park, Illinois, the United States. Tel: +1 (847) 678 9034; Fax: +1 (847) 671 7006.

New case packer

The new Series 10 case packer from Brenton, the United States, provides customers with a flexible alternative to upgrade their manual low-speed hand pack operations. The Series 10 was designed to occupy similar floor space on the packaging line as hand-pack operations, with the added benefit of fully automatic performance. It accommodates RSC cases and automatically performs multiple packaging operations, including case erecting, loading and sealing sections within its compact footprint. Various types of product in-feed systems are available as well as case-sealing alternatives including either hot melt glue or tape, where a slide-out DEKKA tape head allows operators to perform quick change-overs. The uncluttered design allows for ease of machine accessibility for both maintenance and line operators. A continuous welded frame is standard for a long service life, and the entire machine is backed by the same warranty package offered on higher-speed Brenton case packers. Contact: Mr. Jack Aguero, Pro Mach Inc., United States of America. Tel: +1 (513) 8318 778, ext. 423; E-mail:

A robot to pick, pack and load

Selpak, Australia, offers robotic packaging systems invented by Mr. Gerhard Schubert. Based on the tenet that flexibility in packing equipment is created by cutting back the number of mechanism, shifting functions increasingly to the machine software and consistently assigning product-specific operations to be performed by exchangeable tools, Schubert TLM packaging machines are being used across a range of industries, including food, healthcare, confectionery, beverage and pet food.

Essentially any product that needs to be picked and loaded can best be handled on Schubert equipment. Whether this involves case erecting, forming or denesting, loading into cases or trays or other machines e.g. thermoformers or flow wrappers and closing, the key lies in successfully handling the product, and the flexibility with which it is able to do this. Selpak has been representing Mr. Schubert in New Zealand and Australia for almost 25 years. Contact: Selpak, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 9585 8811; E-mail:



The United States-based Koch Equipment LLCs partnership with Thompson Meat Machinery of Australia resulted in the addition of Thompson mixer/grinders to Kochs extensive line of meat and poultry processing equipment. Koch Equipments new line-up includes a wide array of Thompson mixer/grinders with production capacities ranging from 1,361 kg/h to 7,846 kg/h, which will enable it to serve the small-, mid-, large- and industrial-sized meat processors. Further, included in the offering is a frozen block flaker that processes frozen meat blocks at a rate of up to 4,989 kg/h.

Equipped with reliable helical gear drives, meat processors never have to worry about down time due to belt or chain failure. All of the components (feedscrews, grinding heads, lock rings and mixing arms) are also manufactured from solid stainless steel. In addition, many models feature a unique hopper design, resulting in continuous and efficient grinding without overworking the product. The results are improved particle definition and reduced temperature rise both key attributes of high-quality meat products. Contact: Koch Equipment LLC, 1414, West 29th Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, the United States.

Solution for wineries

Teralba Industries, Australia, has provided heat transfer solution for a mass production winery. To provide the most cost-effective solution with restriction to limited space needs, the Dimpleflo units were built with 12 m long tubing. This meant less bends were needed, resulting in 30 per cent cost savings. Increased performance due to its length and configuration also proved to be an overall benefit. With the unique Dimple Profile technology, these heat exchangers are promoted as ideal for processing minces, sauces, juices and virtually any pumpable product with up to 85 per cent particulates.

A new high efficiency, Dimpleflo Modubloc heat exchanger is also proving to be very successful in the beverage and wine industries. Dimpleflo Modubloc has the capacity to cool 50,000 l/h of crushed grapes and juice from 20C to 8C in a single pass. Further efficiencies are achieved with a fully insulated modular stainless steel cabinet that minimizes radiant energy losses and is virtually maintenance-free. Contact: Mr. Gref Haak, Teralba Industries, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 4626 5000; Fax: +61 (2) 4625 4591; E-mail:

Industrial food coater

Sono-Tek Corp., the United States, is offering an industrial depanning oil coating system developed for a global baked goods conglomerate owning and operating numerous baking plants. SonoCoat PAN could potentially become the standard operational unit at the customers baking lines worldwide, replacing current conventional spraying system technologies. Sono-Teks equipment exhibited savings of 45 per cent of the depanning oil currently being used by the customer, with an estimated return on investment of less than six months.

The non-clogging ultrasonic spray created with Sono-Teks patented nozzle technology offers several benefits over older, traditional spraying systems. A unique advantage is superior transfer efficiency. There is less bounce back of liquid from the target, combined with a controllable, uniform coating application of nano to micron thickness layers. Other benefits include tight drop distribution for even coatings and minimal maintenance requirements of the equipment. These technical advantages are of significant economic value for the food industry, particularly for the baked goods industry. Contact: Dr. Christopher L. Coccio, Sono-Tek Corp., United States of America. Tel: +1 (845) 7952 020; Website:

Pilot continuous direct steam injection cooking equipment

Gold Peg International Pty. Ltd., Australia, has released a pilot RotaTherm continuous cooking system that forward feeds and cooks, with options for various cooling set-ups, including flash de-aeration, indirect or a combination. The new system is designed to be used on a wide range of products such as baby food, chunky sauces, processed cheese varieties, vegetable purees, dips, pie fillers, pet food, meat preparations and similar items. The direct steam injection RotaTherm continuous cooker features quick (20 s) and even heating, good viscosity management, precise process control, constant product quality, formulation flexibility, with pause capability and long production runs. Suitable for R&D and single shift production with a daily throughput of 800-1,200 kg, the pilot system has a throughput range of 100-250 kg/h, with a cook temperature range 20-145C and vacuum or indirect cooling to 60C. RotaTherm is available in configurations for pasteurization, UHT and aseptic production, with throughput rates from 100 kg/h to 7,500 kg/h. Contact: Gold Peg International Pty Ltd., PO Box 60, Moorabbin, Victoria 3189, Australia. Tel: +61 (3) 8531 2999; Fax: +61 (3) 8531 2988; E-mail: techsupport@

Shea nut and groundnut sheller

The Crops Research Institute (CRI), Ghana, with the help of Peanut Collaborative Research Support Programme (CRSP), has manufactured simple hand machines for use by farmers to shell shea nuts and groundnuts. Demonstrating the operation of the machines at the Research Centre, Dr. Jack Brandis, Director of Research and Development of Full Belly Project in the United States, said he is confident that the machines will help improve food processing and agriculture. While an individual can manually shell about 1 kg/h of groundnuts, the sheller can handle 50 kg/h, with less than 5 per cent of breakage (commercial shellers tested showed a breakage of up to 20 per cent). The sheller has a concrete base and few moving parts.


Dairy-derived Ingredients: Food and Nutraceutical Uses

This guide reviews the latest research relevant to new opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries and applications for dairy ingredients. Part I covers modern approaches to the separation of dairy components and manufacture of dairy ingredients. Part II focuses on the significant area of the biological functionality of dairy components and their nutraceutical applications, with chapters on milk oligosaccharides, lactoferrin and the role of dairy in food intake and metabolic regulation. The final part surveys the technological functionality of dairy components and their applications in food and non-food products. Dairy ingredients and food flavour, applications in emulsions, nanoemulsions and nanoencapsulation as well as value-added ingredients from lactose are also covered.

Contact: Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AH, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1223) 891 358; Fax: +44 (1223) 893 694; E-mail:

Functional and Speciality Beverage Technology

This book reviews key ingredients, formulation technology and health effects of the major types of functional and speciality beverages. It covers essential ingredients (such as sweeteners and stabilizers) and significant aspects of formulation (such as fortification technology and methods to extend shelf-life). Further, it focuses on methods to improve the nutritional and sensory quality and technological functionalities of milk, discusses newer dairy ingredients, such as whey and milk-fat globule membrane, and reviews advances in the significant plant-based beverage sector, with chapters on popular products such as fruit juices, sports drinks, tea and coffee. This is an essential collection for professionals as well as academics interested in nutritional, nutraceutical or functional beverages with sensory quality and shelf-life.

Contact: Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AH, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1223) 891 358; Fax: +44 (1223) 893 694; E-mail:


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