VATIS Update Non-conventional Energy . Mar-Apr 2003

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ISSN: 0971-5630

VATIS Update New and Renewable Energy (formerly Non Conventional Energy)* is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of New and Renewable Energy. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

* This update has been renamed as 'VATIS Update: New and Renewable Energy' from Jan-Mar 2015 onwards.

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Renewable energy for rural Asia

According to experts, though Asia is a region where millions of people have no access to electricity, renewables will not be used for large-scale generation in the foreseeable future unless governments introduce subsidies and legislation to support them. However, solar, wind, geothermal or biomass might find a niche in electrifying Asias many scattered rural sections. The International Energy Agency estimates that as of 2000, 40.8 per cent of people in South Asia had access to electricity while in Southeast Asia and North Asia, excluding Japan, the rate was more than double at 86.9 per cent. This translates into over a billion people without access to power, largely in rural communities, in 2000. Even in developed nations, renewable energy has yet to gain commercial appeal although these countries can better afford to subsidize green energy. In the United States, renewable energy accounted for a mere six per cent of total energy consumption in 2001.

Most Asian nations are struggling to upgrade inefficient and dilapidated transmission grids and fossil fuel plants. Fund allocation decreased for new power projects after the 1997 financial crisis when several international operators pulled out of the region and banks closed their doors to high-risk investments. The World Banks lending to energy efficiency and renewable schemes made up about 64 per cent of the total energy financing in 2001 and 2002, up from 16 per cent in the 1990s. The Asian Development Bank has approved a US$33.1 million loan, in October, to develop biomass power generation in rural China and also has funded projects in India and Indonesia.

Shell, which has committed up to US$1.5 billion for renewable energy programmes by 2006, estimates that power from biomass costs about 1 times more than power from coal, gas or oil, while solar energy costs four times more. According to the company, however, costs are declining and solar energy costs would fall by 20 per cent every three years. Mr. Richard Powis, chief executive at Australias Integral Energy, states that wind generation costs nearly three times that of black coal, one of the cheapest fuels. Sea wave technology, which harnesses the power of ocean waves, costs more than four times as much as coal.


A surge on the cards for large wind turbines

A report by Business Communications Co. Inc., the United States, reveals that about US$5.5 billion was invested in new large wind turbines worldwide in 2001. Major markets are just opening up in France, the United Kingdom and Australia, while high growth markets in the European Union continue to expand and are spreading to Eastern Europe and North Africa. The global large wind turbine market is expected to surge at an average annual growth rate of 24.3 per cent, crossing US$16 billion by 2007. Megawatt-class turbines and larger are now being produced in Denmark, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Spain and the United States.

Continued strong expansion of the large wind turbine industry is driven by fixed price feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, green power markets, pollution offsets, the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation programmes, Renewable Obligations, clean energy funds, tradable renewable energy credits, executive orders at federal and state levels, competition in the restructured electricity markets and cost. Installed global capacity of large wind turbines will exceed 110 GW in 2007. Even at this seemingly lofty level and about US$100 billion of investments, large wind turbines will account for less than three per cent of the world bulk generating capacity.

Contact: Ms. Malika Rajan, Business Communications Co. Inc., 25, Van Zant St., Norwalk, Connecticut 06855, the United States. Tel: +1 (203) 8534 266; Fax: +1 (203) 8530 348; E-mail: 

 UNEP funds for solar installations

A US$7.6 million initiative has been launched by two of Indias largest banking groups and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to help 18,000 households install solar-based power generating units. In the southern Indian state of Karnataka, Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank have started offering new loans in which UNEP is buying down the financing cost of solar home units. Households can now purchase solar systems at an interest rate of about 5 per cent, compared with the normal consumer lending rates of 11-12 per cent. This approach is designed to stimulate competition among the vendors, as well as ensure quality products, reliable after-sales service and competitive pricing. The UNEP partnership allows both banks to offer new loan products for the growing energy sector through an extensive and established network of rural 
branches in Karnataka and Kerala.

Contact: Website: 

Bright future seen for clean energy

The latest report by Clean Edge Inc., the United States, claims that solar photovoltaics (PV), wind power and fuel cells are set to expand from the present US$9.5 billion to approximately US$89 billion market by 2012. Also, the top five clean energy trends to watch for in 2003 include:
 Wind turbines and solar farms: will grow in size and provide impetus to an entirely new class of renewable energy utility;
 Hydrogen from solar, wind and biomass: Innovations from various government and commercial labs are helping researchers reach the Holy Grail of hydrogen produced from sunlight, wind and other clean energy sources;
 Weapons of mass salvation: In the United States, military applications and funding are aiding in the construction of remote clean energy technologies like micro-fuel cells, for soldiers in the field;
 Solar PV breaks through price barrier: Breakthroughs in solar PV could make a future of solar without subsidies a reality by the end of this decade; and
Grid optimization: Utilities will find new ways to optimize their existing grids to greatly increase efficiency, dramatically reducing costs and the need for additional power plants.

Clean Energy Trends 2003, outlines clean energy investment trends and projects clean energy revenues for 2002-2012. According to studies, solar PV (including modules, system components and installation) would grow from the US$3.5 billion global industry in 2002 to over US$27.5 billion by 2012. Wind power would expand from US$5.5 billion in 2002 to approximately US$49 billion in 2012. Fuel cells for mobile, portable and stationary applications would exceed US$12.5 billion from US$0.5 billion over the next decade. Also, the report finds that corporate, public and private equity investments in clean energy are faring relatively well in the current economic downturn. A number of factors, including state-based renewable portfolio standards, increased corporate activity and continued venture capital investments are demonstrating the strength of the clean energy sector.

Enviroline, Issue 106,
24 February 2003

Australian turbine for Indian market

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia, has developed a hybrid coal and gas turbine that produces cheap and green energy using waste coal and methane. This system is intended mainly for mining companies and power producers in India. The turbine unit burns methane and waste coal in a kiln to produce hot air, which is then passed through a specially adapted heat exchange unit to power a gas turbine that gen-erates power. The turbine project was funded by CSIRO, Liquatech, the Australian Coal Association Research Programme and the New South Wales Sustainable Energy Development Authority.


Solar cells based on nanotechnology 

Nanosys Inc. and Matsushita Electric Works have entered into a collaboration agreement for the development of nanotechnology-based solar cells for the building materials market in Asia. This collaboration will combine proprietary inorganic nanocrystal 
and nanocomposite processes from Nanosys together with Matsushitas high-volume, low-cost manufacturing technologies to develop solar cells with dramatic cost and performance benefits. These devices would be incorporated into building materials for Asian residential and commercial facilities. Matsushita is also looking forward to working with Nanosys on developing next-generation solar cell technology.


 China completes solar electrification project

Xinjiang Province in China has allocated more than US$36 million to build solar power units in 48 villages, with support from the central government. More than 200 households in the Dariyabri village, the only village without access to electricity in west Chinas Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, are now benefiting from this scheme. Besides Xinjiang, people in another six provinces and municipalities, including Sichuan and Gansu, will also benefit from this project.


 Wind power plants

Chinas Fujian Province is planning to invest around US$190 million in a wind power generation programme. Senior managers with Fujian Provincial Power Co., the provinces leading power firm, report that an initial feasibility study and proposals have been completed. The company is engaged in technical collaboration with firms from overseas to produce large power generating systems for this project. The plan calls for wind-generated plants with a combined production capacity of 200,000 kW to be built during 2001-05.


Biogas in the Philippines

The Non-conventional Energy Centre affiliated to Isabela State University, the Philippines, is promoting biogas technology in the country. Its strategy involves constructing units to demonstrate the advantages of biogas technology, sharing technology and providing technical assistance. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, can be utilized as an energy source for all kinds of domestic and industrial applications.


New wind project in Australia

The Australian government has set aside US$600,000 for constructing the US$1.2 million Rottnest Island Wind Project. This funding, provided from the Renewable Remote Power Generation Programme, would go towards meeting 50 per cent of the initial capital outlay for the 600 kW wind turbine project. It is expected that this project would cut the annual fuel consumption by 400,000 litres. It would also reduce the dependence on limited sources of groundwater and rain by helping power the reverse osmosis desalination facility of the island. The Rottnest Island Authority will call for supply and installation tenders for the wind turbine shortly and plans to have the development commissioned later in the year.


Demand for PVs growing in Japan

In Japan, photovoltaic (PV) power generation units for residential use has been expanding rapidly since 1994, when the government initiated the subsidy system. Japan is presently the worlds largest producer of residential solar cells, occupying 40 per cent of world total production. Makers include Sanyo, Sharp, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation and Kyocera. Along with the increase in production, prices are continuing to drop, which is further bolstering the diffusion. Also, efforts are being made to develop technologies that can enhance the efficiency of power generation and lead to lower manufacturing cost.


Fuel cells in China

China represents one of the largest potential market for fuel cells in the world. This second largest energy consuming nation, behind the United States, is set to become one of the largest user of distributed energy generation. Transportation sector is considered to be the most important initial market for fuel cells. The first application will be replacing batteries in electric bicycles, with buses and others following on. With regard to larger vehicles, it was reported that the government would invest around US$12 million in a three-year proton exchange membrane fuel cell development programme.

Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power is developing PEMFC technology. It has developed stacks varying in size from 3 W to 30 kW. Prototypes include a 3 W unit for mobiles, a 30 W unit for laptops and a 300 W system for either scooters or electric bicycles. Beijing Fuyuan Pioneer New Energy Material specializes in R&D and production of PEMFC components, including carbon, composite and metal bipolar plates and PEMFC membrane. BYD Battery Co. Ltd. manufactures rechargeable batteries and is working on fuel cells. In 2001, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) reported that it had developed PEMFC stacks with a 
power of 5 and 10 kW. DICP has filed around 25 patents related to PEMFC. Research sectors include the development of thin metal bipolar plates that are easy to manufacture and the development of MEA manufacturing processes.

At Nankai University, researchers have developed a magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloy, produced by chemical synthesis, reported to have higher hydrogen storage capabilities than alloys prepared by metal melting processes. NewEco Developing Centre offers R&D, system design and consulting services in the field of renewables. Shandong Blue-Sky New Energy Co. Ltd. is developing zinc-air fuel cells, mainly to power small electric vehicles like bicycles and scooters. The Shanghai Shen-Li High Tech Co. Ltd. is developing fuel cells for a whole array of applications, from portable power to minibuses. The South-North Institute for Sustainable Development, an NGO, is working on legislation, regulations and policy of environmental protection and sustainable development.


Sunny days ahead for Indian solar firm

Tata BP Solar Ltd., India, aims to triple its exports revenue over the next two years. According to Mr. A. K. Vora, Managing Director of Tata BP, the companys output of 12 MW would be increased to 25 MW this year and reach 38 MW in another two years. The company exported 55 per cent of its sales mainly to Europe and the United States.


Power from bagasse and wastes

India has set a target of 400 MW for surplus power generation from bagasse co-generation and 80 MW from urban and industrial wastes in its 10th National Plan. Under projects for surplus power production through bagasse co-generation in sugar mills and energy recovery from urban and industrial wastes, a capacity of 325 MW has already been installed in the country.



BIPV laminates

In India, Tata BP Solar Ltd. recently launched Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) laminates. The new technology can easily be used as a replacement for building materials like glass and at the same time produce electricity for use within the edifice. BIPV is modular, silent, fuel-free and pollution-free system that provides sound and heat insulation, besides adding to the aesthetics of the building. Though the laminate is 2 to 2 times more costlier than normal glass, it provides consistent electricity for more than 30 years. BIPV units are more cost-effective than similar products in Europe and the United States. The company will apply for both process and design patents for the special lamination process as well as design construction of BIPV laminates.


Microbes extract hydrogen from cyanide

Researchers from Germany and the United States have uncovered how microbes avoid being poisoned by cyanide and carbon monoxide compounds they make and incorporate into enzymes. The micro-organisms use the enzymes to convert water into hydrogen for energy. The team reports that it may be possible to mimic such microbes use of iron, or other cheap metal, in the production of hydrogen, rather than the expensive platinum used at present. The team members included scientists from the University of Munich, Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry and the University of Arizona.

Bacteria assemble hydrogenases, enzymes that catalyse reactions to produce molecular hydrogen from water. These enzymes consist of two atoms of iron, or else an atom of iron and an atom of nickel, with a group of carbon monoxide molecules and two groups of cyanide atoms attached to the iron. Researchers modelled and experimentally validated the process by which bacteria biochemically assemble these toxic hydrogenases. Apart from chemical tests, the team verified their findings using mass spectrometry methods. They determined that bacteria make the toxic ligands little groups of molecules attached to the ion from a non-toxic, one-carbon protein previously known to be utilized in the biosynthesis of an amino acid. On activation, this precursor transfers a small unit to a large protein where it is safely manipulated to cyanide. Furthermore, the team discovered that cyanide first attached to sulphur before it links to iron as the hydrogenases are assembled, thereby eliminating the presence of free-floating cyanide.


Sandwich lowers solar panel costs

A research team at the University of California, the United States, has devised an innovative technology to harness solar energy. This device uses a thin layer of light-absorbing dye molecules placed on a gold film, which in turn rests on a layer of the cheap semiconductor titanium dioxide. Electrons excited in the dye layer shoot through the gold and are collected in titanium dioxide. Missing electrons in the dye are replaced from those in the metal. Since the semiconductor itself does not have to absorb light, low-cost materials could be used. Tests have shown that the new cell converts less than 1 per cent of light into electricity, compared with 15 per cent achieved by standard solar cells. An increase in surface area would enhance the amount of light absorbed, thereby raising output.


New fuel cell car

Scientists from Tongji University in China have developed a hydrogen-powered car using local and national government funding. Named Chao Yei I (Surpass), the car is based on the chassis of a Santana 2000 and has a maximum speed of up to 110 km/h. The government has offered an additional US$10 million to further develop the know-how. Researchers hope to begin mass production of hydrogen-powered vehicles in China within the next 7-8 years.


Solar-powered fridge

First Solar Corp., the United States, has developed a solar-powered refrigerator and is testing it at outposts on the Navajo Reservation, where 20,000-30,000 households live without electricity, and in the Gila River Indian Community. Priced at around US$1,700, the product includes a refrigerator, solar panels, a battery pack to store energy for use during night-time, as well as regulators that provide the right amount of power to run the unit. A financing plan with low monthly installments will be in place and those who participated in the pilot project are likely to be allowed to retain the units.



New solar system

In the United States, a novel partnership between an electrical utility, businesses and an environmental non-profit organization resulted in the donation of a 2.4 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar electric system and an educative curriculum on renewable power for students of West Salem High School. Dubbed Solar Titans, the solar system is designed to be interactive, combining a student programme and data acquisition package linked to a website. This allows students and teachers access to real-time system performance data from their own working solar panels, which supply part of the schools energy needs. Students get to learn how energy data may be modelled and run through variegated testing scenarios in order to compare the impacts and efficiencies of different energy production technologies. The PV system and curriculum are part of Bonneville Environmental Foundations Solar 4R Schools project, which incorporates reading, writing, arithmetic and renewable energy.


Titanium dioxide yields clean fuel

Researchers at Duquesne University in the United States report to have modified a catalyst that could be used to produce hydrogen in the presence of sunlight. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) absorbs photons that excite electrons in the catalyst. The electrical charges then split water molecules to yield the clean fuel. TiO2s biggest advantage is that it is stable under prolonged exposure to solar radiation, and it is available at a low cost. However, TiO2 absorbs only ultraviolet (UV) light, a small fraction of the solar spectrum reaching Earth. One of the factors thought to play a role in this drawback is the high-temperature process used to turn titanium metal into TiO2 as it creates other compounds that prevent light absorption.

The team designed a furnace that roasts a sheet of titanium metal in a flame of natural gas. Methane in the gas breaks down into carbon dioxide and water vapour when it burns; the vapour helps turn titanium metal to TiO2. Some carbon is also added to the mixture. When the metal was combusted at 850C, the resulting catalyst transformed 8.5 per cent of solar energy into hydrogen gas, over eightfold the normal amount. In addition to absorbing UV light, the carbon-enriched TiO2 catalyst also absorbed longer wavelength photons in the violet, blue and green regions of the spectrum. Nonetheless, its efficiency falls below the Department of Energys 10 per cent benchmark for commercially viable catalysts.

Chemical Weekly,
29 October 2002

Solar-powered equipment on toll highway

The worlds first solar-powered unit that operates various equipment has been installed on a toll highway in Israel. The Millennium Electric Co. has installed seven out of the first 21 pylons with solar cell panels. Each pylon is 8 m high and carries special antennas, photovoltaic (PV) cells producing 220 W of energy and 400 A battery bank, which allows for the continuous operation of road equipment over four sunless days in a row. In this respect, the system has already got through its first winter ordeal by operating faultlessly over 11 successive rainy days.

The systems include equipment for reading, processing and transmitting the license plate numbers of vehicles travelling along the highway, which are then used for collecting the toll payments. The communication unit was developed by Raytheon Corp., the United States. Millennium Electric 
T.O.U. Inc. Ltd. designs, develops, installs and provides solar energy-related services. The firms sophisticated solar energy device is an economical, clean and environmentally friendly source of energy, with a wide variety of practical applications in all fields isolated and remote houses, rural areas, street lighting, irrigation, communications, etc. 

Contact: Millennium Electric T.O.U. Inc. Ltd., Israel. Tel: +972 (9) 7442 369; Fax: +972 (9) 7407 511; E-mail: Website: 

Solar drier for mango processing

The Society for Energy, Environment and Development (SEED), India, has developed an innovative and unique solar air drier with the cooperation of UNDP, the Department of Science and Technology, and REPSO. The design and operation of the drier is based on the principle of integration of solar thermal and solar PV technologies.

The cabinet drier is fabricated using aluminium and non-corrosive parts. Solar radiation penetrates through a glass window, located at the top of the cabinet, and falls directly on the product to be dried. Through the bottom louvers, ambient air enters the cabinet and the plenum in the lower side of the cabinet. The solar radiation heats up air in the cabinet and travels through the wet product to be dehydrated. The temperature of air in the cabinet increases owing to green house effect. Moisture from the product is carried by hot air to the top of the cabinet under the glass window. An exhaust fan, powered by solar energy, removes moisture-laden air, thereby drawing in fresh air. This mechanism causes forced circulation in the drier, resulting in higher efficiency. Temperature inside the cabinet is 15-30C higher than the ambient temperature, reaching a maximum of 70C. A standby AC electrical heater has been incorporated to ensure drying even at times of low or no sunlight.

The new technology has been used to manufacture clean and hygienic mango bars. The drier requires three days to fully dehydrate the product and has a production capacity of 2 t/y. The modular commercial units are easily transportable and do not require buildings and infrastructure facilities. Sensory evaluation tests conducted by N. G. Ranga Agricultural University have demonstrated that mango bar samples obtained from this method is better than the other commercial samples, prepared using open sun drying and electrical tunnel drier.

October-December 2002

Reducing solar cell costs

Sunways AG, Germany, has embarked on a project with the aim of reducing the cost of producing solar cells and to open up new markets through improved aesthetics. The company will receive research funds from the Federal Ministry for Economy and Technology (BMWI) for the PROKON project. Sunways will contribute its core competence in the production of the worlds only transparent solar cell. By employing the transparent POWER cell, a combination of aesthetic design and ecological advantage is feasible. The fine hole pattern makes the solar cell transparent.

Contact strips located on the front of existing solar cells, which pass on electricity, are not required for reverse-contact solar cells. In these modules, electricity is conducted via the surface through several thousand apertures in the silicon wafer to the reverse side. Thus, increased efficiency is achieved, while the size of the solar cell remains unchanged. The shaded surface formerly required for the contact remains blank and produces solar energy. The use of reverse-contact solar cells involves cost reduction compared with traditional modules for various reasons, including low-cost silicon may be used and the processing into solar modules is facilitated. In addition, thinner silicon wafers can be used. A positive side effect is improved aesthetics on the front, creating a strip-free homogenous surface, so that the reverse-contact solar cell may be integrated into facades without any hindrances.

Sunways is also developing a low-cost raw material for solar cells with the cooperation of the Netherlands-based research institute ECN and other partners. The objective of this European Union-promoted RGSells project are new silicon wafers, which could lead to a 70 per cent cost reduction in the production of solar cells. In this context, the know-how of Sunways is required for transfer of the process from the lab to the production stage. The pilot project is scheduled for completion in 2005.

Contact: Sunways AG Photovoltaics, Macairestr. 3-5, Konstanz 78467, Germany. Tel: +49 (7531) 99677-0; Fax: +49 (7531) 99677-10; E-mail: 


Small wind turbines

Galeforce Wind Turbines (N.I.) Ltd. in the United Kingdom offers wind turbines with a rated power output of 20-30 kW. The two-bladed Boreas turbine operates at a variable speed. The entire turbine and drivetrain are anti-vibration mounted to the nacelle in order to minimize noise. The wind itself drives the wind wheels on the sides of the nacelle. Wind wheels are connected to a high-ratio worm gear, which turns the nacelle and the turbine into the wind. Available in two versions, 14 m or 15 m, the wind turbine is self-regulating with passive pitch control of the outer half of the blade. Each blade is fixed to the hub with a joint, the so-called flapping hub, that allows the blades oscillate somewhat forth and back during operation. This solution reduces the fatigue loads, compared with a rigid hub.

The company also provides hybrid units, a combination of wind turbines and different types of power plants (normally diesel generators) for use in remote locations. Key features of the hybrid system include:
  • High performance at low cost;
  •  Diesel generators can be shut down when sufficient wind is available;
  • Solar and hydropower could be integrated;
  • Choice of lattice tower, erection without a mobile crane or concrete tower;
  • The rotational kinetic energy of the wind turbine can also be utilized to decrease the number of diesel generator starts;
  • Eliminates the cost of batteries;
  • Fuel cells or other technologies can be added; and
  • Remote access feasible.

    Contact: Galeforce Wind Turbines (N.I.) Ltd., Renewables House, 230, Portglenone Road, Randalstown, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, BT41 3RP, the United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (28) 7965 9775; Fax: +44 (28) 7965 9511; E-mail:  

Variable rotor wind turbine

Synergy Power Corp., Hong Kong, offers a wind turbine that has the ability to vary the rotor area. This feature facilitates the use of rotor blades up to five times the size of rotor blades of similar rated conventional turbines. A large rotor area at low wind speed permits energy production when conventional fixed axis turbines produce little or no energy. A small rotor area at high wind speed allows safe operation and continued power generation when conventional fixed-axis models would furl down.

Contact: Synergy Power Corp., 17/F, The Strand, 49 Bonham Strand, Hong Kong. Tel: +852 2522 9000; Fax: +852 2810 0478; E-mail:  Website: 

First offshore turbine in Germany 

Regional authorities have approved a preliminary building permit for the marine wind power plant at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Winkra Wilhelmshaven Windparkbetriebs GmbH is set to establish a 4.5 MW machine around 550 m off the north coast of Wilhelmshaven. Plans are afoot to build the Enercon E-112 in water an average of 5 m deep in the summer. The turbine will be erected on a 100 m high tower and would produce 16 million kWh/y. Engineers at Winkra have to work fast to provide the still outstanding assessments. Among them is proof of the solidity of the foundation, whose construction is under examination. As soon as the foundation technology is decided, other examinations will follow on the impact of the construction on the current flow in Jade Bay. Different streams, including the Jade, feed into the bay, which is generally shallow.

New Energy, 4/2002

New range of wind turbine units

J. Bornay Aerogeneradores, Spain, offers a new range of wind turbines from the small G-60 W, with reduced dimensions, to the biggest Inclin/Inclin Neo wind turbine units. The G-60 is equipped with a three-phase permanent magnet alternator, injected GRP blades and aluminium body. It operates at wind speeds of 10 m/s and weighs around 9 kg. The 5-blade rotor has a diameter of 0.75 m. The Inclin series is made up of turbines with nominal power outputs of 250, 600, 1,500, 3,000 and 6,000 W. These models are ideal for all types of consumers, including telecommunications cabins and small farms. Manufactured utilizing high-quality durable materials such as carbon/fibreglass, stainless steel, etc., these turbines are protected against corrosion. Power generated by these models is regulated using an automatic tilt-up brake system.

Windmills are also offered to pump water. These systems are fabricated using durable materials, galvanized and efficiently designed to stand up against all weather conditions to ensure long pumping life. The wheel of the windmills are equipped with rounded arms screwed into the hub and locked into position to form a strong rigid wheel. The sails are heavily galvanized, have the correct curvature to develop power even in light breezes. Babbitt bearings run with nominal friction, are long-lasting and proved to be the most effective for windmills with multiple bearings. The gearbox is equipped with large double gears, and pinions and pitman arms that balance the load for efficient operation and least wear. Frictionless guide wheels keep the pump rod aligned. The bearings and gears are constantly flooded with oil. A large oil ring picks up oil from large gears to keep the upper bearings lubricated. An automatic regulation system protects the equipment in high winds.


New wind turbines

In the United Kingdom, Energy Development Cooperative Ltd. is offering AeroGen wind turbine units. These compact and efficient systems have been designed to operate at all wind speeds. Key features include robust, maintenance-free, noiseless, safe, efficient brushless alternators and mounting kits for easy installation.

Aero2Gen is the ideal small wind generator for weekend sailors and low power use land applications. This 5 kg unit ensures that the batteries are maintained and fully charged for each visit. It operates safely, but not continuously in gales and can produce a peak output of 4 A inter-mittently. The Aero4Gen produces more power and is ideal for cruising yachts, static and mobile caravans and several land applications, which require significant power. It operates safely and continuously in storms. The unit can produce a maximum of 19 A continuously in high winds. Aero6Gen is the ideal unit for live-aboard yachts, summer residences, long-stay caravans, and professional applications that involve high power usage. The unit operates safely in storms and produces 30 A continuously in very strong winds.

For extreme conditions, furling AeroGen models are available. 

Contact: Energy Development Cooperative  Ltd., The Old Brewery, Oulton Broad Industrial Estate, Harbour Road, Oulton Broad Suffolk, NR32 3LZ, the United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (0870) 7451 119; Fax: +44 (0870) 7451 120.Website: 

Largest turbine

GE Wind Energy, the United States, has developed a 3.6 MW offshore turbine, the largest prototype ever erected. Installed in Spain, this wind unit represents the most advanced technology yet available. Patented power electronics, variable speed rotor and specially designed offshore enhancements make this system cost-effective and highly reliable. It is easy to install and maintain in the remote, offshore environments. Based on GEs proven 1.5 MW wind turbine series, the 3.6 MW model was specifically configured for high wind speed sites. With an increased generator size, a rotor diameter of 104 m and a swept area of 8,495 m2, this version is ideal for offshore markets worldwide. It also includes GEs patented voltage control technology that facilitates grid integration by improving grid voltage stability and overall system reliability. The land-based 3.6 MW prototype has a hub height of 100 m and rated power output of 3,600 kW. The offshore variant will have a 75 m hub height since there is less wind shear offshore. The new wind turbine is expected to be commercially available worldwide in 2004.

Assembled in collaboration with the University of Albacete, the 3.6 MW model features a proven distributed drivetrain, variable rotor speed (8.5-15.3 rpm), blade pitch regulation and double-fed asynchronous generator. A variety of technical innovations were also incorporated to keep the overall turbine cost of energy (COE) down, including low blades, an improved gearbox concept and adjustments to the structure for enhancing load absorption as well as optimizing assembly, transportation and service logistics. The turbine is equipped with an optional 40 t internal crane, allowing for the exchange of all major components, including rotor blades, gearbox and generator without the need for external support by heavy cranes. A second 2 t internal gantry crane enables easy repair and maintenance in the nacelle. Integration of an electrical container that houses sensitive electrical parts (control panel, converter, switching systems and transformer) directly beneath the nacelle, allows better access during maintenance work, improved protection against corrosion and excellent logistic for erection and repair work.


Wind-diesel system

PitchWind Systems AB, Sweden, recently commissioned a wind-diesel system with a rated power of 30 kVA. The companys wind turbines are especially well-suited for wind-diesel applications, because of the variable speed operation and special control system. Power electronics used in this system are standard industrial products from ABB and the wind-diesel control system was supplied by the F Group. 



Portable fuel cell wins technology award

In Switzerland, ETH Zurich teamed up with Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) to develop a new mobile, emission-free and silent fuel cell unit. PowerPac converts hydrogen into water and heat while producing electricity. The system is designed to supply power for various applications in the range of 500 W to 2 kW, e.g. lawn mower without the annoying noise, camper vans producing pollution-free electricity, chain saws without a stinking diesel generator, wheelchairs with efficient drive, etc. While PSI and ETH developed crucial concepts for the PowerPac system, the project was funded by the Swiss Department of Energy, ETH and PSI. The prototype unit offers high efficiency (around 40 per cent), low hydrogen consumption, fast refuelling and a low noise level.


Residential fuel cell system

In Japan, Nippon Oil Corp. has developed a fuel cell for residential use and is testing the unit in a model house. Reported to be the worlds first practical application of such a power generation system, the fuel cell produces electricity to power household appliances by chemically reacting hydrogen, extracted from propane gas, and oxygen present in the atmosphere. The only by-product of the process is warm water, which could be used in the kitchen and bathroom.


Technology for ceramic fuel cell 

In Australia, Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. (CFCL) is scheduled to provide solid oxide fuel cell systems to Woodside Petroleum for supplying between 40 to 50 per cent of the latters energy requirements. Up to three fuel cells are to be installed at Woodsides new headquarters, presently under construction. A pre-commercial unit would be delivered to Woodside in early 2005.


New prototype

Global Thermoelectric Inc., Canada, has delivered two prototype natural gas fuel cell units to Enbridge Inc. The first of these systems was recently commissioned and is generating electricity for testing purposes. The second system is expected to start up in the next several weeks. Both systems would be operated for up to six months. Global is continuing its own in-house testing of three similar systems. The project, which has already recorded 9,000 h of testing since October 2002 and demonstrated a net AC electrical efficiency of nearly 28 per cent, will yield crucial data about performance attributes of the systems and its sub-components. This information would contribute significantly to improving performance and robustness of the next-generation prototype system Aurora. 

Contact: Mr. Mark Kryzan, Director, Corporate Affairs, Global Thermoelectric Inc., Canada. Tel: +1 (403) 2046 100; Website: Website: 

Stationary fuel cell generator

Ebara Ballard, a company based in Japan and owned jointly by Ballard Power Systems and Ebara Corp., has unveiled the first generation of its pre-commercial 1 kW stationary combined heat and power proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell generator for the residential market. This system comprises a Ballard fuel cell, a reformer based on technology licensed from Tokyo Gas, 
pumps and blowers developed by Ebara Corp. and a hot water storage tank. The new unit has exhibited a total system efficiency (electricity and heat) of 92 per cent (LHV), of which 34 per cent is AC electrical efficiency. Another significant aspect is the high partial load efficiency of the system. At 50 per cent rated load, the total system efficiency is 78 per cent (LHV) with AC electrical efficiency of 31 per cent.The pre-commercial power plant is scheduled for extensive testing at both Ebara Ballards facility and in the field, allowing further improvements prior to commercial launch. 

Contact: Ms. Debby Harris, Ballard Power Systems Inc., Canada. Tel: +1 (604) 4124 740; Fax: +1 (604) 4123 100; E-mail: media@ballard. com; Or Mr. M. Rosenberg, Ballard Power Systems Inc., Canada. Tel: +1 (604) 4123 195; Fax: +1 (604) 4123 100; E-mail: investors@ball; Website: Website: 

Micro fuel cells

In the United States, Neah Power Systems Inc. has unveiled its product design road map for a small, compact fuel cell to power mobile electronic products such as notebook PCs and advanced communications gear. The micro fuel cell is based on a patent-pending silicon-based design architecture that is expected to enable high levels of efficiency and high power densities in small physical form-factors.

The Director of Advanced Battery Technology at TIAX LLC, Dr. Brian Barnett, opines that as consumer demand intensifies for increasingly sophisticated applications in portable devices, such as infotainment, colour screens, increased character recognition and enhanced mobile experiences like visuals and sounds, pressure builds for more and more power. The lithium-ion rechargeable batteries utilized presently are now reaching the fundamental barrier imposed by active electrode materials used for its fabrication. Since devices are rapidly evolving and require ever-higher levels of energy density, there is an urgent need to identify next-generation materials.

Neahs design is aimed at achieving breakthrough performance by allowing all-day notebook computing on a single charge, a 2-3 fold improvement in energy storage capacity vs. todays rechargeable batteries. The silicon design is expected to overcome hurdles inherent in traditional PEM-based micro fuel cell design, including low efficiencies and power densities, large size and high cost. Neahs design incorporates a porous silicon substrate that allows for high degree of electrochemical activity and power generation, resulting in higher levels of efficiency and much greater power densities than traditional PEM-based designs. Neahs fuel cell has the potential to be much smaller than PEM-based designs and fit within, not outside of, a notebook PCs internal battery cavity. 

Contact: Neah Power Systems Inc., the United States. Tel: +1 (425) 4243 324; Website:  Website: 

Clean fuel cell prototype

Florida Power and Light (FPL), the United States, is offering a fuel cell prototype that produces sufficient energy to run five 1 kW hair driers. The noiseless system is fuelled by propane gas. The new prototype, set up at Hugh Taylor Birch State Park, is just one of five experiments in the production of clean electricity that FPL will install within its service area. While the second unit is planned for a university in Miami-Dade county, three other sites are being scouted.


Miniature SOFC

Ford Global Technologies has been granted a patent by the United States Patent Office for an ultra-high power density miniaturized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The fuel cell contains an electrolyte material, electrodes and interconnects. Manifolds can be placed either within the electrodes or within interconnects. Techniques common to the microelectronics industry are used to manufacture the fuel cell. Individual fuel cells are stacked one above the other to help maintain a sufficient level of power density and durability.

A likely use of the new fuel cell is inside an automotive auxiliary power unit (APU). Many firms are studying APUs for automobiles to address the higher power demand of on-board electronics, and heating and cooling systems. SOFC APUs for cars have already been developed. Delphi has installed a prototype unit in a BMW hydrogen-fuelled 7 series. BMW has also incorporated APUs, along with the proton exchange membrane fuel cells from UTC Fuel Cells, in its armada of hydrogen-fuelled 7 Series vehicles that toured the world in 2001.Website: 

Fuel cell powered by garbage

In Japan, the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) and Sharp Corp. have developed technology that would aid in the fabrication of garbage-powered fuel cells. The biological fuel cells use bacteria to obtain hydrogen that in turn could be utilized to produce energy. Bacteria feast on glucose extracted by liquefying and refining kitchen waste. Benefits offered by biological fuel cells include environmental friendliness, the ability to 
operate at room temperature and size, a 2 l cell can power an entire household. The new breakthrough achieved by RITE and Sharp involves getting the bacteria to live longer and produce more hydrogen, thereby dramatically increasing production efficiency.



New power plant

AquaEnergy Group Ltd., the United States, is offering a power plant that incorporates several offshore wave energy converters, known as AquaBuOYs, and a corresponding land station housing equipment essential for grid interconnect. AquaBuOYs are moored-buoy devices that convert the vertical component of kinetic energy from ocean waves into electricity. These are placed in suitable locations, up to several miles offshore, where the depth of the water is from 150 to 250 feet. Individual size of AquaBuOYs are designed according to the energy content of the prevailing seas at a particular installation site. Key features of the energy converter include:
  • Omnidirectional;
  • 50-175 per cent bandpass;
  • Active seasonal tuning;
  • Blow-out protection;
  • Elegant, simple design;
  • Two opposing, full cycle, 2-stroke hose pumps; and
  • Output - high-pressure sea water.
The capacity of AquaEnergy power plant is scalable, ranging from tens of kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts, by simply combining individual AquaBuOYs into a system that yields the required energy output. AquaBuOYs design provides the below mentioned advantages: system modularity and scalability, patented ocean tested technology with high efficiency factors, reduced technology risk by utilizing tried and true components and sub-systems, and negligible impact on the environment. Some of the benefits of this system over conventional energy 
sources are:
  • Electrical power facilities using proven, modular, offshore systems to generate clean electricity from sustainable ocean waves;
  • Flexible, patented technology;
  • Ideal for distributed generation;
  • Low capacity cost and competitive operating costs; and
  • Ready for commercialization.
Contact: AquaEnergy Group Ltd., P.O. Box 1276, Mercer Island, WA 98040, the United States. Tel: +1 (425) 4307 924; Fax: +1 (208) 4741 346; E-mail: 

Linear system to capture wave energy

AWS BV, the Netherlands, offers a wave energy converter based on Archimedes wave swing (AWS). The AWS unit comprises an upper part (floater) of the underwater buoy that moves up and down the waves while the lower part (the basement or pontoon) stays in a fixed position. Periodic variation of pressure in a wave initiates movement of the upper portion. The floater is pushed down beneath a wave and moves up under a wave trough. This is achieved by pressurizing the systems interior with air to serve as an air spring. Under most conditions, the AWS unit could be considered as a linear system where the efficiency is at the highest if:
  • The resonance frequency equals the wave frequency; and
  • Damping coefficient of the power take-off (PTO) system equals the hydrodynamic damping coefficient.
The mechanical energy required to damp the free oscillation is transformed into electricity by a PTO unit that comprises a linear electrical generator and electronic converter. A support structure takes care of the positioning and guidance of the floater. The individual beams of this support system are connected to one another by tension rods that guarantee adequate stability. The upper part is guided within the structure by eight bearing plates that are mounted on the exterior side of the floater. The space between the upper and lower bearing is about 12 m.

With the pontoon, the whole structure can be transported, submerged to the 
sea bottom and emerged again. 

Contact: AWS BV, De Weel 20, 736 KB Zijdewind, the Netherlands. E-mail: Website: 

Grid-connected wave power device

Ecofys, the Netherlands, has set up and tested a prototype of the Wave Rotor, an innovative grid-connected turbine. The 1:10 scale model used for the test was developed by Ecofys in cooperation with a Danish partner. It converts wave energy directly into electrical energy; the principle has no inefficient conversion junctures. Moreover, this simple system is light but has a robust structure that ensures stability in storm situations, because the exposed surface area is minimal. Successful results were obtained with the prototype turbine that worked well in irregular waves as little as 20 cm.

The team discovered that rather than looking at the up and down movements of waves, considerable energy can be harnessed from the circulating water particles in the waves, creating local currents. The circular currents can directly drive a rotor in a manner similar to that utilized to capture tidal currents with wind energy principles. Two varieties of rotors, a Darrieus rotor and a Wells rotor, were combined on the same axis of rotation to tap energy from both the up and down, and back and forward current in waves. These are, respectively, omni- and bi-directional rotors, which can operate in currents of changing directions. In the tidal currents Darrieus rotor is the main contributor for energy production and in waves both rotors are active.

New Energy, October 2002 

New wave energy conversion system

Hydam Technology Ltd., the United States, offers McCabe Wave Pump (MWP), a three-barge floating wave energy conversion unit. This model is ideal for supplying potable water and for irrigation purposes in remote communities. The system has an overall length of 40 m, a width of 4 m and a draught of 1.25 m. The total displacement is approximately 200 t. MWP is unique amongst ocean wave energy devices in that it is primarily designed to supply potable water, although it can also be used to produce electricity. For a standard 1.5 m wave, the potable water output is 275,000 m3/y at an operating cost of US$0.25/m3. The output for a 2 m wave is 460,000 m3/y at a cost of US$0.16/m3. Depending on requirement, the system can be deployed in clusters of up to five units serving a standard, centrally located, reverse osmosis facility. 

Contact: Hydam Technology Ltd., 1, Bishops Court, New Street, Killarney, Co Kerry, the United States. Tel: +1 (353) 6434 624; Fax: +1 (353) 6436 920; E-mail: 

Fluid motion to electricity convertor


Electricity generator

Sara Inc., the United States, is offering an ocean wave-powered electric (OWEC) generator. Unlike alternative concepts that employ cumbersome intermediate mechanical stages, Saras approach uses direct conversion of mechanical fluid energy into electricity through a highly efficient magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) process. The use of direct-conversion MHD generator shifts impedance-matching burden from mechanical domain to the electrical domain, where it can be managed far more efficiently. The low-impedance MHD output (very high current, low voltage) can be transformed into more practical levels by using efficient electronic switches and compact transformers. Key advantages of the new product include:
  • Direct, local and efficient conversion of fluid motion into electricity;
  • Almost no moving components no gears, turbines, bearings, drive belts, etc.; and
  • Compatible with very strong, but slow-moving, driving forces e.g. ocean waves.
Contact: Sara Incorporated, 15261, Connector Lane, Huntington Beach, CA 92649 1117, the United States. Tel: +1 (714) 9031 000; Fax: +1 (714) 9030 500; E-mail: Website: 


Energy recovery and utilization system

In Japan, Hitachi Zosen Corp. has developed technology for harnessing valuable energy from discarded refuse. Electrical energy obtained from refuse depends on the heating value of the waste and steam conditions of the turbine. High pressure and temperature of inlet steam, and low pressure of exhaust steam can produce energy more efficiently. The exhaust pressure of condensing type turbine is vacuum and as such needs a large steam condenser, but offers high efficiency. The exhaust steam of back pressure type turbine has a positive pressure and can be used for other applications.

Refuse incineration accomplishes the pressing requirement for energy recovery and utilization by converting combustion heat into other forms of energy economically, such as steam and electrical energy. The plants own power requirements could be satisfied and surplus energy supplied to the grid. 

Contact: Hitachi Zosen Corp., New Environmental Systems Division, Overseas Business Dept., 37-89, Nanko kita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559 0034, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 5690 063; Fax: +81 (6) 5690 079.

Fuel from trash

A chemical engineer at the Florida Solar Energy Centre (FSEC), the United States, is striving to power shuttles using refined landfill gas. Dr. Nazim Muradov is exploring new ways to transform methane from landfill sites into the main ingredient of rocket fuel, liquid hydrogen. Until now, the combustible gas has been more a source of annoyance than commodity, burned in a controlled manner to get rid of it. Otherwise, the decomposing material can produce enough of it be-neath the landfill to cause an eruption. According to Dr. Muradov, the landfill site at Cocoa emits sufficient methane to produce fuel for up to eight shuttle flights in a year. Rockets are just one of the targets being focused by FSEC. Dr. Muradov and colleagues report that such gases could ultimately help power cars, cities and almost anything that runs on fossil fuels. They would all be driven by fuel cell technology, which transforms hydrogen into electricity.

For each shuttle launch, NASA hauls in 50 to 60 truckloads of hydrogen fuel 600 miles from Air Chemicals Inc. In a climate of more frequent launches, conveying the hazardous liquid over this distance becomes less appealing. In August, a group of government agencies had unveiled an ambitious plan to launch up to 251 spacecraft annually by 2075. About 21 launches now lift off from the Cape every year. However, the Brevard landfill may be evolving into a more practical hydrogen source.

Brevard County Commission has given its solid waste department consent for negotiations with Energy Recovery Associates of Stuart to develop the countys landfill gas. The company will clean impurities from gas vented at Cocoa landfill to sell as natural gas. The 10-year contract would easily earn US$2.4 million. Nearly 30 wells vent about 950 ft3/min of gas from the landfill. This is expected to increase to 2,050 ft3/min when the county drills another 17 wells next year. A total of 3,300 t of liquid hydrogen can be produced from 1.3 billion ft3/y of landfill gas. The biggest disadvantage of using landfill gas is the carbon dioxide it contains, up to half the total volume. Black carbon bits left over after hydrogen extraction can be used to carbonate sodas and filter water. However, presently the market for carbon dioxide is limited.


Food processing wastewater as an energy source

In the United States, tests undertaken by Penn state environmental engineers have demonstrated that wastewater from an apple processor, confectioner and potato chip maker can yield hydrogen gas worth at least US$80,000/y. Mr. Steven V. Ginkel and Dr. Sang-Eun Oh state that in addition to hydrogen that could be used as a fuel and industrial feedstock, methane, the main ingredient of natural gas, can be produced from wastewaters. More than 10 billion BTUs of energy from methane could be produced every year at each of these food processing plants.

Researchers incorporated hydrogen-producing bacteria into wastewater samples from the food processors. These bacteria were obtained from ordinary soil collected at Pennsylvania state and then heat-treated to kill all micro-organisms other than those that produced spores heat-resistant, dormant, bacterial form adapted to survive in unfavourable environments, but able to grow again in suitable conditions. These spores contain bacteria with the ability to generate hydrogen and once they are introduced into wastewater, they eat food present in the effluent and generate hydrogen in a fermentation process. By keeping the wastewater slightly acidic, methane-producing bacteria are prevented from growing and consuming hydrogen.

Within 24 h of fermentation in anaerobic conditions, the hydrogen-producing bacteria fill the headspace in the fermentation flasks with biogas 60 per cent hydrogen and 40 per cent carbon dioxide (CO2). In the second stage, the acidity in wastewater is changed and methane-producing bacteria added. These feed on the leftovers, grow and produce methane. The sludge left over after fermentation is only one-fourth to one-fifth the volume from a typical aerobic treatment process. 

Contact: Ms. Barbara Hale, the United States. Tel: +1 (814) 8659 481; E-mail: 

Waste-to-energy incineration systems

Basic Envirotech Inc. of the United States is offering BASIC waste-to-energy incineration systems for use in a wide range of applications to convert varying waste streams, from low-calorific value high moisture 
materials to high-calorific plastics and rubber materials. The BASIC system comprises Pulse Hearth combustor units ranging from 100 to 8,000 kg/h throughput capacity in standard sized systems. Multiple lines can be utilized in parallel to increase the capacity. All BASIC 
units are configured to maintain their nominal capacity while in continuous operation of 24 h/d. Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and NOx levels are well below the established statutory guidelines while processing many difficult solid waste fuel, including medical waste or rubber tyres. The incineration units can be combined with select flue gas treatment plants, depending on the waste stream and local licence requirement.
Pulse Hearth allows the BASIC combustion unit to operate continuously. Unlike other systems, the primary combustion chamber does not have any metal parts. The Pulse Hearth moves burning materials through the system while adding air to ensure an effective turbulent mixing effect. Solid wastes are treated in multiple stages. The staged combustion process results in complete burn-out of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with minimal creation of NOx. Each combustion stage is controlled individually through a central process computer. Key features of the Pulse Hearth stoker and primary combustion chamber include:
  • Continuous incineration;
  • Direct bulk feeding of waste (without shredding);
  • Large range of calorific heat;
  • Hearth bed propulsion motion 
    from outside the furnace with air bag;
  • Pulse motion with self-cleaning effect;
  • Drier hearth unit for wet waste;
  • Flexible steel cable support for hearth bed without any mechanical friction;
  • Water seal system for hearth bed and deslagger;
  • High destruction efficiency;
  • Incineration chamber, refractory lined, with or without cooling;
  • No metal parts at high temperature/less corrosion/less spare parts;
  • Near stoichiometric air flow/low velocity/low particulate content in the flue gas;
  • Solid refractory heat-resistant 
  • Fully automatic wet deslagger system; and
  • Proprietary logic control and 
    SCADA system.

The BASIC system employs a novel, patented method to recover energy. The primary burning chamber is actually an integral part of the heat recovery boiler and is designed to collect radiant energy from burning waste fuel. This is the most efficient way to transfer heat. When coupled with a flue gas economiser, energy recovery efficiencies exceeding 75 per cent can be achieved. 

Contact: Basic Envirotech Inc., PMB 322, 
1807 S. Washington, Naperville, IL 60565, the United States. Tel/Fax: +1 (630) 4287 528/6046 198.Website: 

RDF-fired boiler

ShinMaywa Industries Ltd., Japan, has developed a boiler system that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF). The new plant ensures effective recovery of energy from combustible wastes. Waste is fed through a hopper and the non-combustible constituents separated. Combustible matter is shredded and dried to reduce the moisture level. Lime is added and the mixture ground into small particles. The patented powdered RDF firing burner heats up the boiler, producing steam to run the turbine generator and hot water, which is used for an air-conditioner. Some features of this system include: combustible waste like garbage is turned into fuel, suitable for recovering resources/energy, burner operation can be turned on or off intermittently and addition of lime helps control the level of NOx discharged into the atmosphere. 

Contact: ShinMaya Industries Ltd., Overseas Operation Dept., 2-43, Shitte 3-chome, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230, Japan. Tel: +81 (45) 5841 321; Fax: +81 (45) 5841 320.


New and Renewable Technologies for Sustainable Development

Conference proceedings presented in this book highlight the various fields of scientific as well as economic development that should merge efforts in understanding the sustainable development concept and technological implications. Engineering practitioners, product developers, researchers and also economists, political scientists and government administrators explore the multifaceted relationship between renewable energy technologies and sustainable development.

Contact: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Van Godewijckstraat 30, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Tel: +31 (078) 6576 000; Fax: +31 (078) 6576 254.

Windpower 2002 Conference Proceedings

This CD-ROM has over 100 papers and presentations that provide the latest, most up-to-date information on wind energy. The contents include:
  • Technology trends;
  • Transmission planning and FERC market agenda;
  • Equipment and performance testing;
  • Project financing and development;
  • Wind measurements and modelling;
  • Wind development through green marketing;
  • Wind mapping and forecasting;
  • Progress on the policy front;
  • Small wind turbine technology and applications; 
  • Hybrid and distributed generation systems; and
  • Grid integration and transmission issues.
Contact: American Wind Energy Association, 122 C Street, NW, Suite 380, Washington, DC 20001, the United States. Tel: +1 (202) 3832 500; Fax: +1 (202) 3832 505; E-mail: 

Solar Water Heating Systems Resource Book

This handbook is a thorough and comprehensive guide to solar water heating. Topics covered include domestic and commercial solar heaters, and solar pool heating.

Contact: ATA, P.O. Box 2001, Lygon St. North, Brunswick East, VIC 3057, Australia.


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