VATIS Update Non-conventional Energy . Mar-Apr 2007

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New and Renewable Energy Mar-Apr 2007

ISSN: 0971-5630

VATIS Update New and Renewable Energy (formerly Non Conventional Energy)* is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of New and Renewable Energy. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

* This update has been renamed as 'VATIS Update: New and Renewable Energy' from Jan-Mar 2015 onwards.

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Korean energy firms gear up for more renewable energy

State-run energy firms including Korea Electric Power Corporation and its subsidiaries, Korea Water Resources Corporation and Korea District Heating Corporation will invest a combined 430 billion won (about US$456 million) to set up a 56 MW electric generator and supply 27 Gcal/h wind, solar and water energy, among other renewable energies. This was announced by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy.

Their investment represents a 3.5-fold increase from last years 130 billion won (US$137 million). Considering that a 1 MW electric generator can supply electricity to some 680 households for one whole year, the new facility could offer renewable electric energy to around 38,000 households. The companies plan to spend an additional 707 billion won (US$750 million) in 2008 to erect a 265 MW generating facility and a 12 Gcal energy-producing plant. The ministry expects the companies to invest about 1.3 trillion won (US$ 1.38 billion) in renewable energy facilities in 2008. When completed, these will be able to produce 348 MW, a major increase from the current 285 MW.


Sri Lanka to revise renewable energy tariffs

Sri Lanka would shortly be offering cost-based technology-specific and three-tier tariffs for mini-hydro, wind and biomass energy. Standardized mini-hydro power purchase agreements already signed with the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) for 15 years is to be extended to 20 years, if the operators opt for the new three-tiered tariff structure that pays high rates during the initial years.

Under the three-tiered structure, the hydro operators would get a higher rate in the first six years when they need more cash-flows to service debt. They could get more than SL Rs 8.50 (US$0.07) per kWh under the new structure. The CEB pays mini-hydros on an avoided cost of thermal generation based on the utilities fuels costs of the previous year. Existing operators would also get extra years in a higher tier if they move to the new tariff. But in return, the operators would get lower tariffs from year 7 to15 and even lower tariffs from year 15 to 20.

The extra money would come from the Energy Conservation Fund, set up with seed capital of SL Rs 500 million (US$4.55 million), that would be administered by the proposed Sustainable Energy Authority (SEA) that would be set up by the government. The fund would also get roy-alties from the older hydro and wind plants that are using a natural resource to generate power. The fund is expected to be moved under SEA once the needed law is passed in parliament. All renewable energy proposals, and sites and approval would come under SEA.


Worlds first solar power house launched in India

NEPC India Limited, the pioneer of wind energy in India, has launched a Solar Power House, claimed to be the worlds first. It is future of energy source for both household and industrial purposes. Common man can save up to Rs 100 per day by installing the Solar Power House as compared to electricity supplied by the government, stated Mr. Ravi Prakash Khamka, NEPCs Chairman, during the launch.

NEPC Power is a hybridization of solar and cell technology, said Mr. Khamka. The Solar Power House, first of its kind in the world, is best suited for domestic appliances that work on hybridized solar energy and cell technology. It is available in a wide range of 500 to 1,000 W and above. It can charge phones and 12 V car battery, and power fans, TV and computers. It can also support shops, and small offices and restaurants. There is no infrastructure cost, recurring expenses or maintenance cost. The Solar Power House is quite easy to install, as it is provided with castor wheels, and it is protected against power fluctuation.


India raises its renewable power capacity

The Indian government has been facilitating the establishment of renewable power generation plants, and 9,060 MW of renewable power generation capacity has been realized up to the end of October 2006 by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Out of this, 1,800 MW is in small hydro power, 1,100 MW is in bio power and 6,100 MW is in wind power. In addition, plants aggregating 2,456 MW capacity (434 MW small hydro power, 1,322 MW bio power and 700 MW wind power) are under various stages of implementation. Rs 820 million (US$18.4 million) has been provided for 2006-07 towards subsidy for small hydro and bio-power projects. The estimated electricity generation from renewable power plants during 2005-06 was 14 billion kWh and is likely to be 17 billion kWh during 2006-07.


China aims to surpass its wind energy goal

The officials from the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) say China is planning to more than triple its wind power generation capacity by 2010. The Chinese market saw a boost as a result of the countrys National Renewable Energy Law, which entered into force on 1 January 2006. Because of this law and other initiatives, 1,050 MW of new capacity were installed in 2006 up from 498 MW in 2004. The current government target is to install 5,000 MW of wind power capacity by 2010 and 30,000 MW by 2020.

The governments preferential policies and companies willingness to invest will enable China to become one of the biggest markets for the wind power industry, says Mr. Li Junfeng, Secretary General of the Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association. We can expect the total installed capacity to be 8,000 MW by 2010, which will surpass the government target of 5,000 MW, he added.


China plans to tap biofuel from forests

By 2010, China will plant 13 million hectares, an area approximately the size of England, with trees from which biodiesel can be extracted as a source of clean energy, according to the State Forestry Administration (SFA). Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), or physic nut, is at present grown on about 2 million hectares across the country and produces inedible oil for making candles and soap. The 13 million hectare forest would mostly spread over southern China and is expected to produce 6 million tonnes of biodiesel every year.

The jatropha trees can also provide wood fuel for a power plant with an installed capacity of 12 million kW about two-thirds the capacity of the Three Gorges Dam project, the worlds biggest. This amount of bio-energy will account for 30 per cent of the countrys renewable energy by 2010, according to the SFA. Mr. Cao Qingyao, SFAs spokesman, said: This plan will not only help the country enlarge its green coverage (currently at about 130 million hectares) but also meet the increasing demand for energy, emphasizing the importance of clean energy to fuel the nations development.

Currently, China relies mainly on fossil fuels for energy production. A renewable energy target has been set to ease the pressure and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions: by 2010, biofuel will make up 10 per cent of the energy structure, and 16 per cent by 2020. The China National Petroleum Corporation, one of the countrys three energy giants, has started collaboration with the SFA to develop biofuel.


Philippine government projects large savings with biofuels

The Philippine government projects a savings of about US$26 million worth of fuel imports with the initial implementation of the 2006 Biofuels Act. Republic Act 9637 or the Biofuels Act, which the President Ms. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law on 11 January 2007, requires vehicle manufacturers and owners as well as oil companies to use fuels diluted with sugar- or starch-derived alcohol to reduce the nations dependence on imported fuel and promote cleaner air. 

Some of the ASEAN countries like Malaysia have started working to commercially produce alternative fuels such as biodiesel comprising mainly palm oil and ethanol to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The Philippines imports 30 per cent of its fuel requirements. The new law requires minimum one per cent of biofuel to be blended with diesel within the first year of its implementation, and this percentage will be raised to four per cent within two years. The law also mandates the blending of bio-ethanol in gasoline sold locally, besides providing tax exemptions, financial assistance and other incentives to encourage investments in the biofuels industry.


Biogas powers sustainable agriculture in Tibet

The Global Environmental Institute (GEI), a Beijing-based non-profit and Worldwatch Institute partner, has successfully implemented a biogas programme in Tibet, the mountainous Chinese province. The project provides clean, renewable energy to households and complements the regions growing organic agriculture trade. Located in Wujinmai Village, it is the most recent outgrowth of GEIs sustainable rural development programme, and duplicates a three-year-old programme in Yunnan Province that boosted farmer incomes 20-fold.

GEIs programme, launched in April 2006, employs a three-pronged approach to address issues related to pollution and poverty, according to Assistant Executive Director Ms. Lila Buckley. The first component is composting animal manure, a potential groundwater pollutant, into both biogas for energy and fertilizer for growing organic crops. GEI trains farmers to manage and maintain the up-floating biogas systems, small tanks that use simple technology and require only one cow or three pigs to provide year-round heating and cooking fuel to one or two five-person households.

Sunny but cold Tibet provides ideal conditions for the second element of the programme: greenhouses for organic agriculture production that are also homes for the biogas tanks, which would otherwise freeze. The third component involves capacity building and skills training to help the farmers learn to better manage their new businesses selling surplus organic vegetables. Ms. Buckley notes that the project is working amazingly well although it is less than a year old. According to a GEI news release, Tibets Development and Reform Commission inspected the villagers understanding and use of the biogas system in November, and announced plans to replicate the project in nearby Shangsan Village in the coming year.


Wind power on the rise in Korea

The worlds seventh largest oil consumer, the Republic of Korea still depends on fossil fuels for a large part of its energy supply, importing more than 97 per cent of its energy sources from overseas. Now, with soaring oil prices and growing public awareness of the changing environment, wind power stocks in the Republic of Korea are beginning to enjoy increasing investor interest. Although the countrys wind energy industry is still at an early stage, it boasts ample growth potential with a bright outlook on global and domestic markets, declares Mr. Kim Kyeong-sup, an analyst at Good Morning Shinhan Securities Company. The countrys current goal is to have solar, wind and tidal power provide approximately 5 per cent of total power generation by 2011, up from 2.2 per cent used today.

Mr. Kyeong-sup expects the domestic manufacturers of wind power turbines, in particular, to see business improving in the coming years, driven by the global demand for their products. This group includes companies that are supplying parts to global wind power companies such as Vestas and GE Wind. Companies that are building wind power plants are also expected to improve their bottom line. The wind power industry shows the fastest pace of growth among alternative energy industries, says Mr. Kim Hee-sung of Hanyang Securities Co.

Recently, the nations largest wind power farm began operation on the chilly ridges of the Taegwanryong area in Kangwon Province. Each of the 49 wind turbines is capable of producing 2 MW of electricity. The wind farm will produce electricity that can power some 50,000 homes, the energy ministry said in a release. It is also estimated to annually reduce by 150,000 tonnes the amount of carbon dioxide created by power plants. The wind farm was set up by Unison, a private company, at a cost of 158 billion won (US$167.5 million). The government loaned it 40 billion won (US$42.4 million) and promised to purchase the electricity for 107.29 won (US$ 0.11) per kWh a generous contract, considering the buyback price is around 50 won (US$ 0.05) for ordinary coal and oil power plants.


New Zealand to promote renewables in energy strategy

As much new electricity as possible should come from renewable energies, declares New Zealand Energy Strategy to 2050, Powering Our Future Towards a Sustainable Low Emissions Energy System, a draft energy strategy for the country released recently by Energy Minister Mr. David Parker as the basis for public consultation that will run until 30 March.

The New Zealand Energy Outlook to 2030 predicts energy use to increase by 35 per cent and energy-related GHG emissions to rise by 30 per cent, stated Mr. Parker. A national strategy for energy will set out the long-term direction of New Zealands energy system, added the Minister. The energy strategy is central to the government aim that new electricity generation should be renewable, except to the extent necessary to maintain security of supply.

Key elements of the strategy are more solar water heating, consideration of wind and geothermal electricity generation projects in groups, funding for the early deployment of marine-based electricity generation such as wave or tidal, introducing green fuels as substitutes for petrol and diesel, improving efficiency of vehicles, increasing support for biofuel and public transport, and ensuring more energy efficient buildings.



Solar energy cuts monocrystalline silicon ingot

Shanghai Rijing Machine Tool Co., China, has recently rolled out a set of technologies and equipment for cutting and polishing 12-inch monocrystalline silicon ingots using solar energy. Tests show that the effort has produced a range of indicators that surpass existing standard criteria. Built on the multi-line cutting principle, the solar powered cutting equipment allows a loss of only 0.14 mm and a thickness of 0.24 mm, using silicon carbide abrasives driven by wires. The technology, which offers reduced cut marks and etching depth, helps save money in the production of crystal silicon.

The 12-inch monocrystalline silicon polisher works on dual-surface chemical and mechanical polishing, using a polishing liquid made up of nano-abrasives and chemical solutions, which triggers chemical reactions on the surface of work pieces. By balancing the chemical and mechanical processes, the researchers achieved an enhanced dual-surface polishing effect. Tests show that the silicon wafer thus polished is of international quality.


Rooftop solar concentrator

Soliant Energy Inc. (former Practical Instruments), the United States, is developing a new solar panel technology that focuses sunlight more effectively onto the photovoltaic (PV) cell. The Heliotube, the rooftop solar panel developed by the company, uses several small motors together with directional lenses to track and focus the sunlight through the day.
A main advantage of concentrator technology is its low cost. Heliotube substitutes much of the costly PV material with inexpensive optics to focus the equivalent light onto small solar cells. Each Heliotube panel measures 165 cm long, 112 cm wide and 15 cm high. It weighs 22 kg and is rated at 177 Weq, 2.5 A at 70 V typical. It can be connected directly to the grid.

Contact: Soliant Energy Inc., 133 N. San Gabriel Boulevard, #204 Pasadena, CA 91107, United States of America. Tel: +1 (626) 396 9500; Fax: +1 (626) 396-0968.


New world record in solar cell efficiency

In the United States, Spectrolab Inc., using the Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) technology developed by Veeco Instruments Inc., has achieved a world record concentrator solar cell conversion efficiency of 40.7 per cent. The cell was developed using a multi-junction solar cell structure: such cells achieve a higher efficiency than single junction cells by capturing more of the solar spectrum and utilizing it more efficiently. The Veeco TurboDisc As/P MOCVD System employed deposits epitaxial films. The solar cells are manufactured in a single epitaxial growth process, which requires rigorous control and repeatability from the vapour deposition system.

This breakthrough may lead to solar systems with an installation cost of only US$3 per watt, or less, producing electricity at US$0.08-0.10 per kWh. Almost all of todays solar cell modules do not concentrate sunlight, but use only what the sun produces naturally, what researchers call one sun insolation, which turns out an efficiency of 12-18 per cent. Veecos TurboDisc As/P tools, engineered for high-volume production of compound semiconductor materials, are being adopted by the industry for high-volume production of devices such as solar cells, yellow, orange and red HB-LEDs, laser diodes, pHEMTs and HBTs. These technically advanced systems, with integrated RealTemp 200 technology for direct wafer temperature control and fast gas switching for strict control of interface abruptness, provide superior material quality and process efficiency.


Mass production of thin-film solar cells

Sharp Corporation of Japan has developed mass-production technology for stacked triple-junction thin-film solar cells. Sharp did this by converting a conventional two-active-layer structure (amorphous silicon plus microcrystalline silicon) into a triple-junction structure with amorphous silicon (two active layers) and microcrystalline silicon (one active layer). This new architecture boosts cell conversion efficiency from 11 per cent to 13 per cent and module conversion efficiency from 8.6 per cent to 10 per cent.

Creating two amorphous silicon active layers increases voltage levels, and structuring the cell with three active layers in combination with microcrystalline silicon decreases light-induced degradation. The result is high conversion efficiencies, with cell conversion efficiency at 13 per cent and module conversion efficiency at 10 per cent. These new thin film solar cells can be fabricated on the same equipment as the conventional tandem (two-layer) cells.


Solar cell technology in glass windows

Octillion Corp. of Canada, through a sponsored research agreement with University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, the United States, is developing new nano-silicon photovoltaic (PV) solar cell technology that could adapt glass windows to generate electricity from sunlight. The process can occur without losing much transparency or requiring major changes in the manufacturing infrastructure.

The nano-silicon PV solar cells are created through an electrochemical and ultrasound process that produces identically sized (1 to 4 nm in diameter) highly luminescent nanoparticles of silicon. These provide varying wavelengths of photoluminescence with high quantum down conversion efficiency of short wavelengths (50 to 60 per cent). When thin films of silicon nanoparticles are deposited onto silicon substrates, ultraviolet light is absorbed and converted into electrical current. With appropriate connections, the film acts as nano-silicon PV solar cells that have the potential of converting solar radiation to electrical energy. Contact: Octillion Corp., 216-1628 West First Avenue, Vancouver, BC V6J 1G1, Canada.


Spherical solar cells

Kyosemi, a Kyoto-based company, is redesigning the future of photovoltaics. Conventional photovoltaic technology is based on harnessing the sunlight within a flat substrate, typically comprising single or poly-crystalline silicon material. This arrangement is easy to design and manufacture the only problem is that the efficacy of this technology relies on its position relative to the sun. Conventional but expensive solutions to this challenge involve motorized frames that follow the suns path throughout the day, requiring energy and maintenance in order to work properly.

Kyosemis solution is based on an entirely different geometry. Their innovative new Sphelar is a matrix of tiny, spherical solar cells. These spheres are designed to absorb sunlight at any angle, and therefore do not require motorization for tracking the sun. Based on their geometry, Sphelar cells even optimize the use of reflected and indirect light, and have been shown to convert energy with close to 20 per cent efficiency beyond most flat photovoltaic technologies. Its flexible disposition also makes Sphelar suitable for applications on a variety of scales.


Semiconductor finger technology

Solar cell manufacturer Suntech Power of China has announced that the commercial adoption of its new semiconductor finger conversion technology is proceeding on schedule and that the performance of this technology with respect to lower-grade and poor quality silicon wafers has exceeded the companys expectations. Suntechs Chairman and CEO, Dr. Zhengrong Shi, said that the technology increased the average conversion efficiencies of our best monocrystalline PV cells to 18 per cent well above the industry average of 14-15 per cent, while offering the lowest production cost relative to comparable systems.

The companys semiconductor finger technology co-developed and owned together with the University of New South Wales in Australia overcomes the major limitation of traditional screen-printing process that is the industry standard. Heavily doped semiconductor strips are built into the PV cell surface, which more efficiently collects the generated electrical charge without the need for surface dead layer found in conventional screen printed cells. This technology also potentially enables the company to reduce the number of traditional lines of metal contact strips on the top surface of the PV cell thereby reducing shading from the sun to enable the PV cell to generate even greater watts of electricity. The new technology works particularly well with lower-grade silicon wafers conversion efficiencies upwards of 17 per cent were seen for these.

Contact: Suntech Power, 17-6 Changjiang South Road, New District, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214028, China. Tel: +86 (510) 8531 8888; Fax: +86 (510) 85 34 3321




New wind turbine blade design

In the United States, a novel wind turbine blade design that Sandia National Laboratories developed in partnership with Knight and Carver promises to be more efficient than current designs. It should substantially reduce the cost of energy of wind turbines at low-wind-speed sites. Designated STAR, for Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor, the blade is the first of its kind produced at a utility-grade size. Its most distinctive characteristic is a gently curved tip, termed sweep, which is specially designed for low-wind-speed regions that have annual average wind speeds of 5.8 m/s measured at 10 m height.

The blade, measuring 27.1 m and made of fibreglass and epoxy resin, raises energy capture by 5-10 per cent at lower wind speeds. The curvature of the blade towards the trailing edge allows it to respond to gusts in a manner that decreases fatigue loads on the blade.


New-generation wind turbine

Mr. John Patrick Ettridge of Ettridge Wind Turbine Ltd., Australia, claims to have invented an Improved rotary wind turbine (Savonius rotor), a low visual impact alternative to the common propeller-driven wind generator that has a high visual impact.

Mr. Ettridge says that the problem with the conventional Savonius type wind turbines is that the blades are driven by wind for only about 120 of one rotation; they use up power to turn through the remaining 240. His solution is to allow the normal operation for the 120 of the turn, and for the remaining 240, use devices such as a shield and overhead air scoops to direct the air onto the blades from the top. This will drive the blades for the full 360, greatly improving low wind speed start-up efficiency.

The invention is claimed to be a low-cost, simple construction smaller in size than comparable propeller type wind generators. It can be positioned at ground height or roof height and does not produce high surface speed and excessive noise.

Contact: Mr. John P. Ettridge, Ettridge Wind Turbine Ltd., 53 Branksome Terrace, Dover Gardens, Southern Australia 5048, Australia. Tel: +61 (8) 8298 1698; Fax: +61 (8) 8298 9080;



Mini windmills for special uses

Miniature windmills could help power devices where sunlight does not fall, such as in tunnels or shadows of mountains, valleys or forests. Such windmills could power devices as mundane as home alarms or lamps, and sensors for monitoring border security, climate changes or forest fires. Dr. Shashank Priya at the University of Texas at Arlington, says that although solar energy is cheap, their efficiency at generating power can go from about 10 per cent down to 3 per cent if there is less light. If windmills can generate that amount of power or more, then they can become a helpful technology, he adds. Cars passing at high speed through tunnels generate big gusts of wind. Mini windmills placed inside could harness these to power the lights. They could also be useful in shadowy environments, and supplement solar panels in homes.

Piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress into electricity, are at the core of the windmills made. The best windmill design so far has three fan blades of aluminium alloy capable of capturing wind at 3-15 mph from all directions. The rest of the windmill is made from plastic. The mini windmill measures about 9 cm 10 cm 14 cm and weighs less than 600 g. It can generate 5 mW of continuous power at average wind speed of 10 mph.


Active lift control, down-wind turbine technology

Centripetal Dynamics, the United States, is developing a two-blade, variable camber rotor with active lift control, down wind turbine technology that improves upon a successful wind technology earlier developed by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

The design features patented active lift blade design, reduced drag rotating airfoil tower, flow through-hub-rotor construction and permanent magnet drive train all of which combine to give improved efficiency as compared with the standard upwind turbines.

Contact: Centripetal Dynamics Inc., 8916 East Plymouth Dr., Mesa, AZ 85207, United States of America. Tel: +1 (602) 617 9259; Fax: +1 (480) 354 4160



Flying wind farms

At 10 km up in the air, the jet-stream winds blow stronger and more constantly than ground level winds, carrying up to a hundred times more energy. Hence, pioneer wind-power engineers are looking higher in the sky for new sources of energy. Conventional turbines will not take them there the highest to date is just over 200 metres tall. So they are developing a whole new technology for harvesting wind: electricity generators that fly.

One of the most ambitious ideas is that of Sky WindPower, the United States. The companys flying generator looks like a cross between a kite and a helicopter. It has four rotors at the points of an H-shaped frame that is tethered to the ground by a long cable. The rotors act like the surface of a kite, providing the lift needed to keep the platform in the air. As they do so, they also turn dynamos that generate electricity. This power is sent to the ground through aluminium cables. Should there be a lull in the wind, the dynamos can be used in reverse as electric motors, to keep the generator airborne. Sky Wind Power estimates that these rigs could produce power for as little as US$0.02 per kWh, compared with US$0.03-0.05 for conventional energy generation.

Exploiting the jet stream forms the zenith of aerial wind-engineers ambitions. Mr. Ken Caldeira, a climate scientist at the Carnegie Institution, estimates that harvesting just one per cent of its energy will produce enough power for the whole of civilisation. But even at lower altitudes, the winds are stronger than they are at the surface, and that has attracted the attention of other inventors.

In Canada, the company Magenn Power has developed a proposal for a wind generator filled with helium. The device turns around a horizontal axis, rather like a water mill, and could fly at an altitude of up to 1 km. The firm sees its system as an alternative to diesel generators in remote areas where ground-level wind is insufficient to operate a normal windmill.
At the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, Dr. Wubbo Ockels has been developing another approach to air-borne wind generation at lower altitude. The idea of Dr. Ockels is that a kite (without rotor blades) be launched from a ground station, turning a generator as it rises several hundred metres in altitude. When it reaches its full height, it alters its shape to catch less wind, and can thus be reeled back in by using much less power than it produced when it was being paid out.

An arrangement of two or more of these kites could act together to produce a steady supply of power. When one kite was being released, part of the electricity produced will reel the other kite back in, and vice versa. The whole system would thus remain in surplus, and could deliver a constant current. This system has the advantage that it requires only simple parts generators, kites and cables and should thus be much cheaper to build than the conventional turbines.
To test the idea, Dr. Ockelss team is building a 100 kW prototype. He hopes to start testing a full-scale device within five years. At 10 MW, that would be large enough to power around 10,000 homes. He believes the system would be capable of generating electricity at a cost of just US$0.01 per kWh.


Chinas 1.2 MW wind turbine

A project to develop the key technologies for making wind turbines at the megawatt level, contracted to Xinjiang Jinfeng Science & Technology Co. under the framework of the National 863 Programme during the 10th Five-Year period, has rolled out the technologies needed for designing and manufacturing direct drive permanent magnet synchro-generator of 1.2 MW.
The effort has produced two prototype generators. The first generator has worked over 8,000 hours on a combined basis, and passed the performance test made by Windtest. The second has clocked some 600 hours, with a localization approaching 74 per cent. The project team has completed the design of dynamic structure for the wind turbine, worked out strategies for simulation analysis and control, designed and developed key components and parts for vane, permanent magnet generator, and wheels, rolled out the needed converter and control systems, and mastered the technologies for both assemble and testing.



Plasma-enhanced melter

Integrated Environmental Technologies (IET), the United States, has commercialized a plasma-enhanced melter developed by scientists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Batelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The melter uses extremely hot temperatures to vaporize trash, thus subtracting harmful emissions from the equation. This process, called plasma-based waste processing, generates syngas composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Besides processing municipal waste, the system can be used to create ethanol out of agricultural biomass waste, providing a potentially less expensive way to make ethanol than from corn-based plants.

The new system makes syngas in two stages. In the first, waste is heated to 1,200C in a chamber into which a small amount of oxygen is added; just enough to partially oxidize carbon and free hydrogen. In this stage, not all of the organic material is converted: some become a charcoal-like material. This char is gasified by passing it through arcs of plasma. The remaining inorganic materials, including toxic substances, are oxidized and incorporated into a pool of molten glass, made employing a technology from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The molten glass hardens into a material, which can be used for building roads or discarded safely in landfills. The next step is a catalyst-based process for converting syngas into equal parts ethanol and methanol. Ethanol can be used as a substitute for petrol, or mixed with petrol, for use in some vehicles. Methanol is important for producing biodiesel and is currently made from methane in natural gas.


Portable generator that turns trash into electricity

Scientists at Purdue University, the United States, have created a portable refinery that efficiently converts food, paper and plastic trash into electricity. The machine, designed for the United States military, could have widespread civilian applications in the future. The tactical biorefinery processes several kinds of waste at once, converting them into fuel via two parallel processes. The system then burns the different fuels in a diesel engine to run a generator.
The biorefinery, roughly the size of a small van, could alleviate the expense and potential danger associated with transporting waste and fuel. The researchers tested the first tactical biorefinery prototype in last November and found that it produced approximately 90 per cent more energy than it consumed, said Mr. Jerry Warner, founder of Defence Life Sciences LLC, a private company working with Purdue scientists on the project.

The tactical biorefinery first separates organic food material from residual trash, such as paper, plastic, Styrofoam and cardboard. The food waste goes to a bioreactor where industrial yeast ferments it into ethanol, a green fuel. Residual materials go to a gasifier where they are heated in low-oxygen conditions and eventually become low-grade propane gas and methane. The gas and ethanol are then burned in a modified diesel engine that powers a generator to produce electricity.

Much of the fuel the system combusts is carbon-neutral, said Prof. Nathan Mosier, a Purdue professor of agricultural and biological engineering associated with the project. Carbon-neutral fuels like ethanol do not cause any appreciable net increase in atmospheric levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The machine produces a very small amount of its own waste, mostly in the form of ash that is harmless. Any leftover materials from the bioreactor are put into the gasifier, which has to be emptied every two to three days.


Biomass gasifier system for villages

Prof. P.V.R. Iyer and Prof. T.R. Rao from the Chemical Engineering Department of the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi have developed a new biomass gasifier system for use at village level. The 5, 10 and 20 hp gasifier system is based on partially pyrolysed biomass fuels. It converts biomass into producer gas, which is then introduced into diesel engines. Injection of the gas results in reduction of diesel consumption in engines by 65-75 per cent. These gasifiers have been effectively utilized for rural electrification using locally available agro-forestry residues. The gas can also be used for thermal applications in furnaces, stoves, heaters, etc.

Biomass material is partially pyrolysed in the drum charring unit. It is then sized and fed to the gasifier where heating is initiated using a hand blower. The producer gas is cooled and cleaned in the hydro-separator before it enters the surge tank. The gas is then either burnt directly or fed to the engine-pump/alternator set as per requirement. Many types of local agro-forestry residues having ash content less than 4-5 per cent on dry basis can be used as feed.
The gasifier is simple in construction and operation, and easy to maintain. Other features include absence of moving parts, except the engine, rapid start-up within 15 minutes after feed charging, no choking of engine, and provision of smokeless fuel as additional output.

Contact: Managing Director, Foundation for Innovation & Technology Transfer (FITT), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Tel: +91 (11) 2685 7762; Fax: +91 (11) 2685 1169



New biodiesel production method

A new material developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, of the United States Department of Energy, might replace a costly process in biodiesel production. The scientists at the laboratorys Nanoscience Centre say the technology might replace the biodiesel manufacturing process that consumes chemicals, water and energy and also reduces the yield of the final product.

During production, catalysts must be applied to transform biodiesel from a very viscous substance into a fluid that can easily be pumped into vehicles. Then, the corrosive catalysts must be neutralized and washed from the fuel.

Oak Ridge laboratory researchers created a solid acid nano-catalyst material that can be fixed inside a reusable column or filter through which the biodiesel can flow to remove the catalyst materials. They said the nano-material shows promise for other applications as well, such as energy storage and conversion devices like fuel cells.


Bio jet fuel breakthrough?

Diversified Energy of Arizona, the United States, is about to commercialize a new biofuel technology, developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU), which looks promising for generating high performance fuels from renewable oils. One of its first target markets would be jet fuel.

The patent-pending CentiaTM process provides several advantages compared with other biofuel processes like biodiesel, ethanol and others. The Centia process delivers a more advanced and complex hydrocarbon fuel, suitable for demanding applications like military JP-8 jet fuel, or as a biodiesel additive for cold-weather operations. The fuel can be made from any renewable lipid-based oil compound, such as soybean, canola or animal fats, or even algae. Although animal fats are not generally fit for trans-esterification, Centia process can use low- quality high fatty acid content lipid sources, said Dr. William Roberts of NCSU who heads the Centia process group at the university.

Early indications are that it would be possible to make jet fuel using Centia at comparatively low cost. If the biggest component of fuel cost is dictated by the cost of the feedstock, you can get a considerable price advantage in your fuel if you are making it from inedible lard, Dr. Roberts stated. Another economic benefit of the Centia process is a reduction of up to 50 per cent in the amount of external energy required. Although the process sounds promising, it is still largely speculative, as fuel has not yet been created in volume.


Generator power for cooking invented

Mr. Alexis Belonio, an associate professor at the College of Agriculture at the Central Philippine University, recently invented a water and rice husk-powered stove for cooking. Mr. Belonio said that his stove is more advantageous than other rice husk stoves, as it releases only very little hydrocarbon, has a high efficiency in heat utilization, and is easy and less costly to operate.

The stove comprises: a conical hopper, a combustion chamber, a boiler with 5 litre capacity, an air pipe, a char discharge lever, a burner and supports for the stove and cooking pot. The rice husk is ignited inside the combustion chamber. The water inside the boiler is heated to super-heated steam. As the steam passes through the burner, hydrogen gas is released and is ignited inside the burner. Burnt rice husk is discharged at the bottom of the grate. The burning of rice husk can be controlled by regulating the amount of fuel being fed in the combustion chamber.



Modular system for generating electricity

Optimset of Canada has developed a submersible technology, named Optimset Turbo, for producing electricity from the channel, river, ocean or tidal water currents. The unique features of this free-flow hydropower technology include the following:
  • Innovative vertical axis underwater hydro-turbine;
  • High torque and efficiency;
  • Ideal for shallow waters;
  • Equally suitable for unidirectional (river) and bidirectional (tidal) currents;
  • Low costs of production and maintenance; and
  • Fast deployment and removal

Optimset Turbo comprises a set of interconnected modules, each containing a fluid-flow energy converter positioned in a protection housing. The converter consists of a vertical-axis underwater hydro-turbine and water flow accelerator. The turbine has an arrangement of paddles with floatable and sinkable blades set perpendicular to each other. Such orientation of blades provides positive feedback. A water flow accelerator funnels water current through the working part of the turbine and protects the resting part of the turbine. It decreases the blades friction and increases the fluid velocity through the turbine, thereby enhancing the power output of the converter.

Contact: Optimset, 207 Galloway Road, Unit 401, Toronto, ON M1E 4X3, Canada. Tel: +1 (416) 724 9019;



Pivoting float with generator

The patent-pending Duckdiver, from Swell Fuel in the United States, is a lever-operated pivoting float with generator. Pulling the arm down on the Duckdiver will generate electricity, and since the arm is very short it will work in small waves. The unit is spring-loaded to make the arm return to the upright position. The driving method is designed to make more energy and protect the equipment in large waves.

Duckdiver is set on a grid made up of pipes, which acts as a float and is anchored to the bottom via a pivot lever. This rigid but floating structure is always trying to compensate against the wavy ocean surface, causing a dip-and-rise movement. This movement constantly pushes the pivot arm up and down. Each downward movement of the lever drives a generator that produces electricity. The electrical current will be low-volt DC for safety and can be converted to high-volt AC on an attending barge before sending to shore.

Contact: Swell Fuel, 12220 Beechnut, PMB 199, Houston, TX 77072, United States of America.



Near-shore wave energy converter

OysterTM, from Aquamarine Power in the United Kingdom, is a near-shore, bottom-mounted wave energy converter designed to interact efficiently with the dominant surge forces in shallow water waves. The peak power generated by each Oyster unit is between 300 and 600 kW, depending on location and configuration. A commercial wave farm consisting of ten Oyster modules deployed in arrays will generate up to 6 MW of power.
Oyster unit comprises an oscillating module installed on the seabed in depths of 12 m at the mean water level.

The module extracts energy from passing waves and transmits it as seawater hydraulic power to a hydro-electric power conversion unit, located onshore. It does this by driving double acting pistons that deliver pressurized seawater to the power take-off unit, like conventional hydro-electric generators.

Designed for simplicity and minimal maintenance, the Oyster module is lightweight and has very few components. The unit has a very small seabed footprint and a high power output relative to its physical size, making it quite cost-effective. It naturally swings away from large waves, shedding load, enabling the module to keep generating power even in extreme conditions. The module interacts directly with the amplified surge component in the near-shore waves which means it captures power efficiently in the smallest of seas.

Contact: Dr. Sian McGrath, Aquamarine Power, 10 Saint Andrew Square, Edinburgh EH2 2AF, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (131) 718 6011; Fax +44 (131) 718 6100




Bipolar metal plate PEM fuel cell

Research Foundation of the State University of New York was recently awarded a United States patent for a metallic bipolar plate technology developed at the Farmingdale State College. The invention will produce clean energy, and clear water as its main by-product. The energy generation technology will make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells more durable, cost-effective and commercially viable.

Dr. Hazem Tawfik, Director of the Institute for Research and Technology Transfer (IRTT) at Farmingdale State College, has devised a PEM fuel cell that incorporates this bipolar metal plate. More economical and durable than graphite (bipolar plates are commonly made of graphite composites), the bipolar metal plate developed by Dr. Tawfik also reduces hydrogen consumption by at least 24 per cent because of its higher electric conductivity.


New portable fuel cell technology

The Altek Fuel Group Inc., the United States, has applied for a patent for a fully self-contained portable alkaline fuel cell power supply system, named the APS 100. The fuel cell, based on Alteks aluminium-air fuel cell technology, has a specific energy of more than 300 Wh/kg and is designed to power a wide range of portable applications. With a continuous power output of 100 W, APS 100 features catalysed gas diffusion electrodes, composite electrolyte, and a unique fuel cartridge design that allows for instant refuelling and almost indefinite run time.

Altek could be unique in using aluminium as its primary fuel source, which contains a specific energy of 10.5 kWh/kg and makes it more efficient than other sources of fuel that have significantly lower inherent energy levels. High efficiency (60-80 per cent), reduced weight, versatility, extended run time and quiet operation make APS 100 very well suited for the diverse power needs of military services. The Altek team has produced a working prototype of the APS 100, which has undergone significant testing in its laboratory.


Platinum electrocatalysts for use in fuel cells

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating chemical reactions in fuel cells used in electric vehicles. Reactions during the stop-and-go driving of a vehicle, however, dissolve the platinum, reducing its efficiency as a catalyst. Now, scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the United States, have overcome this problem. Under simulated conditions of a fuel cell, the gold clusters they added to the platinum electrocatalyst prevented it from dissolving during an accelerated stability test.

Platinum electrocatalysts speed up oxidation and reduction reactions in a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. Hydrogen is oxidized when electrons are released and hydrogen ions are formed. The BNL researchers displaced a single layer of copper with gold on carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles. After being subjected to several sweeps of 1.2 V, the gold layer transformed into three-dimensional clusters. The scientists were able to verify the reduced oxidation of platinum and to determine the structure of the resulting platinum electrocatalyst with gold clusters, which helped them to gain an understanding of the effects of the gold clusters. The platinum electrocatalyst remained stable with potential cycling between 0.6 and 1.1 V in over 30,000 oxidation-reduction cycles, imitating the conditions of stop-and-go driving.


Quest for palladium substitute in fuel cells

Researchers at the United States Department of Energys Ames Laboratory are employing modern day alchemy in an effort to find a material with properties of rare and high-priced palladium. If successful, they would be removing a major roadblock from the path of hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles.

The key in a hydrogen fuel cell is a proton exchange membrane (PEM) containing platinum. The platinum acts as a catalyst that separates electrons from the hydrogen atoms. The free electrons form the current while the positively charged hydrogen ions pass through the membrane to combine with oxygen atoms and form water.

During this process, the impurities in hydrogen can gum up the PEM, thus dropping efficiency or halting the process altogether. Pure hydrogen, however, is hard to come by, and that is where palladium enters the picture. Palladium acts like an atomic filter the hydrogen atoms readily diffuse right through the metal, said Ames Laboratory scientist Dr. Alan Russell, one of the scientists on the project.

Conventional approach to purifying hydrogen uses an alloy of 73 per cent palladium and 27 per cent silver. Palladium is expensive at US$ 11,000/kg and in short supply. The trick, therefore, is to find a material with the same properties as palladium but is cheaper and more readily available, said Dr. Russel.

Dr. Robert Buxbaum, president of REB Research and the leader of the project, is particularly interested in a membrane reactor that combines hydrogen generation and filtration right at the fuel cell. He suggested developing 100 different alloys using sophisticated technologies. About 60 binary alloys have been developed in about a year, with additional ones in the planning stages. While the results have been mixed, one sample has shown promise: shiny, ductile, high melting and totally resistant to aqua regia, according to Dr. Buxbaum.


New mechanism to control hydrogen fuel cell power

In a breakthrough that could make fuel cells practical for such small machines as chainsaws and lawnmowers, researchers led by Dr. Jay Benziger of Princeton University, the United States, have developed a new mechanism to efficiently control hydrogen fuel cell power. The new process controls the hydrogen feed to match the required power output, just as one controls the feed of petrol into an internal combustion engine. It functions as a closed system that uses the wastewater to regulate the size of the reaction chamber, the site where the gases combine, and form water, heat and electricity.

Fuel cells are currently inefficient on small scales due to the need for fuel recycling and excess hydrogen in standard designs. As the new design is closed, 100 per cent of the fuel is used and there will be no need for a costly fuel recycling system. The system is ideal for small internal combustion engines that lack emissions controls and are highly polluting, opined Dr. Benziger. The next aim is to connect several of the new fuel cells together to increase power, a system that could potentially compete with cells now being tested in the automotive industry.


Reformer-based fuel cell system

Protonex Technology Corporation, the United Sates, is all set to unveil its first product in a line of reformer-based fuel cell power systems that specifically target commercial markets. The 250-watt power system, named the ValtaTM M250, combines a high-performance proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with a methanol reformer. The system is able to process a readily available methanol solution into a hydrogen-rich gas, which is then converted by the fuel cell system into electrical power. The system is easy to refuel and can operate safely in a variety of indoor and outdoor conditions.

This first product targets commercial applications that require quiet, reliable portable power such as recreational vehicles, boats, emergency equipment, and remote power, said Mr. Scott Pearson, Chief Executive Officer of Protonex.

Contact: Protonex Technology Corporation, 153 Northboro Road, Southborough, Massachusetts, MA 01772-1034, United States of America. Tel: +1 (508) 490 9960; Fax: +1 (508) 490 8575



Use of carbon nanotubes in fuel cells

In the United States, researchers from Pacific Fuel Cell Corporation and University of California have demonstrated the durability advantages of using carbon nanotubes in fuel cells. Carbon nanotubes, used as a catalyst support, were found to extend the operational lifespan of a fuel cell by 40 per cent, according to published research work. This compared with the performance of carbon black, which was also tested under simulated cathode operating conditions.

One major contributor to the poor durability of current fuel cell systems is the corrosion of the amorphous carbon that has been used as catalyst support, stated Mr. George Suzuki, the President of Pacific Fuel Cell. This research confirms our belief in the use of nanotechnology to improve and commercialize manufacture of fuel cells, he said. Mr. Suzuki believes that the findings will help in the development of more durable and cost-effective fuel cell systems.



Catalyst for hydrogen from water-gas shift reaction

The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is of central importance in the industrial production of hydrogen, ammonia and other bulk chemicals using syngas. The high-temperature WGS catalyst usually employed is a mix of iron oxide and chromium oxide (8-14 wt per cent). However, hexavalent chromium is highly harmful for human health and environment. Another drawback of this catalyst is low activity, which dictates higher temperature of operation or higher residence time.

Using higher temperatures does not result in higher conversions, since the reaction is thermodynamically limited. Using higher residence times, on the other hand, needs large reactor volumes and catalyst costs.
Ohio State University, the United States, has formulated a novel catalyst: iron-aluminium based catalysts promoted with transition and rare-earth metals. A modified sol-gel method is used to prepare highly active and chromium-free iron-based catalysts.

The catalysts developed in this invention exhibit increased hydrogen yield (approximately 30 per cent and 60 per cent at 400C and 250C, respectively) compared with iron-chromium catalysts. They are also environmentally and economically friendly, with high activities in a wide temperature range.

The catalysts are suitable for adjusting hydrogen-carbon monoxide ratios in fuel cell applications, hydrogen production from synthesis gas (coal-derived), and improving hydrogen production efficiencies for hydrocarbon or biomass reforming.

Contact: Ms. Catherine Wendelken, Technology Licensing & Commercialization, Ohio State University, 1960 Kenny Road, Columbus, Ohio, OH 43210, United States of America. Tel: +1 (614) 2478 442; Fax: +1 (614) 2928 907



Renewable hydrogen fuelling

Evermont, a non-profit research and development organization in the United States, has demonstrated how hydrogen can be produced from renewable resources in a cold, hilly, rural environment. In October 2006, a fuelling station in Vermont, began producing transportation-grade hydrogen from water and wind energy. It is the nations first hydrogen station to use this renewable scheme. The station was built by Evermont, with funding from the United States Department of Energy, to demonstrate reliable hydrogen generation using decentralized, renewable resources with no carbon emissions, said Mr. Harold Garabedian, Assistant Director of the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources and the projects technical liaison.

The station produces hydrogen by splitting water apart with an advanced electrolysis system from Proton Energy Systems. The electrolysis system is powered by proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The system for storing and dispensing the hydrogen fuel was produced by Air Products, and the gas is com-pressed to 6,000 psi for storage. Mr. Garabedian says that although this is off-the-shelf equipment, coaxing it to work together proved more challenging than expected. To get the system operational, his team had to fix a lot of leaks. The station produces 12 kg of hydrogen fuel per day (the equivalent of 45 litres of petrol), but it can be easily scaled up, Mr. Garabedian says.


Researchers hail platinum catalyst breakthrough

A research team from both sides of the Atlantic has made a discovery on the ability of nano-engineered platinum surfaces to act as a catalyst for hydrogen fuel cells. The finding is said to be an important step in bringing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells closer to full-scale development for use in hydrogen-powered vehicles.

Fuel cell researchers at the United States Department of Energy (DoE), the University of Liverpool and the University of South Carolina have discovered that a nickel-platinum alloy engineered using nanotechnology held special catalytic properties. According to Dr. Nenad Markovic of the DoEs Argonne National Laboratory, Although there are signs that in the near future these fuel cells may become the modern equivalent of the Carnot cycle engine, in order to make hydrogen-based energy systems a vibrant and competitive force, many problems still need to be solved. A breakthrough in catalyst research was needed to overcome these limitations and to make hydrogen viable as a renewable energy source.


Potential hydrogen storage material

In the United States, researchers at Johns Hopkins University claim to have synthesised a new form of aluminium-hydrogen compound that may eventually form the basis of new hydrogen storage materials. According to the scientists involved, the new hydride molecules they developed are relatively stable, making them potentially suitable for hydrogen storage. To allow hydrogen to be stored compactly, solids capable of soaking and holding the gas and then releasing it on demand are required, the researchers said. One of the researchers involved in the study, Prof. Puru Jena, said that although there was a long way to go in the field, preliminary studies in the search for hydrogen storage materials were promising.


Unique, economical hydrogen production

The Energy and Environmental Research Centre (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, the United States, is leading a demonstration project on the production of hydrogen at existing and future ethanol facilities in a novel and economical way, aiming to provide a near-term path towards a hydrogen economy. The hydrogen produced could be used on-site in fuel cells to provide additional power for the plant or as fuel for hydrogen vehicles.

Hydrogen production integrated with an ethanol facility will provide an important source of renewable energy for both stationary and transportation fuel cell applications in a hydrogen-based economy, said Mr. Chad Wocken, EERCs Research Manager. The EERCs Centres for Renewable Energy and Biomass Utilization are testing the technical feasibility of integrating hydrogen production with ethanol production.

Activities at these centres include optimizing the ethanol-reforming process, demonstrating utilization of the produced hydrogen for power generation, optimizing the design for future ethanol plants, and conducting a full economic evaluation of the technology. The information gathered from these efforts will be used to better define system integration, energy input, and the operational conditions needed to produce hydrogen at an ethanol facility. The hydrogen becomes a low-cost energy source for the facility or a value added product enhancing the overall facilitys economics.


Pressurized electrolysers

The AGE pressurized electrolyser series, AccaGen of Switzerland, is based on a patented alkali process that assures high efficiency and reliable operation. Several installations based on this technology are claimed to be running continuously failure-free for more than 15 years. The operating parameters are continuously supervised by a special control logic capable of recognizing possible running defects, and reverting the unit to a fail-safe condition in case of malfunction. A touch- screen control panel permits easy management of the machine. The very rugged and compact construction is suitable for transportation. The equipment can be operated with minimum training and has security features for safe operation.

The AGE series electrolysers come with a quality option that can deliver hydrogen gas with purity of 99.999 per cent and dew point of -50C, as suitable for fuel cell supply. They can be fabricated with 10 bar, 30 bar or 200 bar gas output pressure without the need of compressors. For special applications, like hydrogen production from renewable energy sources, AccaGen has developed electrolysers with ultra high efficiency (above 85 per cent). Moreover, these devices mount electrodes designed to function with strong fluctuating electrical currents without suffering any electrode degradation over time.

Contact: AccaGen SA, Via San Mamete, CH-6805 Mezzovico, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (91) 940 2111; Fax: +41 (91) 940 2104




Biofuels for Transport

Biofuels for Transport is a unique and comprehensive assessment of the opportunities and risks of the large-scale production of biofuels, which demystifies complex questions and concerns, such as the food vs. fuel debate. Global in scope, it is further informed by five country studies from Brazil, China, Germany, India and Tanzania. The book predicts that biofuels will play a significant role in our energy future, but warns that the large-scale use of biofuels carries risks that require focused and immediate policy initiatives.

Contact: James & James, 8-12 Camden High Street, London NW1 0JH, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (20) 73 87 8558; Fax: +44 (20) 7387 8998


Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells: Modelling, Analysis, Simulation and Control

Adopting a unique, integrated engineering approach, this book simultaneously covers all aspects of design and operation, process analysis, optimization, monitoring and control. It clearly presents the advantages of molten carbonate fuel cells for the efficient conversion of energy, and also covers recent developments in this innovative technology.

Contact: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Ltd., Customer Service Department, Clementi Loop #02-01 LogisHub @Clementi, Singapore 129809. Tel: +65 6463 2400; Fax: +65 6463 4604


Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

The book covers a wide variety of materials and device types from inorganic materials to organic materials. This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, fullerene, extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cell, quantum structured solar cell, intermediate band solar cell, carbon nanotube, etc. including basic principle and the latest results.

Contact: Elsevier Publications, Customer Service Department, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146, United States of America. Tel: +1 (314) 453 7010; Fax: +1 (314) 453 7095



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