VATIS Update Waste Management . Apr-Jun 2012

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Waste Management Apr-Jun 2012

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Viet Nam produces fuel from plastic waste

Viet Nam’s first factory that recycles solid waste into fuel and bricks has begun operations in Da Nang. The factory, set up by Vietnam Environment JSC, produces oil from discarded plastic bags and environment-friendly coal and bricks from other kinds of waste. The 520 billion dong (US$25 million) factory is producing nine tonnes of oil a day.

Mr. Nguyen Van Tuan, Director of the company, said that three tonnes of plastic bags can be recycled into one tonne of fuel oil. “With plastic bags accounting for 8 per cent of the 650 tonnes of waste generated every day in Da Nang, the factory can produce around 17 tonnes of oil a day,” he said. The factory currently utilizes the waste obtained from Khanh Son, the city’s major garbage dump located next to the company. Mr. Tuan said the project would use 90 per cent of the garbage in the dump, leaving the city only 10 per cent of the waste to bury.

India to study product use pattern for minimum e-waste

The Indian government is planning to study the consumption pattern of electronic equipment in the country in order to determine targets for the manufacturers on the minimum annual volume of e-waste they are supposed to collect from consumers for recycling, as directed by the new e-waste rules that came into force in May 2012. According to a set of new guidelines, still being fine-tuned by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), each category of products would have a different target for its manufacturers, based on the study of the consumption-cum-disposal pattern.

CPCB will set up a committee to study the market and the usage patterns for two years, after which the new targets will be prescribed. The final implementation guidelines will be out soon. There cannot be a single target for all products because of the difference in their life span. For instance, the number of cell phones used and discarded in a year far exceeds the number of, say, washing machines.

While rules say that 100 per cent e-waste is to be collected, officials believe that the industry will eventually get there in a phased manner and the guidelines will help weed out the teething troubles in this nascent e-waste regulation regime. The producer will also be made to maintain “e-waste call centres” to make sure that consumers do not face any difficulties in disposing of their e-waste in an environment-friendly manner.

China releases plan for waste recycling technology

China’s Ministry of Science and Technology, National Development and Reform Commission, and five other ministries and commissions have jointly released the nation’s “12th Five-Year Plan for Waste Recycling Technology”. The 12th Plan identifies the major areas of waste recycling technology, and discusses the current situation and plans for future development in these areas. Moreover, it specifies the development goals and tasks in the identified major areas, and sets out the measures to achieve these goals.

Major areas and tasks identified in the 12th Plan include the following:

  • Utilization of recycling resources – The Plan calls on the development of technologies for comprehensive utilization and recycling of scrap metal, waste electronic products, used electro-mechanical products, and recycled polymer;
  • Industrial solid waste recycling – The Plan highlights the development of technologies in the comprehensive utilization of fly-ash, coal gangue and industrial by-product gypsum, dissolution of residue from smelting, and conversion and gasification of industry-generated waste; and
  • Energy regeneralization of waste and sludge – Disposal and regeneralization of urban household waste, construction waste, as well as industrial sludge and sewage sludge are important tasks in the Plan.

The Plan also emphasizes promotion of innovation and development of technologies to control the waste recycling process, research on the processing and utilization of waste, and cultivation of professionals. It proposes several other measures to revitalize waste recycling in the country.

Integrated waste management in Sri Lanka

On 7 June 2012, the Environment Ministry formally handed over the Integrated Waste Management System Project in Dompe to Korea International Co-operation Agency (KOICA) at the Central Environment Authority (CEA) premises. The Environment Ministry had commenced the Pilisaru project in March 2008 to maximize recycling and reuse waste by introducing the integrated solid waste management (ISWM) system. Training government officials, formulating policies and establishing basic waste management facilities were part of the Ministry’s effort. In September 2008, the Republic of Korea and Sri Lanka agreed to launch the project in Dompe on a two hectare plot to support the efforts of the government to establish an efficient model of ISWM facility.

Under this US$4.5 million project, KOICA is responsible for designing and construction of the sanitary landfill site with a handling capacity of the collected waste up to 90 t/d, construction of a sanitary treatment facility for wastewater, provision of machinery and equipment, as well as training of Sri Lankan officials in policy and technical issues related to waste management, and landfill site operation and management. The preparation for the project, including the ground and earth work, was completed by CEA, which will continue to support the construction work by KOICA until project completion by the end of 2013. This project is the first sanitary landfill facility of its kind in the country and will contribute to the replication of an efficient model of waste management across the nation.

Thailand’s textile dyeing units to reduce wastewater

In cooperation with the Department of Industrial Works (DIW), textile dyeing factories in Thailand will implement a pilot project for treating wastewater from dyeing and bleaching operations. Ten textile bleaching, dyeing and printing companies have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with DIW for the purpose. The model project would serve as an example for waste management through co-operation of communities living in the vicinity of textile units.

During the project implementation phase, wastewater released from textile units would be measured as per ISO 26000 and DIW standards. In addition, the members of community living in the vicinity of textile units would be imparted more information and understanding of laws related to industrial units and wastewater treatment. After a monitoring period of eight months, based on the performance of the ten participating textile units, a guideline would be framed for use by other factories.

Bangladesh’s first central effluent treatment plant

Flagship Ecosystems Investment Private Limited (FESI), Singapore, together with its local Bangladeshi partner, has established the first centralized effluent treatment plant (CETP) in Bangladesh on a 30-year Build-Own-Operate (BOO) arrangement with Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority (BEPZA). The plant will receive effluent from all generating industries in Savar Dhaka Economic Processing Zone (DEPZ) at an approved service tariff rate and with guaranteed effluent volumes. The total investment of the project was around US$8 million.

The CETP, which started operations on 1 February 2012, treats an estimated 15,000 m3/day of effluent to serve the collective needs of the 44 companies in the Savar DEPZ. The CETP will expand its capacity to 43,000 m3/day during 2013 to receive effluent from 55 more companies in the DEPZ. The effluent is treated to meet the regulations of Bangladesh’s Department of Environment and discharged into the inland waterway.

The CETP employs a newly developed bio-electric process to treat the effluent. It is the first of its kind in the country and a first in the world to employ a bio-electric treatment profile on a co-mingled industrial wastewater stream. Contact: Mr. Theron Madhavan, CEO, Flagship Ecosystems Pte Ltd., 4 Shenton Way #06-01, SGX Centre 2, Singapore 068807. Tel: +65 9017 4920; Fax: +65 6536 5550; E-mail:; Website: www.

Philippine garbage collectors to see better days

The Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF) gave US$3 million in grant to a project for improving the income and livelihood of around 6,000 garbage workers in five Philippine cities and municipalities that are modernizing their solid waste management systems. Mr. Motoo Konishi, World Bank Country Director, said that the grant will help address the impact of the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act that requires local government units (LGUs) to modernize their solid garbage collection and convert open dumpsites to sanitary landfills. The “Social Inclusion and Alternative Livelihoods for the Informal Waste Sector” project will be carried out by the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP), a non-profit organization of solid waste management practitioners.

Aid will also be extended to informal waste sector participants who participate in existing recycling co-operatives in Metro Manila. “This partnership with the World Bank and JSDF will greatly boost our programmes, while helping the less fortunate,” Ms. Sapuay said. JSDF, administered by the World Bank, backs development projects for poor and vulnerable groups in developing countries.

Tougher waste measures coming in Thailand

The Industrial Waste Management Bureau (IWMB) of Thailand is planning stricter measures to prevent illegal dumping of waste. “We will be focusing on waste processors first, as they have an incentive to dump waste illegally to lower costs,” said Mr. Sawai Lojanasupareuk, Director of the Bureau. From now on, a factory setting up a waste disposal plant must indicate the type and amount of waste it is able to handle before the Industrial Works Department (IWD) will issue a permit. IWMB is part of IWD, which is under the Industry Ministry.

Facilities handling solvents and oils will be low priority, as these substances are much less likely to be dumped. “The responsibility of waste generators lasts until the moment waste processors signal they have received the waste, but we must admit that the law is too weak; we do not have the authority to catch vehicles,” Mr. Sawai said. The penalty for illegal dumping is a 200,000 baht (US$6,500) fine. Mr Sawai said he has proposed a fine of 1 million baht (US$32,500) and a jail term. He has also proposed setting up a fund with contributions from waste processors for clean-up and rehabilitation. IWD wants to establish networks in five provinces to be on the look-out for wrongdoers. According to the Pollution Control Department, on average, 11-14 cases of illegal waste dumping are reported each year. Department figures indicate no cases of large-scale illegal hazardous substances dumping in 2011, while there have been four cases so far this year.

India recycles less than 5 per cent of its e-waste

Less than 5 per cent of India’s total e-waste is recycled due to absence of proper infrastructure, legislation and framework for disposing off end-of-life (EOL) electronic gadgets and products, apex industry body Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) observed in a recent report. Growing at an annual rate of about 20 per cent, India generates more than 440,000 tonnes of e-waste annually and almost half of all the unused and EOL electronic products go to landfills, junkyards and warehouses, the report notes. Computer equipment accounts for about 68 per cent of the e-waste, followed by telecommunication (12 per cent), electrical (8 per cent) and medical equipment (7 per cent), while household e-waste accounts for 5 per cent.

The unorganized sector manages more than 90 per cent of the e-waste generated in India, and the scrap dealers in this market dismantle the disposed off products instead of recycling them, said Mr. D.S. Rawat, Secretary General of ASSOCHAM. Significantly, most of the discarded products can be refurbished and reused by a reconstruction process. This, in turn, will reduce the overall impact on the environment. The report suggests that used computers and discarded consumer durables be collected and donated to schools and orphanages.

China announces fund for e-waste processing

China’s Ministry of Finance has announced that the country will start amassing a special fund from July 2012 to subsidize the cost of dealing with e-waste. The fund will be paid for by domestic producers and importers of electrical and electronic equipment, according to a regulation jointly issued by the Ministry and five departments. The fund’s establishment aims to promote comprehensive utilization of resources and encourage energy saving and environment protection, the Ministry stated.

Under the regulation, the collection and subsidy criteria vary depending on the e-waste. For example, it will collect 13 yuan (US$2.05) from producers for each TV set, but offer a subsidy of 85 yuan (US$16.35) for the treatment of each waste TV set. At the end of 2011, Chinese owned around 520 million TV sets, 300 million refrigerators, 320 million washing machines, 330 million air-conditioners, and 300 million computers. Tens of millions of these items are disposed of each year as waste.


Recycling of refrigerator foam

EnvironCom, an e-waste recycling company based in Lincolnshire, the United Kingdom, has revealed that it has pioneered a method to recycle polyurethane (PUR) foam from refrigerators, an ‘industry first’ for the United Kingdom. The company says it has developed a method to prepare PUR foam, increasing the recycling rate for refrigerators from 86 per cent to 98 per cent.

Traditionally, PUR foam needed to be incinerated or landfilled, but the method that EnvironCom has developed for recycling the material helps to convert it into laminate panelling, using specialized equipment. EnvironCom claims that the method has enabled it to divert more than 2,200 tonnes of PUR foam from landfill.

“Clean” process for plastics recycling

In the United States, Wastren Advantage Inc. (WAI) has acquired Geo-Tech Polymers LLC, a plastics recycling firm that holds a patented process designed to increase the range of uses for plastic products from post-industrial and -consumer waste streams. The Geo-Tech recycling process, developed under contracts with the United States Departments of Defence and Energy, does not use chemicals that can degrade the recycled plastic.

The clean mechanical washing process removes most coatings including paint, screen print, tape, paper and plastic adhered labels, and metallization from virtually any form and grade of plastic without the residual environmental damage that could come from other processes, said Mr. Doug Collins, President of Geo-Tech and Director of WAI’s Project Management Office. Geo-Tech uses mild water-based detergents and cleaning agents approved by the United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). Mr. Collins said that makes this process “perfect for food packaging and high-end applications like Class A automotive parts”. For example, with food and beverage packaging, Geo-Tech can deliver a product that is cleaned using only FDA-approved detergents at a cost up to 70 per cent less than prime resins. “We can honestly and verifiably say we are bringing a whole new shade of green to plastics recycling. The clients get prime resin quality at a fraction of the cost”, Mr. Collins said.

Food-grade PET recycling process

In Germany, the food company Stute Nahrungsmittelwerke is commissioning the country’s first PET recycling line from Krones AG. The SuperClean PET-flake process is able to produce flakes at a high degree of purity, which can be directly used for injection moulding new bottle preforms that are subsequently blown into new bottles. In contrast, conventional processes require additional steps for creating food-grade recycle.

With this process, Stute plans to feed back into its bottle production operation both PET bottles and preforms. This also includes bottles that have already come into contact with the product. The recycling process washes and decontaminates the rejected PET, thus guaranteeing its suitability for future food-grade applications. The PET materials waiting to be recycled are fed into the washing system’s storage silo. The PET recycling line is made up of a washing module, a decontamination module, and what Krones calls “peripherals”. The line is installed on two different levels: the washing module and the decontamination module are spatially separated, with the latter located directly next to the existing injection-moulding machine for producing preforms.

Conversion of waste plastic to fuel

Cynar Plc, the United Kingdom, has developed a process to turn waste plastics into fuel, and has awarded a US$11 million contract to Rockwell Automation, the United States, to design and build a new end-of-life (EOL) plastic to fuel conversion plant in Bristol, the United Kingdom, for SITA UK. According to Cynar, its technology uses liquefaction, pyrolysis and distillation of plastics, and can handle almost all the EOL plastic that is currently being sent to landfill. Rockwell’s role in the project is to strengthen the technology by providing complete design, engineering life cycle maintenance, as well as local support.

Cynar says that a major advantage of the process is its high efficiency, with each facility able to produce up to 19,000 litres of fuel from 20 tonnes of EOL plastic. The Cynar system consists of stock in-feed system, pyrolysis chambers, contactors, distillation, oil recovery line and syngas line. EOL plastic is fed via a hot-melt in-feed system directly into main pyrolysis chamber and agitation commences to even the temperature and homogenize the feedstock. Pyrolysis then begins and the plastic becomes a vapour. Non-plastic materials fall to the bottom of the chamber. The vapour is converted into the various fractions in the distillation column and the distillates then pass into the recovery tanks. The Syngas is then diverted through a scrubber before being sent back into the furnaces to heat the pyrolysis chambers. The cleaned distillates are pumped to the storage tanks.

InGaAs technology passes uPVC challenge

InGaAs technology from Bühler AG, Switzerland, is in a class of its own when removing difficult-to-detect white rubber, silicon and nylon from white polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Recycling unplasticized PVC (uPVC) windows is not a difficult task because white rubber must be detected and removed from the recycled white uPVC. Further complications arise when white silicon and white nylon are present in post-consumer window frames, explains Mr. Faisal Baig, Product Manager at Bühler. “Same-colour sorting provides a stiff test. White rubber, white silicon and white nylon must be removed to create pure, clean and consistent recycled PVC,” Mr. Baig adds.

Many companies combine technologies, but that is not the best solution, claims Mr. Baig, because it is more expensive and doesn’t offer high sorting performance or great accuracy. Bühler optical sorters fitted with InGaAs technology offers a far superior solution, he says, with better sorting efficiency and better accuracy at lower costs. “The short-wave infra-red (SWIR) spectrum of polymer is so unique that it is like a molecular fingerprint,” Mr. Baig explains. “By interpreting the infrared reflected spectrum, our InGaAs technology can define the appropriate separation required for those specific defects,” he adds.

Conventional sorters with silicon sensors can only detect wavelengths in the visible and near infra-red (NIR) spectrums, whereas InGaAs technology can detect wavelengths in the SWIR region. Crucially, white silicon, white rubber and nylon reflect radiation differently from uPVC in the SWIR region, and so it can be identified and removed easily with InGaAs technology. Contact: Bühler AG, Gupfenstrasse 5, 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (71) 955 1111; Fax: +41 (71) 955 3379; E-mail:

Environmentally sound recycling process

Veolia Umweltservice PET Recycling GmbH in Germany uses the URRC process, a patented recycling process that is technically and environmentally sound. The used PET drinks bottles are made into a food-grade recyclate in a multi-stage process. The URRC process is a combination of mechanical and chemical recycling. This combination leads to a quicker recycling process that offers both economic and environmental advantages, creating a product that can be immediately re-used.

URRC-based PET recycling is not dependent on any particular system for returning empty bottles or on a specific recycling system. The form of delivery to the recycling plant (bales or briquettes), and the contamination level are only of minor importance for subsequent processing. The URRC process is characterized by low consumption of water, energy and operating materials. It produces no hazardous waste substances, and the by-products (such as polyolefins) can themselves be used in other processes.

The input material is sent from the sorting plant in compressed bales and briquettes to the recycling plant, where they are broken down into their individual components. Coarse foreign matter is manually removed and PET is then ground into free-flowing flakes in a cutting mill and given an intensive wash. Polyolefin is then separated from PET in the sink-or-swim process – polyolefin floats and PET sinks to the bottom. PET stock is reacted with caustic soda in a mixing reactor leading to the detachment of the surface layers of the flakes together with the remaining impurities. This reaction produces salt as a by-product. The remaining diffused foreign matter is removed from PET in a rotary kiln by means of optimum control of air and temperature. This treatment guarantees the food quality of the recyclate. In the post-treatment phase, the salt is removed from the PET grinding stock. The machine for sorting the grinding stock (fitted with a colour line scan camera) is the final station. The recyclate is now ready to leave the plant after being subjected to quality control. Contact: Veolia Umweltservice PET Recycling GmbH, Hammerbrookstraße 69, 20097 Hamburg, Germany. Tel: +49 (40) 78 101 672; Fax: +49 (40) 78 101 673.


Bioremediation for e-waste treatment

Researchers at the Central University of Gujarat (CUG), India, developed a bioremediation method to compost e-waste in landfills. Following a five-year research effort led by Mr. M.H. Fulekar, Dean of CUG School of Environment Sciences that zeroed in on a special group of micro-organisms – mainly fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes – to decay heavy metals like cadmium, zinc and iron, the CUG team has proposed microbial bio-cleansing as a favourable option compared with dismantling and incinerating of e-waste, which are costly and not eco-friendly.

The research team found several types of micro-organisms that feed on heavy metals in landfill sites. “The bio-cleansing science involves figuring out which microbes are doing what. It is a difficult task because the bacteria are microscopic and there could be thousands of different kinds working together,” says Mr. Fulekar. The researchers found that a special microbial consortium that they retrieved from the contaminated site could be bio-activated to digest metals. Tests were carried out on the efficacy of the microbial consortium on varying concentration of heavy metals in e-waste as well as industrial sludge in laboratory conditions. It was found that the microbes were 98.5 to 100 per cent efficient.

Bicycle-powered e-waste recycler

The increasing quantity of electronic and electrical waste, currently the fastest growing type of waste in the world, was the inspiration behind an ingenious design by Mr. Hal Watts, a graduate student at the Royal College of Art, London, United Kingdom. One of the current and widely prevalent methods to extract copper from e-waste is to burn the electrical waste, such as wire, to expose the copper inside. This method has terrible consequences on the respiratory and immune systems of the people who carry out the operation.

“Esource” by Mr. Watts is a bicycle-powered e-waste recycling device to replace the practice of burning the e-waste. The bike is mounted on a frame so that the user just pedals to power a shredder as it grinds the wires into a mix of plastic and copper. From there, the mix goes into a metal separator that uses water to remove the plastic. The method leads to a yield of 98 per cent pure copper, which can be sold more 20 per cent more than copper that has been burnt. In addition, the plastic particles can also be recycled.

Innovative consumer electronics recycling kiosk

Given the growing global problem of e-waste, the ecoATM kiosk is a great example of technology solving a problem created by technology. ecoATM kiosks form a convenient trade-in solution that electronically and visually inspects a consumer electronics device, pays consumers immediately in cash or store credit, and automatically administers trade-in/trade-up promotions for retailers and manufacturers. ecoATM currently buys back used cell phones and MP3 players, and will soon accept tablets as well. “Almost everyone has a collection of used portable electronics stored somewhere. At ecoATM, we believe strongly in repurposing good electronics that can be refurbished and used by consumers in other markets. We find a second life for about 75 per cent of the used devices we collect at the kiosks,” said Mr. Tom Tullie, Chairman and CEO of ecoATM.

E-waste plastic recycling method

Image Microsystems Inc., the United States, is patenting a method of recycling e-waste plastic material. E-waste containing one or more separate streams of different plastic waste are reduced to small granular form, blended together or separately, and put into a compounding machine that reduces the plastic granules into a semi-molten emulsion. The emulsion is placed in a press and moulded to a final product shape and given a finishing as required. The method can recycle computer and printer parts formed substantially of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic as one stream and printer ink cartridges as a second, separate stream. The step of breaking down the e-waste plastic parts into particulates may include the steps of cutting them into smaller pieces, and using at least one tumbling operation and one grinding operation to reduce the pieces into smaller particulates. During grinding, the temperature of the plastic pieces is kept below the melting point of the plastic by the injection of cold air.


Treatment for wastewater in open-pit mines

Every day, copper mines use huge quantities of water, some mines even using more than 100,000 m3, corresponding to the water consumption of a medium-sized city. Many mines cannot expand their production because they lack adequate water. In Germany, Siemens and Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg have jointly developed plants for the treatment of wastewater in open-pit mines, which make the ore extraction process more environmentally friendly. As the operators can reuse the treated water, the mine requires less water. The processing plant can treat the most part of the mine’s wastewater.

Increasing water shortages and stringent environmental regulations are forcing mine operators to think about treating and reusing the wastewater. Siemens is leveraging this trend and applying tested drinking water treatment processes in mine wastewater treatment. In the mobile pilot plant, the contaminated water is passed through two treatment stages. In the first stage, micro-filters remove particles that are bigger than a micrometre. In the nanofiltration stage that follows, the water is passed through a membrane with nanopores to get pure water of a high quality standard, along with a concentrated solution of the contaminants, which must then be disposed of.

A pilot plant for the new treatment technology has been installed at a copper mine in Chile. The throughput of the pilot plant is nearly 100 m3 of water per day – a fraction of the wastewater produced by a mine. Siemens uses the plant to demonstrate the process and to analyse the nine wastewater, as the composition of each mine’s wastewater is different. The data gained by the pilot plant would serve as the foundation for the design of the actual treatment facility.

Technology for textile dye clean-up

Production of multi-coloured textile has an environmental cost: heavy polluting dyes find their way into the textile industry’s wastewater. Now, a novel water clean-up technology has found a potential application in the textile industry. Removal of recalcitrant organic compounds – the most polluting textile dyes components – is more easy through this innovative wastewater bio-filtering technology, after being broken down by ozone treatment. “The innovation is to get together biological degradation and chemical oxidation, to processes used with completely different goals and timings in conventional systems,” says Mr. Claudio Di Iaconi, the researcher responsible for the technology at the Italian National Research Council’s Water Research Institute (WRI).

The technology, developed under the INNOWATECH programme of the European Union, integrates a biological treatment with an ozone-based chemical oxidation treatment, while physically separating the two steps. In contrast to traditional biological systems, the Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) employed in the technology relies on micro-organisms that grow as aggregates and is separated from the basin containing ozone and the waste. The wastewater is poured over the micro-organisms, which process pollutants. Each aggregate holds up to ten times more micro-organisms than in conventional technologies. “Our system produces 80 per cent less sludge than traditional biological ones,” Mr. Di Iaconi says. Indeed, sludge is reduced because micro-organisms only just survive in these conditions without being able to reproduce.

Following biological treatment, the liquid phase goes to a basin containing ozone for further biodegradation before being sent back for biological treatment, in a cyclical way. Ozone is not used to remove recalcitrant organic compounds, unlike conventional systems. Instead, it is utilized to make these organic compounds biodegradable so that they can be removed biologically, in the next treatment step. This means that 20-30 per cent less ozone is required. In addition to the building of a pilot plant for application of this technology to the tannery industry, laboratory tests for application to the textile industry have now been completed. Although this technology is one among many available wastewater treatment technologies, its ability to scale up would prove its worth for applications such as for the textile industry.

Copper recovery from low concentration wastewater

Vary Tech, China, is offering equipment and method for treating wastewater containing low amounts of copper and recovering the metal. The equipment adopts a new technique of direct electrowinning. To increase current density and efficiency, its anode uses titanium plate covered in noble metal oxide and its cathode uses stainless steel sheet or pure titanium plate. Copper ions are electrodeposited on the cathode, and the resulting electrolytic copper has a purity higher than 99 per cent. Electrodeposited liquid contains copper lower than 0.5 g/L.

In the process, wastewater is pumped into an electrolytic bath, and an automatic sprinkler system is used to inject an additive into the bath. The mixed solution is then continuously electrodeposited till the concentration of copper in the solution is lower than 0.5 g/L. The equipment comes in four models with four different capacities of the electrolytic bath – 2 m3, 10 m3, 20 m3 and 40 m3. The exhaust gas has no foul odour and conforms to China’s National Environmental Protection Standards. The wastewater following electrodeposition is discharged after being processed in wastewater process station.

The process does not use any hazardous chemical reagent that may influence subsequent wastewater process. It just extracts copper from the wastewater, reducing the concentration of copper ions from 10 g/L to 0.5 g/L. The process consumes 5,000 kWh per tonne of copper produced, which is less than the power consumption of conventional processes. Contact: Vary Tech, No. 11, Panpan road, National Economic & Technological Development Zone, Changsha, 410100, China. Tel: +86 (731) 8279 1069; Fax: +86 (731) 8279 1100.

Molecular sieve cleans radioactive wastewater

A technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the United States, has been used to remove radioactive material from more than 160 million litres of contaminated wastewater at Japan’s damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Following that disaster, researchers at Sandia had worked to show that their technology worked in seawater, which was pumped in to cool the plant towers. UOP LLC, a Honeywell company, is the exclusive United States manufacturer of crystalline silico-titanate (CST), the molecular sieve that Sandia’s technology employs to separate highly volatile elements from radioactive wastewater.

The late Sandia chemist Mr. Bob Dosch and Texas A&M chemical engineering professor Mr. Ray Anthony were leaders of the team that developed CSTs in the early 1990s in response to a need for materials to remove radioactive contaminants from wastewater. They found that a certain class of synthetic zeolite is more effective in capturing some radioactive elements, like caesium (Cs), than other technologies. They created CSTs: inorganic, molecularly engineered ion exchangers that can be sized specifically for radioactive elements. When high-level radioactive elements are removed from contaminated water with CSTs, the remaining lower-level radioactive waste can be treated in a more economical, less hazardous way.

UOP worked with Sandia under a Co-operative Research & Development Agreement (CRADA) to produce a commercial-scale manufacturing procedure for CSTs. UOP developed a technology to bind the material into a beaded form so that it could be used in ion exchange columns, said UOP Marketing Manager, Mr. Dennis Fennelly. The company licensed and began commercializing the technology in 1994, one of the first licences issued by Sandia.

Wastewater treatment to recover copper

In Japan, Fujitsu Limited has deployed at its Nagano plant Japan’s first wastewater treatment system that enables efficient recovery of copper from industrial wastewater by producing sludge with a high concentration of copper. The new system, developed by Toshiba Corporation, enables the recovery of a high concentration (at least 90 per cent) of copper from sludge that contains copper. Moreover, by reducing the types of chemicals used by 75 per cent, the new treatment system places a smaller burden on the environment while reducing operational costs. Additionally, it shortens the processing time and almost halves the space needed for the facility.

Fujitsu will now undertake tests to verify the effects of the new system while gaining operational know-how, and will consider extending the new system across other Fujitsu Group manufacturing facilities. The Nagano Plant, which focuses primarily on the development and production of printed circuit boards (PCBs), has been working to improve the efficiency of copper recovery from the wastewater generated in PCB production. It has also been working to reduce the levels of sludge and the amount of chemicals used in the production process as well as the water treatment process. Copper particles in industrial wastewater are very fine, and therefore difficult to filter. For that reason, a coagulant has been used in a coagulating sedimentation process to treat the wastewater, generating sludge that contains chemicals.

By using a magnetic functional powder when filtering the wastewater, the new system is able to efficiently recover copper without using any chemicals other than a neutralizing agent. Prior to the introduction of this system, the Nagano Plant generated a large volume of sludge (35 tonnes per month) containing processing chemicals and impurities. Since deploying the new system, however, the plant has been able to generate a much lower volume (5 tonnes per month) of sludge with a high concentration of copper, which increases the value of the sludge as a resource, therefore generating higher revenue. Furthermore, the magnets used easily separate the functional powder after filtration for recycling and reuse within the system, reducing operational costs by 40 per cent (factoring in the revenue earned from selling the sludge for recycling) compared with previous methods. Contact: Fujitsu Limited, Shiodome City Centre MAP, 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3215 5259; Fax: +81 (3) 6252 2783.

Cyclic system improves removal of heavy metals

Engineers at Brown University, Providence, the United States, have developed a wastewater treatment system that significantly reduces the concentration of heavy metals without producing the toxic sludge by-product created using traditional methods. Treatment gives decontaminated water and solid particles containing the metals the option to be disposed of or processed for metal recovery. The system is said to be suitable for wastewater remediation and other metal recovery applications. Tests show that it can remove low concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) simultaneously, upgrading contaminated water to acceptable contamination levels. In trials, Cd, Cu and Ni concentrations fell to 1.50, 0.23 and 0.37 ppm, respectively.

The cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system can remove up to 99 per cent of Cu, Cd and Ni, say its developers – Mr. Joseph Calo, Professor Emeritus of engineering, Ms. Pengpeng Grimshaw, a post-doctoral researcher, and Mr. George Hradil, a senior Research Engineer at Technic Inc. Electrowinning removes heavy metals in an aqueous solution in an electrolytic cell by depositing them on a cathode, but usually requires relatively high currents when the metals are at low concentrations. Precipitation uses hydroxides and sulphides to precipitate metal ions from the water, creating a toxic sludge by-product. The new automated system combines the two proven removal techniques but eliminates their typical disadvantages.

Instead of removing the sludge by-product, it is kept in the process, redissolving and using it to increase the metal concentration to the point where it can be taken out through electrowinning, says Mr. Calo. The CEP system relies on multiple precipitation cycles to boost metal ion concentration in the water to a level at which electrowinning to plate out the metals can take place at good current efficiencies. Water analysis determines the number of precipitation cycles needed. The electrowinning cell uses a device called a spouted particulate electrode, developed by Mr. Hradil, which allows operation at higher current densities and efficiencies. The water then undergoes another precipitation as a finishing step. If needed, water can pass through other refining steps to increase its purity level. For an initial 10 ppm ion concentration of the metals, the volume reduction is on the order of 106, claim the researchers. In addition, the system eliminates the need for sludge disposal.

Electrocoagulation for water treatment

Morselt Borne BV, the Netherlands, offers a wastewater treatment solution that works well in many industries. In Morselt’s Red Box Electro Coagulation system, contaminants are flocculated by an electrical process into a size that can then be filtered, pressed and disposed of. The flocculation process in the reactor is based on electrolysis. When the equipment is switched on, air is blown through the water in the reactor vessel to keep the water in motion and to prevent solids sinking to the bottom. An extra boost of “cleaning-air” is blown through the water every 30 s. The contaminated water flows from the reactor into the flocculation vessel. There are three level sensors in the vessel to control water levels and pumps.

In a typical system, the reactor contains iron (Fe-) and aluminium (Al-) electrodes, although other types of electrodes can solve different problems. Four of them are connected to the anode (+) and the other four are connected to the cathode (-). The Fe- and Al- electrodes connected to the anode are slowly converted into Fe2O3 and Al2(OH)3. The resulting roughly formed flocks provide a place for any contaminant in the water to attach to. The dissolved contamination is connected to the flocks and is transformed into non-dissolvable particles, which can be separated from the treated water easily by filtration. The flocculated contaminant in water is transferred in to a filter press. The press allows clear water to run to tank or drain while the flocculated contaminant is pressed into a cake which is light and easily handled for disposal. The system can remove heavy metals, paint, ink, suspended and colloidal solids, oils, fats, grease, etc.


Remediation process for oil-tainted soil

In Japan, Nanyo-doken has begun an experiment involving biotechnological treatment of soil tainted by heavy oil at a storage site of the company. By applying local bacteria that can break down oils in the soil, it aims to establish a soil decontamination technology suitable for use in Okinawa. The experiment is a part of a prefecture-level project to develop technology for the biological remediation of contaminated soil. Two companies, Technos in Aichi and Kumagai Gumi in Tokyo, have co-operated on this work.

Ritsumeikan University discovered the bacteria effective for oil degradation, which has now received national approval, and Kumagai Gumi will employ it. According to the company, experiments using the bacteria have already been conducted in Japan, taking four to five months to clean up the soil. In the current test, the company will confirm the purification performance on Okinawa’s unique fine-grained soil, which varies from the soil found in other places in Japan.

The tests will take three approaches to soil that contains 5 g of heavy oil per 1 kg: one that includes the bacteria that can break the oil down; another that has had Okinawa’s native bacteria and organic materials added to it; and a control group with no modification. The soil clean-up standard is for 1 g of heavy oil per 1 kg of soil. The frequency of administration of the bacteria will be changed as needed after comparing the samples.

Bacterial remediation of landfill site

In Colombia, a 45 m high garbage dump may get new life as a public park. Researchers at University of Illinois, the United States, have demonstrated that bacteria found in the dump can be used to neutralize the contaminants in the soil. Mr. Jerry Sims, an associate professor of crop sciences and a research leader of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Mr. Andres Gomez, a graduate student from Medellín, Colombia, have been working on the landfill called “El Morro” in the neighbourhood of Medellín, which served as the city dump from 1972 to 1984. Thousands of people were living there, growing vegetables on the contaminated soil and hand-pumping drinking water out of the garbage hill.

The Colombian government decided to relocate the people to different areas with better living conditions, and to see if it was possible to clean up the area and turn it into a park. The most reliable solution – digging up the garbage and treating it – is not economically feasible in Colombia. Another problem was that there were no data on exactly what was in the dump. “Apparently, hydrocarbon compounds were one of the main sources of contamination,” said Mr. Gomez, besides “phenyls, chlorinated biphenyls and all kinds of compounds that are sometimes very difficult to clean up.”

Three professors from the National University of Colombia in Medellin considered a microbial ecology approach. They designed an experiment to determine the feasibility of using bioremediation to clean the site. Mr. Gomez, who was working on his Master’s thesis at the time, worked with them and was charged with finding out if there were micro-organisms living in the soil that could feed on the carbon in the most challenging contaminants.

Mr. Gomez found, at different depths in the hill down to 30 m, microbial communities with profiles typical of bacteria involved in bioremediation. Mr. Gomez then joined Mr. Sims’ lab to perform stable isotope probing, a test to link diversity and function that he was not able to do in Colombia. His work there confirmed that the bacterial communities had, in fact, been carrying out bioremediation functions. In collaboration with Mr. Tony Yannarell, Assistant Professor of microbial ecology, who assisted with the microbial diversity analysis, he determined that the organisms involved changed at every depth. Based on these results, the Colombian government has decided to go ahead with the bioremediation project using the indigenous organisms.

A bioremediation agent for every need

The innovative bioremediation agent “KEEEN” – which originated from a joint research between Hi-Grimm Environmental and Research Co. Ltd. and National Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) in Thailand – was developed in response to the demand of the industrial sector to resolve the issue of industrial waste treatment in an efficient and environmentally harmless manner. KEEEN provides bioremediation for several lines of business, catering to the specific demands: wastewater treatment; oil tank degassing/cleaning; oil spill response/clean-up; site decontamination/remediation; and sanitary waste treatment. It is available in more than 10 formulas, with easily degradable biosurfactant and a microbial mix selected for maximum effectiveness to suit the specific requirements of different industries.

Engineering biomaterials for bioremediation

Researchers at University of Minnesota, the United States, have developed hybrid biomaterials for use in the biodegradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamine-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), a herbicide used in 70 countries at an estimated rate of 111,000 tonnes per year for the control of broadleaf weeds, mainly in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane. The hybrid biomaterial consisted of recombinant Escherichia coli cells overexpressing atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA), which converts atrazine into hydroxyatrazine. The cells were encapsulated in a polymer/silicon oxide matrix by a sol-gel process.

The silica base gel used to encapsulate the microbes consisted of a combination of silicon oxide precursors (e.g., silica nanoparticles, alkoxides) and a biocompatible organic polymer (e.g., polyethylene glycol). The porous material enabled diffusion of water and atrazine into the gel, and diffusion of hydroxyatrazine out of the gel. The gel also adsorbed atrazine, a property that contributed to removal of atrazine from the solution during the process. Moreover, high temperature exposure was utilized to ensure that the encapsulated cells were non-viable but remained fully active in degrading atrazine over a long time scale.

The activities of the free and silica encapsulated cells were measured over four months. At room temperature, free cells showed an average of (0.61 ±0.04) mmol/g/min of activity over 21 days. After 21 days, significant cell lysis was observed in the free cells; this was likely due to long-term hypo-osmotic stress induced by water. Therefore, the experiments on the free cells were stopped at that time point. On the other hand, cells encapsulated in porous silica gels showed stable activity between (0.44 ±0.06) mmol/g/min to (0.66 ±0.12) mmol/g/min for up to four months. This showed that even though the encapsulated cells were unviable and had lost some membrane integrity, AtzA was protected and active in the silica matrix. The activities of the free and encapsulated cells were found to be temperature dependent. At 4°C, activity dropped by 45-30 per cent for the free and encapsulated cells, respectively. The activity of encapsulated cells at 4°C was 33.3 per cent higher than the cells in solution.

This demonstrated that bioremediation using encapsulated micro-organisms is a safe and feasible technique. Currently, the researchers are working towards using similar techniques to remove chemicals from wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing for shale gas and oil. Contact: Mr. Alptekin Aksan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN, United States of America. E-mail:

Biostimulation using oxygen and ethane

In the United States, researchers from Molecular Translations Inc., Bioremediation Consulting Inc. and the Biology Department of Northeastern University have carried out the successful bioremediation of a large, migrating, dilute vinyl chloride (VC) plume, where an aerobic biostimulation treatment approach utilized both oxygen and ethene.

Release of perchloroethylene (PCE) at a Massachusetts landfill leached into groundwater along with dissolved organic matter that contained electron donors, resulting in anaerobic conditions and reductive dechlorination of PCE to VC. Notable concentrations of competing electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration were present, however, and conditions less favourable to anaerobic dechlorination occurred downgradient of the landfill. The dilute groundwater plume with persistent low levels of VC (2 to 27 µg/L) migrated away from the source and detached following landfill capping. A treatment option consisting of in situ aerobic biobarriers was designed and installed to deliver a constant supply of oxygen, with initial periodic pulsing of ethene to stimulate growth of aerobic ethenotrophs in the groundwater. This option was chosen in part because initial VC concentrations were too low to stimulate efficient aerobic degradation using oxygen alone.

After a pilot test of two oxygen delivery systems – biosparging and in situ mass transfer of pure oxygen – oxygen delivery via in situ Submerged Oxygen Curtain (iSOC) gas infusion technology was selected for full-scale treatment. The iSOC technology provided the flexibility to deliver ethene as well as oxygen. The aerobic biostimulation treatment approach achieved plume migration cut-off and full attenuation of most of the plume three to four years after full-scale implementation. Contact: Mr. G.S. Begley, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, MA 02115, United States of America. Tel: +1 (617) 373 3491; Fax: +1 (617) 373 3724; E-mail:

Radioactive soil remediation

In the United States, Earthfort has developed a biological soil additive that shows promise as a waste-free solution to decontaminating radioactive soils. Oregon State University (OSU) students in nuclear engineering and radiation health physics are testing the bacteria Earthfort uses in their inoculant to determine how effectively it can immobilize the radioactive contaminant caesium 137 (Cs-137) and other longer-lived fission products in soil. Although Cs-137 will not be removed using this solution, theoretically it will be rendered inert, because the bacteria Earthfort uses are not consumed by other organisms. If the laboratory experiments are successful, the additive will be used to mitigate soil contamination from Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis.

The OSU students developed an approach to test Earthfort’s inoculants by constructing soil columns designed to mimic the soil of Fukushima and then compare the transport of Cs-134 in inoculated, non-inoculated and control columns. Over 28 days, the team applied Cs-134 in liquid form and came up with a watering mechanism to mimic rain and resultant groundwater. Clean groundwater would indicate that caesium will not be reintroduced to the food chain. In preliminary results, the team discovered a three- to four-fold reduction in the amount of caesium leached from inoculated soil. As they continue to analyse results, another group of students is analysing Cs-134 uptake by radishes via water passed through inoculated and non-inoculated soil.

Controlled release of oxygen for biodegradation

Lack of oxygen has been shown to be the limiting factor for microbes capable of aerobically degrading contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Without adequate oxygen, contaminant degradation will either cease or may proceed by much slower anaerobic processes. Oxygen Release Compound (ORC Advanced®) from Regenesis, the United States, is a proprietary formulation of food-grade, calcium oxy-hydroxide that utilizes its patented Controlled Release Technology (CRT™) for a controlled-release of molecular oxygen for periods of up to 12 months upon hydration. CRT helps ORC Advanced avoid excessive foaming and oxygen loss seen with commodity chemicals, enabling aerobic microbes to appreciably accelerate natural attenuation rates over a long time. ORC Advanced thus saves time and money through faster and improved remediation performance on a single injection. It is particularly effective at higher demand sites where oxygen may be limited and scavenged by competing carbon sources.

Regenesis researchers had noted that, in order to optimally stimulate the natural attenuation of aerobically degradable contaminants, biologically usable oxygen was best supplied in low but constant concentrations. Big bursts of oxygen are wasteful and just “bubble off”, often generating undesirable foaming and producing unwanted preferential flow paths in the sub-surface. Regenesis sought to solve this problem by controlling the rate of oxygen release from solid oxygen sources. CRT process involves embedding phosphates into the crystal structure of solid peroxygen molecules. This patented feature slows the reaction that yields oxygen within the crystal, minimizing bubble-off, which can waste the majority of oxygen available in common solid peroxygen chemicals, besides preventing oxygen “lock-up”, which makes the process costly and inefficient.

Uniformly embedded within the crystalline structure of the peroxygen are phosphate ions. These ions do two key things: they slow the rate of hydration that liberates oxygen thereby creating the CRT effect; and they form exit pathways for the oxygen in an otherwise tightly packed crystal. This patented process optimizes peroxygen performance and is available only in Regenesis products. Contact: Regenesis, 1011 Calle Sombra, San Clemente, CA 92673, United States of America. Tel: +1 (949) 366 8000; Fax: +1 (949) 366 8090.


Carbon capture process reaches commercial stage

A new method of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and power generation processes has secured investment that will bring it to a commercial stage. Skyonic, the United States, has secured investment backing for a new method of carbon capture, which turns the gas into chemicals that may be sold or into solids for safe placement in landfill. The investment will be used to build a commercial plant that will begin work from 2014, alongside a cement works.

CO2 emitted from the plant’s production process will be captured and combined with other chemicals to produce baking powder, hydrochloric acid, bleach and other common products. If there is no market for a product, it can be converted into solid minerals for disposal. It is estimated that 83,000 tonnes of CO2 would be treated in this manner and an additional 220,000 tonnes offset every year, representing 14.1 per cent of the plant’s CO2 emissions. Acidic gases and heavy metals will also be captured. Skyonic claims that its process is much cheaper than competitive technologies.

Skyonic’s electrolytic technology, dubbed SkyMine, utilizes a chemical reaction that turns the captured CO2 into harmless sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), hydrogen and chlorine. It could be deployed at any industrial plant of sufficient size. It works even when the percentage concentration of the gas is in the single digits and has been tested as low as 3 per cent. A variant of the process, called SkyCycle, is being offered to coal, oil and gas power plants with a capacity over 300 MW.

Novel carbon capture technology

A novel carbon capture technology developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy has been recognized by R&D Magazine as among the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into the marketplace in 2011. The Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) process of NETL captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas streams.

BIAS process encompasses a portfolio of techniques for the production of regenerable immobilized amine-based sorbents. An amine compound, composed of nitrogen and hydrogen, is treated to make it more selective and reactive to CO2. When combined with a porous solid support, the amine compound becomes a sorbent, which selectively reacts with CO2 to extract it from the flue gas. The sorbent is then heated to release the CO2 for storage, thereby refreshing it for reuse. Such low-cost sorbents offer advantages over existing technologies, such as increased CO2 capture capacity, low corrosion, reduced energy requirements and costs, and minimized water usage. They are also scalable for many industrial applications, including gasification-based power generating systems as well as coal combustion.

Application of this technology is expected to reduce cost and energy use associated with more conventional scrubbing processes. The process can be used as a retrofit to older power plants that currently burn coal or applied to new, more efficient pulverized coal-fired power plants. Additionally, BIAS process can capture CO2 from utilities that combust oil or natural gas, and is being considered for other applications such as natural gas clean-up, life support systems in confined spaces, and air capture systems.

Bioremediation of flue gas with microalgae

Ms. Kathryn Coyne and Ms. Jennifer Stewart from University of Delaware, the United States, have investigated the development of microalgae for use in the clean-up of smokestack emissions, which contain contaminants that adversely impact human health and the environment. The algal species Heterosigma akashiwo, commonly found worldwide, has the ability to transform smokestack emissions into less harmful components. The researchers are examining how this process occurs and under what conditions the algae thrive. The tiny plant-like organism may also do double-duty as a high-yield source for renewable fuel.

New emission control technology patented

Alstom, France-based global leader in power generation technology, has secured a new United States Patent for its Mer-Cure™ product. This patent relates to the injection of powdered activated carbon into a coal-fired power plant’s flue gas at a high temperature location, such as upstream of the air heater, to reduce mercury emissions. Mer-Cure reduces sorbent consumption by up to 50 per cent when paired with several air quality control system technologies. This in turn lowers customers’ operation and maintenance costs and provides compliance with latest emission standards.

Two unique aspects of Alstom’s Mer-Cure technology are online processing of the sorbent material, which breaks the bonds that hold separate activated carbon particles together while also reducing their size, and injection of the activated carbon upstream of the air heater. Since first introduced by Alstom, injection of activated carbon upstream of the air heater has become the power generation industry’s preferred injection methodology for lowering mercury emissions.

This is the third patent covering Alstom’s Mer-Cure technology. The first covers the reduction in particle size distribution of treated activated carbon by de-agglomeration, while the second covers the combination of de-agglomeration and high temperature injection upstream of the air heater.

Carbon capture role for new CO2-absorbant

A novel porous material that has unique carbon dioxide (CO2) retention properties has been developed through research led by the University of Nottingham, the United Kingdom. The technology focuses on the metal organic framework NOTT-202a, which has a unique honeycomb-like structural arrangement and can be considered to represent an entirely novel class of porous material. The material structure allows selective adsorption of CO2 – while other gases such as nitrogen, methane and hydrogen can pass through, CO2 remains trapped in the materials nanopores, even at low temperatures.

Lead researcher Professor Martin Schröder, in the University’s School of Chemistry, said: “The unique defect structure that this new material shows can be correlated directly to its gas adsorption properties. Detailed analyses via structure determination and computational modelling have been critical in determining and rationalising the structure and function of this material.” The University researchers collaborated with colleagues at the University of Newcastle, Diamond Light Source and STFC Daresbury Laboratory.

NOTT-202a consists of tetra-carboxylate ligands – a honeycomb like structure made of a series of molecules or ions bound to a central metal atom – and filled with indium metal centres. This forms a novel structure consisting of two interlocked frameworks. State-of-the-art X-ray powder diffraction measurements at Diamond Light Source and advanced computer modelling were used to probe and gain insight into the unique CO2 capturing properties of the material.

A new air pollution control solution for cement plants

FLSmidth A/S, Denmark, has introduced CataMax™ catalytic solution, a state-of-the-art solution within air pollution control technology. Over the past many years, FLSmidth has worked intensively on a solution that lives up to the requirements of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) of the United States.

CataMax™ catalytic solution is a patent-pending solution combining FLSmidth’s extensive process know-how and the latest ground-breaking technologies in air pollution control for cement plants. The heart of the solution is constructed like a traditional bag filter, except that the dust from the gas stream is captured on the surface of the porous ceramic elements. Inside the ceramic element, a specially designed catalyst converts and removes total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions that originate from the raw materials and the combustion process. The initial removal of dust prevents it from deactivating the embedded catalyst.

Alternative THC removal methods are highly energy-consuming and costly. Although the THC removal efficiency of the CataMax catalytic solution depends on the speciation of the THC components, very high removal efficiencies of >90 per cent have been seen in testing for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). This high HAP removal efficiency allows cement plants to easily achieve the emission limit of 9 ppm at 7 per cent oxygen. Contact: FLSmidth A/S, Ramsingsvej 30, DK-2500 Valby, Copenhagen, Denmark. Tel: +45 3618 2000; Fax: +45 3618 2030; E-mail:


Integrated Air Quality Management: Asian Case Studies

Based on ten years of co-ordinated research, this publication discusses technical and policy tools for the integrated air quality management in the developing countries of Asia. The book begins with an overview of major issues of air quality management practices in developing Asia and potential approaches to reduce pollution. It covers the methodology and results of fine particulate matter monitoring using traditional filter-based and satellite monitoring techniques. It examines the applications of a 3D dispersion modelling tool for urban and regional air quality management. The final chapters discuss innovative control technologies for gaseous air pollutants and illustrate the integrated air quality management using case studies for various target source categories including agricultural residue field burning, vehicle emissions, brick kilns, and industrial VOC emission.

Contact: Customer Service CRC Press, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1235) 400524; Fax: +44 (1235) 400525; E-mail: book.

Fundamentals of Wastewater Treatment and Engineering

This textbook presents the material necessary for a semester-long course for undergraduates and graduate students in civil and environmental engineering, and environmental technology. Each main chapter presents a topic as a theoretical section followed by example problems, and a set of questions and problems. Applicable regulations and standards are given from the World Health Organization and United States Environmental Protection Agency. Readers will get a strong grounding in the principles, and should be able to design the unit processes used in wastewater treatment operations.

Contact: Customer Service CRC Press, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1235) 400524; Fax: +44 (1235) 400525; E-mail: book.

Recycling and Reuse of Materials and their Products

This book analyses different innovative methods and ways of recycling in connection with various types of materials. It provides a basic understanding about polymer recycling and its reuse as well as presents an in-depth look at various recycling methods. It provides a thorough knowledge about the work being done in recycling in different parts of the world and throws light on areas that need to be further explored.

Contact: Customer Service CRC Press, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1235) 400524; Fax: +44 (1235) 400525; E-mail: book.


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