VATIS Update Waste Management . Jan-Feb 2005

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Waste Management Jan-Feb 2007

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Plea to enable free movement of recyclable wastes

At the 7th Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, which took place in Switzerland, the Minister of Environment and Forests of India, Mr. A. Raja, called for removing hurdles to free movement of recyclable wastes to facilitate easier access by rapidly industrializing countries to non-ferrous metallic wastes. This latest meeting was convened to find ways to invigorate national efforts for achieving goals set by the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Mr. Raja stressed the need for reviewing the Basel Ban Amendment that does not follow objective and measurable criteria for listing nations under Annex-VII as countries outside Annex-VII too have capacity for eco-friendly reprocessing and have also put in place a regulatory regime in line with the objectives of the Convention.

Mr. Raja pointed out that India had notified its domestic legislation for handling and disposal of hazardous wastes way back in 1989, the year when the world community adopted the Basel Convention. Some of the other major programmes undertaken by India include:
  • Enactment of specific legislation to effectively deal with special types of hazardous wastes like biomedical and lead-acid battery wastes;
  • Synchronize domestic foreign trade and customs legislation with hazardous wastes rules as well as capacity building at major ports and customs labs so as to prevent illegal import and dumping of hazardous wastes in the country;
  • Establishment of state-of-the-art common treatment, storage and disposal facilities for toxic industrial wastes and biomedical wastes under public-private partnership initiatives. Already five hazardous wastes treatment, storage and disposal facilities and over 70 biomedical facilities have been set up in different states;
  • Harmonization of import/export policies for hazardous wastes, in line with the Basel Convention; and
  • Formulation of comprehensive technical guidelines that facilitate industries, particularly in the small-scale industrial sector, to deal with toxic waste management.


Rise in municipal solid wastes

A new report by Research Markets, Ireland, has estimated that the total quantity of municipal solid waste generated globally in 2004 will touch 1.84 billion tonnes, an increase of 7 per cent compared with the figures for 2003. It is also anticipated that between 2004 and 2008, worldwide generation of municipal waste will inflate by 31.1 per cent. The report even delves into waste management options in terms of waste hierarchy, which prioritizes options in descending order of preference from waste elimination at source, reutilization, recycling and composting to energy recovery, land spreading and landfill and incineration.


Specifications for plastic scrap

International merchants plan to bring out a new set of specifications for plastic scrap to ease global trade. During a conference of the Bureau of International Recycling (BIR), held in the United Kingdom recently, it was announced that a working group will be created to develop grades and specifications that could be utilized by the global trading community. Mr. Peter Daalder, the Chairman of BIRs Plastics Committee, has announced that representations will be sought from organizations that have already developed national specifications, including ISRI of the United States, Germanys BVSE and the United Kingdoms PAS103 system.


POPs in China

In China, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs, entered into force on 11 November 2004. The countrys top legislature, Standing Committee of the 10th National Peoples Congress, ratified the convention on 25 June 2004. The national plan for implementing the convention will come out in 2006 and be put into practice. The Global Environment Facility provided a US$13 million grant to develop the plan. Mr. Zhang Qingfeng of the Office for Implementation of the POPs Convention opines that the present status of POPs in China is obscure and the monitoring and evaluation system is not adequate. According to him, about US $400 million would be required just to eliminate PCBs in the country.

Efforts are being made to establish where and how POPs are produced, utilized, imported, exported, stored and discarded, and determining the magnitude of pollution and damage caused by them. A list and database of equipment with PCBs still in use or discarded will be created. Such equipment will be gradually eliminated and all areas polluted by PCBs cleared before 2008. Major sources of dioxins and furans will be identified, and techniques and practices sought to lower emissions. Other steps include strengthening research on POPs and setting up matching policies and standards to support the national implementation plan.


China deliberates amendment to law on solid wastes

In China, the nations top legislature is evaluating a draft amendment to the Law on Solid Waste Pollution Prevention in an effort to avoid becoming the worlds largest dumping ground. Statistics provided by the customs department expose that about three million tonnes of plastic wastes were imported in 2003 and an additional 1.88 million tonnes in the first half of 2004, up 31 per cent from the same period last year. Mr. Zhang Lijun, Director of the Pollution Control Department under SEPA, expressed that the draft amendment is anticipated to play a key role in lessening imported wastes threat to the countrys environment and public health. According to the draft, imported wastes will be classified into three categories non-import, restricted import and automatic approval. Each class will be treated differently under the law.


The Philippines bans pesticides

In the Philippines, the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA) has prohibited 48 pesticides and restricted entry of two others. The forbidden articles include Thiodan 35WP, 35 EC and 2.5G. Import of Aldicarb and Chlorobenzilate has been restricted to emergencies as determined by FPA. DDT is allowed to be used only for malaria control purposes, under the supervision of the Department of Health. Endosulphan should not be utilized near aquatic ecosystems. The pesticides reserved for general and institutional use include:
  • Lindane (Gamma BHC) for soil pre-plant application in pineapple plantations only;
  • Paraquat approval for its use is based on strict compliance by the importer/end-user of the criteria set for its use;
  • Etroprop and Methidathion can be used in banana plantations only;
  • Phenamiphos can be used in both banana and pineapple plantations; and
  • Inorganic Arsenicals (Arsenic Trioxide) and Pentachlorophenol for accredited wood treatment and preserving plants only.

Institutional use of pesticides has to strictly adhere to guidelines laid down in FPAs Pesticide Regulatory Policies, 1987 edition, and any other requirements that may be imposed by FPA. Fumigants and other such chemicals for use solely by certified fumigators should be applied ensuring adequate time for aeration, as required after treatment before the commodities are processed into food or feed. These include methyl bromide, HCN-generating materials, phosphine-generating compounds, carbon disulphide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl formate, etc. Monochrotophos is admissible for beanfly control on legumes only in the following formulations Nuvacron 30SCW, Azadrin 168, Azodrin-202R, -150, -202 and -137.


China disallows electronic scrap

China has banned e-waste imports with effect from 1 November 2004. This ban follows a notice circulated by the Ministry of Commerce, the General Administration of Customs and the State Environmental Protection Administration. The list of prohibited items include most old or scrap electronics. Apart from the restrictions, the new regulations also tighten existing rules on handling imports of some accepted material.

Used television sets and other such electronics waste have been banned from entering into China. The new regulation includes a list of illegal goods, mainly electronic goods, and stringent restrictions on the manner in which imports that are still allowed are handled. A government newspaper has reported that nations like Japan and the United States have traditionally dumped goods such as televisions and refrigerators in China as scrap.


Eliminating e-wastes

In India, a major concern plaguing information technology (IT) decision makers is getting rid of unwanted IT equipment. Since PCs lose nearly all their economic value after 24-36 months, experts opine that, as one of the largest users of IT infrastructure, governments must draft an asset-disposition programme. The Delhi government has seriously considered the hazards of IT waste and has issued a policy focused on condemnation of IT equipment and their disposal. The policy of condemnation of IT equipment takes into consideration equipment such as PCs, servers, dumb terminals, UPS, printers, laptops, packaged software and even technical books/manuals pertaining to hardware and software. The condemned equipment may be used in areas like research project, training at different polytechnics or government schools. If at all possible, the condemned equipment can also be sold to vendors under buy-back schemes.


India restricts import of plastic scrap

Most developed countries have been dumping scrap plastics, which are often deemed toxic, into developing nations. In India, new regulations are to be framed to prevent export-oriented units (EOUs) from importing plastic scrap/wastes. This issue came under scrutiny when one of the leading recycling companies, Poly-Beek Kunststoffe of Germany, applied for government approval to invest in a new recycling company. The proposal did not receive support as the Export Promotion Board had previously taken a policy decision to not allow new units to be set up and ban imports of scrap plastics even for EOUs. While giving Poly-Beek permission to invest in Amber Waste Recycling, the Foreign Investment Board has attached specific riders, including that the EOU will source scrap/waste locally. Poly-Beek plans to invest in the Indian company, which will be involved in collecting, sorting, trading, recycling all kinds of scraps and the goods manufactured from it.


Waste management in the Philippines

Local governments in the Philippines are mandated to graduate from just any dumpsite to controlled dumpsites, then sanitary landfills. This measure is the result of the Republic Act 9003 or the Philippine Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. In 2005, fines and penalties, as well as incentives, shall be enforced to guarantee effective waste management. Mr. Gwen Garcia, the Governor of Cebu province, set up a Technical Working Group (TWG) to draft a solid waste management plan (SWMP). The TWG comprises representatives from PPDO, Health Office, the Office of the Provincial Engineer, Agriculture, EMB-DENR-7, industry (MA-VILL and PASS), and from the civil societies of Cebu (PCEEM, SOW Centre, RAFI, Mag-uugmad), among others.

The TWG has met several times to discuss data and other needs for the Cebu Province SWMP. Municipal reports have been requested for and nearly 22 out of 53 municipalities and cities have submitted, with 13 per cent of these presenting solid waste management data. The DILG, through Nef Villagonzalo and PPDO, will intensify efforts to influence the remaining municipalities to provide vital data for the completion of the plan. The rest of the TWG members have agreed to do their share of data collection and analysis to fast-track the completion of the SWMP. Initial statistics presented by PCEEM and Mag-uugmad related to waste characterization in certain sample areas, and showed yard, wood and paper waste to compose about 60-65 per cent of total waste and 60-64 per cent of it were non-biodegradables, comprising 9-14 per cent plastics and 8-14 per cent mixed non-biodegradables (like styro and cloth). Apart from problematic toxic wastes (hospital and industrial wastes), the other major problem faced in the province is high incidence of waste burning (including plastics).


New fund to enable implementation of Clean Air Act

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) of the Philippines expects more aggressive implementation of the Clean Air Act with the setting up of a new fund that enables it to obtain logistical requirements. DENR Secretary Mr. Michael T. Defensor secured support for the fund from the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) after it was found that the laws implementation was being hampered by insufficient finances. The Joint Memorandum Circular No. 01, Series of 2004, also known as the Implementing Guidelines on the Operationalization of the Air Quality Management Fund (AQMF), under the Republic Act No. 8749 or Clean Air Act was signed by Mr. Defensor and DBM Secretary Ms. Emilia Boncodin. As such, the AQMF shall be set up as a special account in the National Treasury, that will be administered by DENR through the Environment Management Bureau. It allows the use of AQMF to:
  • Fund containment, removal and clean-up operations;
  • Guarantee restoration of ecosystems and rehabilitate despoiled areas;
  • Support research, enforcement and monitoring activities as well as capacity building of implementing agencies; and
  • Provision for technical support.

AQMF will also finance the hiring of monitors to supervise airsheds and purchase of equipment for air quality monitoring, reporting and management. Resources for the AQMF shall include air emission charges from vehicles and industrial facilities; fines and penalties; grants, donations and endowments from both private sector and organization donors; and fees collected from the processing of permits.



PET waste recycling

Multipet, Germany, can recycle waste PET in accordance with a very specific procedure to obtain high-quality flakes. Pre-sorted plastics is re-sorted, ground and cleansed. The material is isolated from impurities and sorted into groups utilizing a special density-separation procedure. After the drying process, plastic flakes are obtained which are rich in colours and qualities for use as raw material in the production of new products.

Contact: Multipet, Gesellschaft fur PET Recycling mbH, Parkstr.17, D 06406 Bernburg, Germany.Tel: +49(3471) 6404-0; Fax: +49(3471) 6404 199


Plastic analyser

Niton, a well-known manufacturer of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrumentation, has now released a portable plastics analyser. The X-ray tube-based hand-held XLt 794 complies with EU directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances. An exclusive calibration algorithm effectively covers the wide range of plastics employed in manufacturing, while eliminating any need for interaction or calibrations. Reported to surpass both traditional empirical and Compton Normalization algorithms, XLt 794 employs a special Fundamental Parameters algorithm a versatile method that automatically makes up for extreme matrix interferences.

The easy-to-use XLt 794 automatically encrypts, stores and locks all analysis results to guard against unauthorized editing. Engineered to be environmentally sealed and rugged to withstand rain, dust and other harsh industrial and field conditions the XLt 794 comes calibrated for the quantification of cadmium, chromium, antimony, tin, lead, mercury, bromine and other toxic metals. Chlorine analysis is also available for sorting PVC-based materials in recycling and waste streams.

Contact: Niton, Billerica, Massachusetts, United States of America. Tel: +1 (978) 6707 460; Fax: +1 (978) 6707 430; E-mail: ; Or Niton Europe, Munchen, Germany. Tel: +49 (89) 3681 360; Fax: +49 (89) 3681 3830




Cryogenic process for vinyl scrap

A company formed by the merger of Custom Cryogenic Grinding Corp. (CCG) and Parma Plastics, CCG/Parma, offers proprietary specialized cryogenic process to separate and grind vinyl, plastic and rubber scrap into reusable raw materials. CCG/Parma currently prevents roughly 26,280-54,420 kg/month of scrap vinyl from the manufacture and installation of roofing membranes from going to landfills by using it to make walkway pads. Manufactured employing cryogenic and extrusion technology, the roof walkway pad vinyl mats are fastened on to vinyl roofing membranes so that workers can walk on a roof without damaging it. The company also reprocesses post-industrial and post-consumer vinyl from products like car dashboards, bookbinders, pool liners, car and furniture edging, and carpet.


High-quality raw material from waste

Knowaste LLC is offering patented technology to effectively separate and sanitize various components of absorbent hygiene products e.g. super absorbent polymers (SAP), plastics and wood fibres into high-quality raw materials. The valuable end products can be sold to makers of wallpaper, shoe insoles, plastic building materials and others who make use of recycled components in their products.

The process begins with shredding the incoming material and passing the shredded fraction into a pulper. Pulping action opens up the material, thus exposing the components to chemical treatment. Plastics fraction is removed by finger conveyors and sent to trommels for processing, where residual fibres and waste are removed by washing. The plastics are then pressed and pelletized for sale. The pulped stream moves on to coarse screening where residual plastics are removed and conveyed to the trommels. The pulp stream is chemically treated to deactivate the SAP, enabling it to be separated from the fibre. The deactivated SAP, along with residual small plastics, is separated from the fibre through a cleaning procedure. Deactivated SAP is collected and reactivated for reuse. Fibres obtained after going through a fine mechanical washing, cleaning and screening procedure are pressed, baled and sold. Water extracted from the thickening and washing steps is sent for internal treatment utilizing a dissolved air clarifier and recycled in the system as dilution water.

Contact: Mr. Roy B.A. Brown, Knowaste LLC.



Detection and sorting PET by colour

A new system from Mogensen to detect and sort PET flakes complies with the high requirements essential to obtain optimum starting materials for the fibre and packaging industry. MikroSort AF0916 sorts up to 1.6 t/h of PET flakes by colour and removes any trace incorrect colours almost fully. Parts with a minimum size of 2 mm can be removed by this system, which can be easily integrated into existing plants.

The Mogensen sorter vibrates and loosens up material in the feeder to form a single layer of particles and conveys it to a chute. The material is accelerated, and is scanned by a colour line camera either on the chute or below the edge of the chute during free fall. An industrial parallel computer evaluates these images. Depending on individual programme settings, results are transmitted to one or more compressed air valves, which eject the unwanted parts out of the flow.

Contact: Website:


Recycling plastics from waste electrical appliances

Sekisui Plastics Co. of Japan has developed technology to transform plastics recovered from discarded electrical appliances into packaging materials. As such, a closed cycle system can be established using plastics from the same variety of appliances. Expandable polystyrene (EPS) beads thus obtained are sold as EPSREM ERX. Initially, EPS beads produced using plastic back panels of television sets reclaimed at recycling plants will be supplied as packaging material for Sharps Aquos liquid crystal televisions. Inherent properties of the plastic resin used in electrical appliances enable the newly developed beads to exhibit superior qualities in terms of shock absorption than the firms existing expandable beads made from other recycled materials.


Clean technology for plastic recycling

Researchers at Jadavpur University, India, have developed a clean technology for recycling waste plastics. Green Plastic Recycling Process will benefit plastic recycling facilities by lowering pollutant discharge by up to 90 per cent. The new equipment can easily be retrofitted with existing machinery at a cost of about US$680 to US$1,130 for machines processing between 50 to 150 kg.


Rapid identification of plastics

At the University of Southampton, the United Kingdom, researchers have developed a unique machine, based on infrared technology, that provides an innovative solution to the problem of identifying plastics. PolyAna system allows for speedy identification of plastics for recycling purposes and does not necessitate a specialist operator. The mobile unit includes a patented infra-red system which is supported by Portasort, a specially designed database that lists all commonly known plastics. Within seconds of a sample being scanned, the class is identified.

PolyAna can uniquely identify up to 2,000 different plastics currently utilized in consumer and industrial products. Apart from its use in recycling, PolyAna can also be used in quality control and product benchmarking. PolyAna was developed as part of a research project funded by Ford Motor Co.


Fuel from plastics

In the United States, researchers at Penn States College of Agricultural Sciences Centre for Plasticulture has been awarded a grant by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture to fabricate a machine for producing charcoal briquette-sized nuggets made using various waste plastics. The current prototype is a small, hand-operated system. The US$87,395 grant will be utilized to make a machine that can produce about 226 kg/h of Plastofuel.

A major drawback in conventional methods is that mulch films must be cleaned before the sheets are melted. The Penn State team has found a way to use more plastics while expending less energy. They have developed a process in which the outer layer of plastic is melted to hold the Plastofuel together. This yields a nugget comprising waste plastics with a hard outer covering. Compared with pellet-sized plastics, the new nugget-sized plastics allow many more recycled plastics to be used without having to be cleaned for the process. In addition to mulch film, other products like drip irrigation tubes, plastic pots and plastics used to make greenhouses can be used.



Incinerators toast medical wastes

Chemical Technology Institute, Viet Nam, has developed new medical incineration units with a capacity to combust 3 kg/h of medical wastes, which include used syringes, glass debris, injection needles, bandages and compresses. At peak capacity, the systems can process 20 kg in 6 h. These incinerators are 40 per cent cheaper than imported models and suitable for waste treatment at district and commune-level healthcare centres, relevant companies and enterprises, and centres for drug rehabilitation. The user-friendly units process the toxic gas discharged while burning the wastes. Smaller incinerators, with a capacity of about 0.3 kg/h, can also be fabricated.


Microwave-based waste treatment

Ateliers Mecaniques Du Borinage (AMB), Belgium, offers a patented microwave disinfection system for toxic medical wastes. The process, approved by the French Ministry of Health, involves grinding and heating wastes employing microwaves; temperatures nearing 100C can be achieved. The system allows for perfect cost control by minimizing treatment, storage and transportation. The treated waste can be disposed of by traditional incineration process or transported to landfills.


Plasma used to get rid of toxic wastes

Plasma Pyrolysis Systems (PPS) Inc., the United States, is offering technology for application of plasma pyrolysis to destroy toxic medical and industrial wastes in a mobile system. Pyrolysis is the process of decomposing matter by adding heat. While incinerators operate at less than 1,000C, plasma pyrolysis reactors can be sustained at several thousand degrees centigrade. At these temperatures, all biological constituents are rendered benign and all molecules are dissociated into their elemental forms.

PPS trailer-mounted system can process 160 kg/h of liquid, solid or sludge wastes. Dimensions of the reactor are 1.25 m (diameter) 2 m (length). The unit can be packaged in standard 20 ft shipping containers and delivered as turnkey operational systems. Though the system needs 360 kW of power, the size and power requirement of the system can be scaled up or down to suit individual needs.

Contact: Callink International LLC, United States of America. Tel: +1 (916) 6833 388; Fax: +1 (916) 6831 688; E-mail:  Or Dr. James T. Woo, InterScience Inc., United States of America. Tel: +1 (518) 2837 500; Fax: +1 (518) 2837 502



Plasma technology for waste treatment

Hawaii Medical Vitrification of the United States offers an environmentally sound solution to medical and infectious waste disposal. Plasma Arc Technology (PAT) unit attains temperatures at times surpassing 8,316C, ensuring total molecular destruction of all toxic, biological and pathological material. Waste is efficiently converted into non-leachable glass and hydrogen-rich gas, which may be used as a fuel source to generate electricity, while recovering the available metals. Notable benefits include up to 200:1 solid volume reduction and 100 per cent recyclability.

The PAT plasma/joule system is a leading edge disposal technology that overcomes all the inadequacies inherent in conventional solutions for disposing medical and infectious waste.

Contact Hawaii Medical Vitrification, 1088, Bishop Street, Suite 1130, Honolulu, HI 96813, United States of America.


Medical waste incinerators

India-based Allied Furnaces offers incinerators to handle various types of biomedical wastes. The modular and compact units reduce wastes by transforming it into sterile ash. Easy to operate and maintain, the incinerators feature low fuel usage, built-in safety features and do not emit smoke or odours. The following wastes can be handled:
  • Blood soaked cotton and other septic material;
  • Placenta and body fluids;
  • Human/animal body parts;
  • Human organic matter;
  • Clinical and pathological wastes;
  • Blood bags, gloves, PVC drip bottles, etc.; and
  • Garden, paper, canteen waste and garbage.
    The systems conform to stipulations set by the government for effective incineration, such as:
  • Twin chamber system, with minimum temperature of 800C50C in primary chamber and 1,050C50C in secondary chamber, and a minimum combustion efficiency of 99 per cent;
  • Residence time of flue gases at least 1 second at 1,050C;
  • Minimum oxygen content in the stack must be 3 per cent;
  • Organic matters in ash be not more than 0.01 per cent; and
  • Emission standards as admissible under regulations.

Contact: Allied Furnaces, Allied House, Road No. 1, Opp. B.M.C. M Ward Office, Chembur, Mumbai 400 071, Maharashtra, India. Tel: +91 (22) 2528 4028-32/5597 3018-20; Fax: +91 (22) 2528 3805



New medical waste processing system

TireLess Technologies offers Hansen Processor Technology that includes different technical advancements, which enable clean and efficient conversion of waste tyre rubber or medical waste (red bag type) into valuable marketable commodities, products and electricity. The Hansen Processor (HPT) is vastly superior to conventional pyrolysis systems. HPT transmits its energy directly to the targeted process material without using inefficient conventional heat transferring methods such as fluidized bed.

Contact: E-mail:


Pyrolysis/vitrification system

In the United States, HI Disposal Systems LLC and PEAT Inc. have developed and patented a plasma-based pyrolysis/vitrification (PBPV) system. This unit employs plasma energy to treat medical and other specific waste streams, converting the waste into a low-BTU gas and glassy slag. Both are reusable. The treatment technology lowers waste volume by 95-98 per cent and weight by 80-90 per cent. Except for radioactive waste, other types of medical wastes, including cytotoxic agents, sharps and anatomical wastes, can be treated. The system can even handle toxic material, incinerator ash, explosives and other hazardous wastes. HIs PBPV units can handle from about 454 kg/h (system-A) to 1,362 kg/h (system-B) of wastes.

Main components of the PBPV unit are waste feed handling, storage bin, plasma heating system, waste processing chamber, product gas treatment, water treatment equipment, aggregate cooling and handling, and controls. Contact: Hawkins Industries Inc. and HI Disposal Systems LLC, P.O. Box 1724, Indianapolis, IN 46206 1724, United States of America. Tel: +1 (317) 6931 265; Fax: +1 (317) 2621 265




Old mobile phones used to grow flowers

In the United Kingdom, a research team at the University of Warwicks Warwick Manufacturing Group, has devised an innovative way to recycle discarded mobile telephones. Led by Dr. Kerry Kirwan, scientists along with PVAXX R&D Ltd. and Motorola created a mobile telephone case/cover that when discarded can be simply placed in compost so that in a few weeks the case starts to disintegrate and turn into flower. This was achieved by incorporating two changes into the cover. First, a special formulation of PVAXXs biodegradable polymer range was developed, together with materials experts at Warwick, that produces a high quality finish but which also biodegrades easily in soil. Secondly, engineers at Warwick University created a small transparent window in the case in which a seed is embedded. The seed is visible to the environmentally aware mobile phone user but will not germinate until the phone cover is recycled. For the first prototype mobile covers, the team has used dwarf sunflower seeds.


Plasma furnace eats electronic wastes

In China, a plasma high-temperature decomposing furnace has been developed to deal with toxic electronic constituents by researchers at the Institute of Plasma. Tests have been completed on the new oxygen-free furnace. Capable of decomposing electronic wastes into gases, glass and metals, the furnace uses a 150 kW electric arc. The three terminal products exit through separate discharge channels. While the glass fraction can serve as construction material, metals can be recycled, literally achieving zero emission. The plasma decomposer can handle 500 kg/d of circuit boards and several other toxic wastes such as batteries, medical wastes and tyres.


Recovering electronics waste

Under a new project funded under the European Commissions SME-oriented cooperative research programme, a group of companies and research institutes report to have made notable strides in developing a process that allows recovery of metals and other components from waste electronics. The collaboration, which arose from initial discussions between Hikson SA of France and the University of Thessaly, Greece, was essentially a vertical partnership between players with complementary interests related to different aspects of metal recovery and the electronic product life cycle:
  • Prime proposer Savigny, France, a fabricator and machiner of metallic components, contributed its knowledge of thermal treatment methods and automation systems, with a view to eventual involvement in the market for recycling of electronic products;
  • M&S Hourdakis, Greece, as a manufacturer of copper laminates sought to reclaim value from waste generated during production that currently incurs disposal charges;
  • Bronze, Greece, saw the action as a potential answer to its constant need for acquiring supplies of high-purity copper for incorporation into its output of specialized alloys;
  • Future Technology Systems of Greece with expertise in rapid prototyping, provided assistance in the development of equipment and process technology; and
  • Hikson undertook the realization, installation and operation of the pilot unit, which included a computerized system to monitor functional and environmental performance.

The partners focused on reclamation of copper from laminate scrap, a logical starting point because the composition of virgin laminates is simpler than PCBs containing a full complement of elements. Based on the findings of a feasibility study, the team created a purpose-designed system with the capacity to treat 1-2 kg/min of laminate scrap. This oven, known as Rotofluid, contains a rotating track upon which some 800 kg of heated sand is consistently circulated. Hopper-fed scrap is immediately buried in the sand, where it is subjected to an instant thermal jolt in the absence of air. As such, the resin content of the laminate is partially carbonized and its adhesive link to the copper foil broken. The metal can thus be separated and recovered, still retaining its original 99.9+ per cent purity.

A major benefit of the continuous Rotofluid process is that the volume of scrap being treated at any one time is restricted and controllable, which simplifies the elimination of undesirable gaseous effluents in a post-combustion scrubber.

Contact: Mr. Herve Hellio, Hikson SA, 12 rue du Stand, BP 43 F 10700 Arcis sur Aube, France. Tel: +33 (3) 2537 02 37; Fax: +33 (3) 2537 0708




Decomposing fluorinated organic compounds

The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) of Japan has reported that the Potential Pollutants Group at its Research institute for Environmental Management Technology has developed a new method for decomposing and detoxifying perfluorocarboxylic acids, the typical organic fluorine compounds. Using heteropolyacid, a photocatalyst, the new system decomposes perfluorocarboxylic acids into fluoride ion and carbon dioxide at room temperature and at a low energy level. Furthermore, fluoride ions generated can be transformed into calcium fluoride using calcium treatment. At present, organic fluoride preparations are used,in spite of its adverse environmental impact, in various items, which range from surface-active agents to polymers to liquid crystal.


New thermal desorption systems

ECC Corporate, the United States, offers direct-fired low-temperature thermal desorption (LTTD) system that volatilizes, captures and isolates organic contaminants from soil or sludge into a vapour stream which is then oxidized for final treatment/disposal. The contaminated soil is heated in a rotary dryer to remove the pollutants. The dryer burner (40 MBTU/h) fuelled by natural gas, LPG or diesel is located opposite to the feed conveyor. Heated air is blown directly into the rotating chamber, in the opposite direction to soil movement, maximizing heat exposure to individual particles. Near the design temperature of up to 550C, contaminants are volatized from the soil and transferred to the dryer gas stream. Particulate-laden air stream is sent to a multiclone and oxidizer system where particulate matter is removed and the contaminant-laden vapour is combusted. Contaminant removal rates of 99.9999 per cent is achieved, using a second burner and the soils residual heat.

EC Clean is an indirectly heated thermal desorption system, which removes PCB contaminants from soil without combustion, assuring that waste does not burn. The desorption procedure heats soil in a dryer, boiling contaminants off the soil particles and rendering the soil clean. Vapour pollutants are removed from the dryer and further refined to a small solid waste stream safe for shipping to a processing facility for final disposal. The key component to soil contaminant removal is a patented variable-speed triple dryer that features treatment rates in excess of 25 t/h. A flame source of 30 MBTU/h output indirectly heats the rotary unit dryer, with its enhanced heat transfer, optimizing thermal efficiency. Treatment design with soil discharge temperatures of around 482C has demonstrated PCB elimination to less than 1 ppm from soil. The dryer is maintained under vacuum in an inert (less than 5 per cent oxygen) atmosphere to ensure that no ignition of the volatiles takes place during the desorption phase.

Contact: ECC Corporate, # 1240, Bayshore Highway, Burlingame, CA 94010, United States of America. Tel: +1 (650) 3471 555; Fax: +1 (650) 3478 789.


Polypropylene eliminates dioxins

Scientists from the research centre Forschungszentrum, Germany, have developed a simple polypropylene (PP) filter that can be used to remove dioxins from exhaust gas streams instead of relying on active carbon filters or costly catalytic methods. The PP filter forms the basis of a new absorption/desorption system. The process is based on the property of plastics to absorb dioxins at low temperature and desorb at higher temperatures. Up to 99 per cent removal efficiencies can be achieved. The filter works in three successive steps:
  • Waste gas with dioxins is guided through a layer of PP granules at about 60-80C;
  • Dioxin-laden granules is passed through a second filter, where the dioxins are desorbed; and
  • Dioxin loaded air is returned for incineration where the dioxins are burned at temperatures exceeding 850C. Next, the regenerated PP is transported to the first filter and the absorption/desorption process begins all over again.


Decontaminating PCB-tainted electrical equipment

Sanexen Environmental Services Inc. of Canada is offering a new decontamination process for PCB- contaminated electrical equipment transformers, circuit breakers and electromagnets which also allows for recovery of the metallic fraction. Decontaksolv process relies on the use of a solvent in a closed circuit to extract PCBs from carcasses and internal components of electrical equipment. Decontamination results from solvent phase changes within PCB-laden materials. The cycles used allow in-depth penetration into the interstices of the contaminated material and thus transfer PCBs in solution within the extraction fluid.

The mobile system requires about 3 to 6 14 m flatbeds for transport, depending on the extent of work to be carried out. Installation requires a flat surface of 30 40 m and can take from 2-12 working days. A team of 6-10 people can operate the decontamination process and perform the necessary material handling. Solvent used for decontamination is regenerated through distillation.

Contact: Mr. Jean Paquin, Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., 579, Le Breton St. Longueuil (Quebec), J4G 1R9, Canada. Tel: +1 (450) 6467 878; Fax: +1 (450) 6465 127



Removal of PCBs

Envio Germany GmbH and Co. KG, Germany, offers a non-combustion technology to decontaminate PCB-containing electric equipment, PCB liquids and other PCB-containing substances. The well-proven Low-temperature Rinsing and Reuse/Recovery (LTR2) decontamination technology was developed by ABB group, a leading manufacturer of transformers and a major provider of technical services for transformers and capacitors.

Following the removal of PCB liquid, PCB residues in the transformer is cleaned with a cleaning fluid under proper and safe process conditions. Distillate processing of the solvent permits minimization of liquid waste. The transformers can be detoxified to remain below legally permissible limits for PCBs and thus can be put back into use.

An LTR2 treatment facility is subdivided into a flushing unit, which warrants rinsing of the transformer with the solvent, and a distillation unit to extract PCB from the solvent after rinsing of the transformer. PCB recovered from the cleaning fluid is intermediately stored for subsequent destruction. Distillation with thermal coupling permits energy savings and gentle treatment of the cleaning medium.

Contact: Envio Germany GmbH and Co. KG, Kanalstr. 25, 44147 Dortmund, Germany. Tel: +49 (231) 9982 200; Fax: +49 (231) 9982 202



Eliminating dioxins and furans

Kara Energy Systems B.V., based in the Netherlands, offers a system for removing gaseous dioxins and furans. If this system is extended with an injection unit for ammonia or urea, the filter is suitable for NOx removal also. The filter comprises a cartridge filter unit that contains catalytic material in pellet form with a specific composition. The filter neutralizes any dioxins present in the gas, by a quick chemical reaction on the catalysts surface. Optimal results are achieved by the addition of ozone in some cases. Mounted in a RVS casing, the filter cartridges can be equipped with a compressed air cleaning system to remove dust.

Contact: Kara Energy Systems B.V., Plesmanweg 27, 7602 PD Almelo, the Netherlands.


Dioxin destruction

NatSteel EnviroTech Pte. Limited, Singapore, is offering Shell Dioxin Destruction System (SDDS), which facilitates dioxins to be reduced to extremely low levels at low flue gas temperatures. Two key features that enable this objective to be achieved is the catalyst and the module which contains the catalyst. The proven low-temperature technique for dioxin emission reduction is cost-effective, compared with other dioxin control technologies.

S-090 is a high activity, high metals loaded catalyst with high surface area and porosity. These traits give S-090 its low-temperature activity. The physical shape of the catalyst is typically a trilobe extrudate of roughly 1.6-3.2 mm diameter and nominally 6.4-12.7 mm length. The catalyst is contained in a stainless steel module called a Lateral Flow Reactor House.

Contact: Mr. Jonson Lai, General Manager, NatSteel
EnviroTech Pte. Ltd., 26, Tanjong Kling Road, Singapore 628051. Tel: +65 6265 2181/2437; Fax: +65 6265 9942/6261 0840



Decomposing dioxins in flue gas

Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. (MES), Japan, offers a new system for the decomposition of dioxins in flue gas. Diocatalyzer facilitates the removal of dioxins by catalytic reaction, which occurs on the surfaces of catalyst blocks in a honeycomb structure when the flue gas passes through the reactor tower. Dioxins are diffused into micro pores in the catalyst, absorbed on the catalysts surface and reacted in decomposition with the elements of the catalytic activity to form carbon dioxide (CO2), water and hydrogen chloride. Salient features include:
  • Extremely high removal rate for dioxins, exhibiting high performance even at low temperatures (<200C);
  • Simultaneous removal of NOx is feasible by adding ammonia; and
  • Reformation of dioxins can be avoided because of decomposition of the benzene ring by oxidative decomposition reaction.

Contact: MES, 4-6, Nishikasai 8-chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 134 0088, Japan. Tel/Fax: +81 (3) 3675 6893/6429.



Solvent distillation plant

Solvent Rescue Ltd., New Zealand, offers a distillation system to recover solvents. Highest possible recovery is achieved by:
  • Automatic continuous stirring and scraping of polluted solvent by a unique new process;
  • High vacuum to distil essentially all vapours out of the residue;
  • Effective two-step condensation of solvent vapour;
  • Rendering of the residue to near solid and environmentally safe state. At the end of a run the residue is quickly, effectively and automatically scraped out into a receptacle by a powerful scraper; and
  • Quick and dependable steam heating.

The size of the distillation unit is for a load of 1,050 l, which matches five large 210 l drums of contaminated solvent. After these are loaded, the unit is switched on and about 12-16 h later the unit signals the solvent extraction is essentially complete by measuring the stiffness of the residue. The residue is emptied by opening the drain and allowing the powerful scraper to move the residue out to the receptacle for solidification. Clear solvent is then pumped out from the clean product tank to delivery drums.

Contact: Solvent Rescue Ltd., P.O. Box 7329, Unit 3, 37 Coleridge St., Christchurch, New Zealand. Tel: +64 (3) 3665 018; Fax: +64 (3) 3665 019



Recovering perchloroethylene

In Australia, Quality Dry Cleaners has installed a new system which enables recovery and reuse of the solvent perchloroethylene. Donini 200 Perchloroethylene Extraction Unit has helped improve quality while decreasing the volume of waste. Solvent part of the waste produced is reduced substantially and waste oils diminished by 20 per cent. The Donini extraction unit reduces the concentration of perchloroethylene in liquid waste through distillation, allowing the solvent to be recovered and reused in the cleaning process. The unit requires 3-4 h to treat 250 l of liquid waste containing 20 per cent solvent and processes about 1,240 l of liquid/week.

Contact: Mr. Fred Meyer, Director, Quality Dry Cleaners, 277, Hanson Road, Wingfield SA 5013, Australia. Tel: +61 (8) 8347 3299.


Solvent recovery system

A United States-based company, Carbon Resources, offers solvent recovery systems that have proved to be very cost-effective in industrial applications with high volume, low-concentration streams of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The first section of the Environmental C&C fluid bed VOC control solvent recovery system includes a series of perforated plate adsorption trays. Contaminated process gas enters from the bottom passing upward via adsorption trays, fluidizing the media and adsorbing the VOCs. The VOC saturated adsorbent flows to the bottom of the absorber vessel, from where it is evacuated at a slow, steady rate and transferred to the desorber. Meanwhile, regenerated adsorbent is continuously fed at the top of the absorber vessel, providing counter-current VOC removal.

In the desorber, the temperature of the adsorbent material is raised, inducing it to discharge the VOC pollutants into a low-volume, inert carrier gas stream. The cleaned adsorption material is then returned to the top of the adsorption vessel for reuse. The concentrated tainted stream is so small that it can often be treated with a simple afterburner or recovered for reuse or disposal through condensation. A crucial key to achieving high performance levels is a new carbonaceous adsorption material. The small spherical beads provide a high surface region for adsorption. More hydrophobic than standard activated carbon, the beads can handle gas flows with a relative humidity of 90 per cent of higher. With an attrition rate of less than 1 per cent/year, maintenance and operating costs are extremely low.

This system can easily achieve flow volume reduction ratios of 1,000:1 to as high as 10,000:1, allowing for several final treatment options. The system is available in sizes ranging from 200 cfm to over 100,000 cfm, with either condensation systems for solvent reclamation or thermal oxidizers for VOC destruction. About 95-99 per cent removal or recovery rates can be achieved. Because of the high turndown ratio, these back end units are considerably smaller than stand-alone systems, saving on capital expenditures.

Contact: Carbon Resources, United States of America.



Solvent gas treatment system

Toyobo Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering a solvent gas treatment system that guarantees low operating costs and high efficiency. Based on K-Filter, a patented activated carbon fibre, the KPR solvent gas treatment unit exhibits its greatest efficiencies when applied to exhaust streams with a fairly large air flow rate and low solvent concentration. The unit comprises two parts, a main section and a disposal section. The main section centres around the KPR rotor, fabricated using K-Filter, which has superior adsorption-desorption qualities. This is combined with the disposal section, which includes a catalytic oxidizer or solvent recovery apparatus or a direct combustion incinerator, depending on individual requirements.

In effect, the system comprises a total pollution control programme and is available in three types.

Contact: Toyobo Co. Ltd., AC Department, 2-8, Dojima Hama, 2 Chome, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 8230, Japan. Tel/Fax: +81 (6) 6348 3370/3418.


High-quality recovery of solvents

Waste Recovery Designed Products Inc., the United States, is offering an affordable, high-quality solvent recovery system. Key features of the system are:
  • Heating element is submerged in heat transfer oil solvent does not come in direct contact with the heating surface;
  • Teflon lid gasket is designed to be reversible;
  • All electrical components are UL or CSA approved and comply with or exceed UL 2208 specifications;
  • NFPA safety circuit requirements are fulfilled and the current switching components are intrinsically safe;
  • The boiler meets or exceeds all ASME welding statutes and NFPA code 86, 304 stainless steel; and
  • Safety features and specifications include lid protection, motion sensor, product over-temperature shut-off, water sensing switch, oil over-temperature sensor and cycle timer.

The SQG-2, SQG-5, SQG-10 and SQG-20 models have safety circuits based on industrial PLC control logic and aerospace design principles that are not found in competing systems.

Contact: Waste Recovery Designed Products Inc., 1217, Laurel Hill Rd., McDonald, PA 15057, United States of America. Fax: +1 (724) 9265 114.


Reclaiming solvents

Italia Sistemi Tecnologici s.r.l. (IST), Italy, is offering systems in four new ranges for solvent recovery. In all the systems, the solvent to be recovered is poured into an AISI 304 stainless steel tank and brought to a boil. Vapours separate from the polluting substances such as ink, grease, paint, pigments, resin etc. (non-volatile share) then pass through an air-cooled condenser and finally flow down into the collecting tank. Residuals remaining inside the tank can be extracted by the pivoting system or distillation bags, which facilitate easier tank cleaning and higher concentration of residuals. The new range of systems include:
  • IST C1 and C2 models are suitable for small and medium firms with limited solvent consumption. The working cycle is driven by a timer;
  • IST 10N, 15N, 22N, 42N and 62N models are for firms with medium solvent consumption. The entirely automatic working cycle is driven by three thermostats, which allow the possibility to control the cycle based on vapour temperature read-out;
  • IST 10N, 15N, 22N, 42N and 62N digit series are also intended for companies with medium solvent consumption. The fully automatic working cycle is driven by a digital microprocessor that enables various operational functions diagnostics with error signal, programmed signal for maintenance, option for control programming of the working cycle based on vapour temperature read-out or a timed end of the cycle; and
  • IST 10, 15, 22, 42, 62 EExd are suitable for those with a medium solvent consumption. The working cycle in the explosion-proof version is completely automatic and driven by three thermostats, which allow the possibility to control the cycle based on vapour temperature read-out.

Contact: Italia Sistemi Tecnologici s.r.l., via S. Anna, 590/A, 41100 Modena, Italy. Tel: +39 (59) 314 305; Fax: +39 (59) 315 726


Steam-heated distillation plants

Ofru Recycling GmbH and Co. KG, Germany, is offering steam-heated distillation units to reclaim solvents. Salient features of the ASC-150 and ASC-300 models include:
  • Automatic solvent feeding;
  • 12 kW power with inside steam generator for fast and professional recovery;
  • Built-in agitator with excellent rotating scraper blades eliminates the need for cleaning;
  • All solvent parts are made of stainless steel for best resistance;
  • Controlled by Siemens microprocessor; and
  • TUV/ATEX proofed, quality and safety certified.

ASC-150 has a recovery rate of 50-150 l/h while ASC-300 distills about 80-180 l/h.

Contact: Ofru Recycling GmbH and Co. KG, In den Steinaeckern 26, D 64832 Babenhausen, Germany. Tel: +49 (6073) 7203-0; Fax: +49 (6073) 7203-90




Recycling electro-plating process baths

Goema AG is offering a recycling process for zinc-nickel alloy baths employed in the electroplating and metallochemistry industry. A special vacuum evaporator module uses a closed thermal separation method to remove organic wastes, dirt and other impurities. These can then be disposed of or reused. Distilled water and zinc-nickel electrolyte are sent back to the bath, enabling a fully closed circuit. The company reports that nearly 90 per cent of useable substances, metals and other bath materials can be recycled.

The compact system is fabricated of stainless and is available in models with outputs ranging from 50 l/h to 5,000 l/h. It can work conventionally from the mains ac electricity supply with a power consumption of about 18 kWh/m3 or can be specified with its own Goema heat pump, giving the vacuum evaporator module a power consumption of 80-160 kWh/m3 and enhanced portability and system volume capabilities. The modular system runs automatically, controlled using an SPC controller, facilitating permanent monitoring and recording of the process parameters set by the end user.

Filtration+Separation,September 2004

Biological treatment system

Nature Environmental Solutions Ltd. (NESL), the United Kingdom, has supplied a continuous type biological treatment unit to a manufacturing company in Denmark. Fabricated in stainless steel by Axium Process Ltd., the 100,000 modular plant is designed to handle 4,500 litres of effluent per hour. The system comprises three custom-designed tanks, a specialist aeration system, semi-automatic controls and comprehensive instrumentation with a facility to link to an existing site SCADA system. The feed unit incorporates a duplex Pure-Screen filter system.

NESL process allows continuous in-stream treatment of effluent waste before it is discharged. The process does not generate any sludge and efficiently reduces all pollutants to less than the discharge parameters fixed by the Danish Environmental Agency.

Contact: Axium Process Limited, Hendy Industrial Estate, Hendy, Swansea SA4 0XP, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1792) 883 882; Fax: +44 (1792) 886 049



Bioreactor system

NGK Insulators Ltd., Japan, offers an anaerobic fixed bed reactor for treating organic wastewater. In the bioreactor, anaerobic microbes are immobilized on permeable ceramic supports to ensure high performance. The ability of this system is 10-20 times superior to ordinary methods employed for treating high-strength wastewater. The system comprises four sections:
  • Receiving tank: Wastewater is stored in this tank to average loading rate for the reactor;
  • Bioreactor: The porous ceramic carrier and circulating pump installed in this reactor;
  • Heat exchanger: Equipped in the circulating line to keep the reactor in either thermophilic or methophilic condition; and
  • Gas holder: For storing biogas.
    Power consumption is less than 10 per cent of conventional activated sludge processes and only a small quantity of sludge is generated.

Contact: Website:


Nanomaterial strips contaminants

Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of the United States report that a unique chemically engineered nanoporous ceramic can remove contaminants from all types of waste streams. The technology, self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports, or SAMMS, is faster than ion exchange resins and activated carbon filters. The nanosponges are constructed from mesoporous supports which are permeable, silica-based ceramics by flowing inside compounds that adhere to the internal surface of the material to self-assemble in a molecular layer. These self-assembling molecules are then coated with an organic monolayer that captures the pollutant.

The chemistry of the self-assembling monolayer can be synchronized to customize the material to sequester a variety of pollutants toxic heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium and lead, anions like arsenate and selenite, and actinides. The high surface area of SAMMS materials, roughly 1,000 m2/g, allows for an extremely high density of binding sites, thus dramatically lowering the amount of garbage produced. The regenerable nanosponges can be used in a wide range of applications, including drinking water purification, site remediation, waste stabilization and wastewater treatment.



Fly-ash collector

Sweetech Engineers, India, offers fly-ash arrestors, Venturi Scrubber Cyclonic type wet Dust Collector which effectively captures 97-99 per cent of particles and lowers the final exhaust emission level to less than 100 mg/Nm3. The venturi throat is set to function at the desired pressure drop for highest collection efficiency. Scrubbed gases make a 90 turn and enter the cyclonic scrubber where separation of gases and free liquid droplets occurs. Slurry is discharged through the bottom and dewatered scrubbed gases are exhausted vertically at the top.

The fly-ash collector is installed after or before the boilers ID fan. It can be installed in existing systems with minor modifications in ID fan ducting to achieve and maintain absolutely clean and pollution-free atmosphere. Potential applications include capturing dusts (sugar dust, coal dust, lime dust, resin dust) carbon black flue gas from rotary kilns, blowtorch cutting fumes, mineral and chemical dust (silica, aluminium chloride, zinc oxide), etc.

Contact: Sweetech Engineers, 5th Floor, Srinath Commercial Complex, SD Road, Secunderabad 500 003, Andhra Pradesh, India. Tel: +91 (40) 2784 3367; Fax: +91 (40) 2784 6516

E-mail: hyd2_ 


Catalytic absorption system to lower NOx emissions

Goal Line Environmental Technologies LLC is offering SCONOx catalytic absorption system for air pollution control. This system uses catalyst covered with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) to lower oxides of nitrogen emissions from natural gas-fired, water-injected turbines.

The catalyst then oxidizes carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). CO2 is exhausted while the NO2 absorbs on to the catalyst to form potassium nitrites (KNO2) and potassium nitrates (KNO3). Dilute hydrogen gas is passed periodically across the surface of the catalyst to regenerate the K2CO3 coating. The regeneration cycle converts KNO2 and KNO3 into K2CO3, water and elemental nitrogen. K2CO3 is thereby made available for further absorption while water and nitrogen are exhausted.

Contact: Dr. Ted D. Guth, Sunlaw Energy Corp., P.O. Box 58324, Los Angeles, CA 90058, United States of America. Tel: +1 (323) 2332 224; Fax: +1 (323) 2337 428




New tool for air pollution control

Air Pollution Control Co., the United States, is offering London Falls, a patented air pollution control technology. The simple, reliable and intelligent technology eliminates the need for maintenance. It comprises an Air Turbo-Impactor and an open sludge collector, two welded sheet metal boxes with considerably small overall dimensions. The Air Turbo-Impactor integrates several tenets of air cleaning venturi inlet, impaction on the liquid surface, centrifugal separation, intermixing with liquid, dynamic liquid curtains and abrupt expansion outlet.

The turbo system traps over sprays, vapours, dust aerosols, VOCs, sulphur dioxide, residues, etc. Areas of use include all types of industrial and commercial air pollution control units painting, food industry, plating, petroleum, welding, wastewater treatment, etc.

Contact: Dr. Ilya London, Air Pollution Control Co., 8766, Tulare Drive, # E404, Huntington Beach, CA 92646, the United States. Tel: +1 (714) 5366 310; Fax: +1 (714) 5366 310




Desulphurizing units

Beijing SJ Environmental Protection and New Material Co. Ltd., China, offers JX-4A desulphurizer and JX-1 ammonia refining desulphurizer units. JX-4A is employed to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from gas or liquid processing over a broad range of temperatures. This system which features high strength, high sulphur capacity, good purification and a wide range of working conditions decreases H2S content to less than 1 g/g. JX-1 is used in sour water stripping ammonia purification systems to remove H2S at low temperatures. It has high sulphur capacity, good purification, high reaction speed and high strength.

The company also offers FP-DSN SOx and NOx transfer catalyst for use in FCCU to lower SOx and NOx in stack gas. SOx and NOx removal ratios of 60 and 70 per cent, respectively, is feasible.

Contact: Beijing SJ Environmental Protection and New Material Co. Ltd., 17F, DaHang JiYe Building, # 33, North Renda Road, Haidian, Beijing 100080, China. Tel: +86 (10) 8268 4990-92; Fax: +86 (10) 6843 6755

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