VATIS Update Waste Management . Jan-Feb 2010

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Waste Management Jan-Feb 2010

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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First meeting of the Global Alliance for alternatives to DDT

In a first step towards establishing global action to develop and deploy alternative products, methods and strategies to DDT for disease vector control, the Interim Steering Committee of the Global Alliance, appointed to guide the process, met in October 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland. The Global Alliance was established by the Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm Convention in May 2009 to bring together all organizations and stakeholders involved in developing and deploying alternatives to DDT for disease vector control and to enhance their collaboration and effectiveness for achieving agreed goals.

While the focus is on introducing DDT alternatives for indoor residual spraying, the Global Alliance will also work in co-ordination with the broader malaria control agenda to support the reduction and control of malaria transmission. Its Interim Steering Committee has 15 members, including representatives from Stockholm Convention Party countries for each regional group, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, donor countries, academic and research institutions, and the private sector.

New ISO standards in recycling ships

Ship recycling contributes to the global conservation of energy and resources. However, if the scrapping process is not carefully controlled, the presence of asbestos, hydrocarbons and other environmentally hazardous substances in ships can have negative repercussions for the environment and human health. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has launched the first document of a new series of management system standards for the recycling of ships – “ISO 30000: Ship recycling management systems” will support environmental protection and increase the safety of workers.

The ISO 30000 series aims to assist organizations implementing or improving a ship recycling management system through guidance on resources allocation, assignment of responsibilities, as well as ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. Mr. Charles Piersall, Chair of ISO technical committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, says that the standards will “increase transparency, facilitate trade, provide a clear reference for industry and constitute a valuable risk assessment tool”. These ISO standards could be used for ships of all types and sizes, employed in international and domestic trades everywhere. Contact: Ms. Maria Lazarte, Communication Officer, Marketing, Communication & Information, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (22) 7490 111; Fax: +41 (22) 7333 430; E-mail:

Chemicals for listing under the Stockholm Convention

The Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC) held its fifth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, from 12 to 16 October 2009. Its 31 members reviewed data on three chemicals proposed for listing in Annexe A, B and/or C of the Convention. They assessed the revised risk profile for short-chained chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and decided to postpone a decision to its next meeting. In the meantime, POPRC will gather more information on SCCP’s environmental and health effects and trends. The Committee reviewed the information provided for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and concluded that HBCD met the criteria for adverse effects – persistence and bio-accumulation and long-range transport – in Annexe D of the Convention and agreed to prepare a risk profile that would be reviewed and considered at its next meeting.

With regard to endosulphan, the Committee reviewed and adopted a revised draft risk profile by which it agrees that the POP characteristics of the chemical warrant global action. The Committee has plans to develop a risk management evaluation document that includes an analysis of possible control measures for consideration at its next meeting and final recommendation for its listing in the Annexes of the Convention. Endosulphan is a pesticide that is very toxic to humans and many other animals, but still widely used in many countries.

Revised national ambient air quality standards in India

India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests recently notified the revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 2009 in the official Gazette. These standards provide a legal framework for the control of air pollution and the protection of public health. The previous NAAQS were notified by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) under the Air Act, 1981, for seven parameters – suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3) and lead (Pb). Thereafter, the government notified NAAQS for six parameters in 1996 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The review of the previous NAAQS and the inclusion of new parameters were undertaken by the Board in association with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

The revised standards include initiatives that have been developed in consonance with global best practices and in keeping with the latest advancements in technology and research. Salient features include: * Area classification based on land use has been discarded so that industrial areas have to conform to the same standards as residential areas; * The standards will have uniform application, with the exception of stringent standards for NOx and SO2 in ecologically sensitive areas; * The previous standards for residential area have been uniformly applied for fine particulate matter (PM10), CO and NH3. More stringent limits for Pb, SO2 and NOx have been prescribed even for residential areas; * SPM as a parameter has been replaced by fine particulate matter, which is more relevant for public health; and * Other new parameters, such as ozone, arsenic, nickel, benzene and benzo-(a)-pyrene (BaP) have been included under NAAQS based on CPCB/IIT research, World Health Organization guidelines, and European Union limits and practices.

Nepal’s apex court intervenes in pesticide management

The Supreme Court of Nepal has directed the government to properly manage some 70 tonnes of highly poisonous pesticides, including a large quantity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The order directs that the pesticides be sent back to the country of origin, as Nepal does not have a system for their safe disposal. The government had procured the pesticides from France, Germany and some other European countries with financial support from the Asian Development Bank to kill pests in farms about three decades ago.

Republic of Korea to cut carbon emissions 30 per cent by 2020

In the Republic of Korea, President Mr. Lee Myung-bak has urged firms to step up preparations for an era of low-carbon and green growth, saying that the government would introduce diverse programmes to help the world fight climate change. The President’s remark came after the Cabinet approved a bold plan to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 4 per cent from the 2005 levels by 2020, making Republic of Korea the first emerging nation to set up a carbon reduction goal. The figure represents a 30 per cent fall from the level predicted for 2020 if carbon emissions increase at their current pace. As the host of the G20 Summit in November 2010, the country wants to play an active role in lowering global dependence on fossil fuels.

According to International Energy Agency, Republic of Korea was the 16th largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world in 2005, producing 538 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. The country has set up a five-year road map to nurture energy-saving and environment-friendly technologies. The administration plans to invest 2 per cent of gross domestic product in promoting green industries. However, business associations are protesting the government’s plan over fears about additional costs required to meet the target.

HCM City pioneers hospital wastewater treatment

Cho Ray hospital in Ho Chi Minh (HCM) City became the first medical institution in Viet Nam to install a wastewater treatment station that employs the anaerobic/anoxic-oxic (AAO) technology. The treatment station, equipped with technology transferred by the Advanced International Jointstock Company (AIC), is able to treat 4,000 m3/d of wastewater. Following the demonstration of positive results after a six-month test run in the hospital, the technology would be applied to other hospitals across the country. Cho Ray hospital discharges every day 2,000-2,500 m3 of wastewater, accounting for one-seventh of the city’s total hospital wastewater volume.

Mayors push zero-waste management campaign

The League of Municipalities of the Philippines (LMP) has pledged to support the zero-waste management campaign and convert garbage dumps into eco-parks to control climate change. According to LMP national president Mr. Ramon Guico Jr., mayors nationwide have made a commitment to comply with the provisions of Republic Act 9003 that provides for an eco-friendly solid waste management programme. During LMP’s 2009 General Assembly, the mayors discussed a range of issues including climate change, disaster risk reduction, health concerns, economic development and population management. Mr. Guico called on future local officials to continue the reforms they had started, especially on climate change and disaster risk reduction. He hoped that the new LMP officers would sustain the reforms their administration had already put in place.

China to cut pesticide companies by 30 per cent

The number of China’s pesticide companies would be cut by 30 per cent by 2015, according to the draft of Industrial Policy for Pesticide Industry released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. By 2015, half of the companies that produce pesticide ingredients would move to industrial areas to optimize pollution reduction, the Ministry said. By 2020, this number would rise to 70 per cent.

The draft suggests that by 2015 the 10 largest companies spend 3 per cent of annual revenue on R&D, and by 2020, 30 per cent of China’s pesticide exports carry intellectual property rights. It states that by 2015 the pesticide industry should bring down waste gas, water and industrial residues by 30 per cent, and increase by-product recycling by the same percentage. By 2020, both figures should rise to 50 per cent, the draft proposes.

Road tests on for recycled rubber tyre

Light truck tyres made from a recycled rubber compound produced by Magnum/SRI are undergoing on-road testing and validation by the Rubber Research Institute (RRI) at the Tyre Laboratory of Malaysia’s Rubber Board. RRI scientists are also tasked with preparing proper research standards because a suitable protocol does not yet exist for specifically dealing with tyres that have a recycled content level of 14 per cent, as in Magnum/SRI tyres.

The test truck is equipped with a black box packed with hardware monitoring and tracking systems to check all aspects of the vehicle’s operating conditions to be included as part of the evaluation. Control tyres are also mounted to impartially gauge and compare how well the Magnum/SRI compound-based tyres perform under actual driving conditions.
Source: motorage.

Non-recyclable packaging to be stopped in Indonesia

In Indonesia, the government has warned producers to stop producing packaging that cannot be recycled, in line with a law. The Office of the State Ministry for the Environment said government regulations that were needed to implement the 2008 Waste Management Law was scheduled to be completed by the end of 2009. Once the law is implemented, producers have to not only cease using plastic packaging and begin using eco-friendly materials, but also collect non-recyclable litter to help protect the environment.

Nanotech for hazardous waste clean-ups

Researchers in the United States are exploring whether nano-scale materials can make a huge difference in the clean-up of hazardous waste. There are two reasons for the optimism: firstly, the size of nano-materials lets them penetrate otherwise impossible-to-reach groundwater or soil and, secondly, their engineered coatings allow them to stay suspended in groundwater, a major asset in clean-ups. If practically feasible, nanomaterials could slash clean-up prices by avoiding the extraordinary costs and risks of hauling waste away for burning or burial.

Most nano-remediation research projects undertaken by the Department of Defence (DOD) are focused on cleaning up groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents like trichloroethylene. According to Mr. Jeffrey Marqusee, Executive Director of DOD’s Strategic Environmental R&D Programme and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Programme, results so far have been promising in most demonstrations, with most of the contaminant being destroyed – a finding that has been replicated by researchers elsewhere. However, there are complications. For one, iron also reacts with non-targeted materials, making it to degrade too quickly, before remediation is complete. Another problem is that iron particles clump after their release, making it difficult for them to travel beyond where they are injected.

Scientists are trying coatings that might enable nanoparticles to travel. They are also trying to learn how to make the nano-iron react only with target contaminants, as well as to get it to self-destruct after it has done its job. Such “smarter” nanomaterials will ultimately make the technology less risky. But nanotechnology won’t be a silver bullet for clean-ups because most contaminated sites are fouled by more than a single contaminant, and a phased approach will be needed.


Shredder for plastic bottle recycling

Hasswell Technologies Ltd., China, has developed a bottle crusher for recycling high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles at automobile workshops, supermarkets, pharmacies and gardening shops. The shredder can shred bottles used for lubricant oil, water and other liquids. It can not only crush plastic bottles but also separate residual liquid from the plastic flakes and hold it in a drum. The shredder is provided with optional basket and drum for this purpose. It can be easily operated with low power consumption and a noise level less than 80 dB.

The bottle crusher is specially designed for recycling small batches of HDPE plastic bottles from automobile maintenance shops, but it can also process PET bottles for beer and soft drinks. The granulator reduces the size of bottle scraps and retracts residual oil/water. The shredder operates with a 2 hp motor. It has a timer in the control box that can be set to automatically cease operations. Contact: Hasswell Technologies Ltd., Suite 705, Tianhedong Road, #242, Guangzhou 510635, China. Tel: +86 (20) 8756 6110; Fax: +86 (20) 8756 9190; E-mail:

Co-processing of waste plastics and petroleum residue

Researchers at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia, have studied a catalytic co-process for transforming waste plastics and petroleum residue into liquid fuel oils. Waste plastics of different types were co-processed with petroleum residue of light Arabian crude oil in the presence of a number of catalysts. The study explored the effects of various conditions, such as catalyst type, amount of catalyst, reaction time, pressure and temperature on the product distribution. The waste plastics studied included low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP).

A series of single (waste plastic with catalyst) and binary (waste plastic and residue with catalyst) reactions were carried out in an autoclave reactor at variable reaction conditions. The reaction conditions used were 1, 3 and 5 wt.% catalysts, 30-120 minutes reaction time, 400º-430°C reaction temperature and 500-1,200 psi hydrogen pressure. The product distribution achieved for residue/plastic/catalyst system registered higher yields of liquid fuels as compared with residue/plastic system. Hydrocarbon gases, heavy oils, insoluble gums and coke were also formed. Reaction conditions of 3 wt.% NiMo catalyst, 90 minutes reaction time, 1,200 psi hydrogen gas pressure, 430°C temperature and residue-to-plastic feed ratio of 3:2 (wt.) afforded maximum conversion of the plastics into liquid fuel oils. Contact: Mr. Mohammad Nahid Siddiqui/Mr. Halim Hamid Redhwi, Chemical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: mnahid@kfupm.

Liquefying rubber-containing wastes

In Russia, researchers at the Institut Kataliza Imeni G.K. Boreskova Sibirskogo Otdeleniya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk report a method for liquefying rubber-containing waste materials. The invention relates to recycling conventional and specific polydiene rubber and waste materials that contain such rubber, in particular waste tyres. The method involves liquefying the rubber material by bringing it into contact with nitrogen oxide (N2O) in such a way that viscous or liquid products are formed. The process is carried out at a temperature of 100ºC-500°C and N2O at pressures of 1-200 atm. For a contact process, N2O can be substituted for a mixture of N2O with diluting gases in the form of inert gases, C1-C4 alkanes or mixtures thereof.

Biodegradable polymers on the cards

In the United States, scientists from IBM and Stanford University detail discoveries that could lead to the development of new types of biodegradable, biocompatible plastics. The breakthrough also could lead to a new recycling process that has the potential to notably increase the ability to recycle and reuse common PET and plant-based plastics in the future. The scientists are pioneering application of organocatalysis to green polymer chemistry, representing a fundamental shift in the field. This new approach using organic catalysts could lead to well-defined, biodegradable molecules made from renewable resources in an environmentally responsible way.

The development of new families of organic catalysts brings more versatility to green chemistry and opens the door for new applications, such as making biodegradable plastics, improving the recycling process and drug delivery, says Ms. Josephine Cheng, IBM Fellow and Vice President, IBM Research, Almaden. The IBM-Stanford breakthrough in green chemistry could lead to a new recycling process that reverses the polymerization process to regenerate monomers in their original state, reducing waste and pollution significantly.

The research study outlines how and why organocatalysis provides new opportunities for the preparation of sustainable plastics. Through the introduction of organic catalysis to synthetic polymer chemistry, scientists have developed a broadly applicable technology with demonstrations in a diverse range of polymerization techniques and monomer types. A major focus of the research has been on ring-opening polymerization, a strategy dominated by metal oxide or metal hydroxide catalysts. The study has shown that organic catalysts both exhibit activities that rival the most active metal-based catalysts as well as give access to polymer architectures that are very difficult to access by conventional approaches. The paper outlines the development of many new families of highly active and environmentally benign organic catalysts for the conversion of renewable resources to products that exhibit performance/cost characteristics comparable to existing materials.

Sustainable waste recycling system

RMR Eco Solutions, New Zealand, has developed technology focusing on waste minimization by recovering the waste and creating a sustainable waste recycling solution. The solution deals with high-volume plastic and tyre wastes, and is said to provide significant environmental gains. Its cost-effectiveness makes it suitable for large-scale economic production.

The RMR Eco Solution system can deal not only with plastic and tyre wastes but also other hydrocarbon waste streams, e-waste, and construction and demolition waste. Key features of the system are:

* Processes plastic, waste oil, scrap tyres and other hydrocarbon waste; * Processes mixed materials at the same time; * Sorting or cleaning of waste is not required; * Self-sustainable energy source; * Easy operation and low maintenance; and * Simple, compact and can be mobile.
Contact: RMR Eco Solutions Ltd., P.O. Box 12231, Chartwell, Hamilton 3248, New Zealand. Tel: +64 (7) 8582 032; E-mail: nz; Website:

Green plastics recycling process

The Centre for Quality Management System (CQMS) in Kolkata, India, has developed a clean technology for recycling waste plastics. This process reportedly reduces pollutant discharge to the environment by as much as 90 per cent, and is expected to benefit the Rs 20 billion (US$ 430 million) waste plastic recycling industry that has more than 5,000 units across the country employing techniques which are much less efficient, primitive and harmful to the environment. The process permits waste plastics to be recycled with reduced emissions from the extrusion process, the main process which generates pollutants. According to Prof. S.K. Ghosh from Jadavpur University, the cost of the equipment that can be retrofitted with existing machinery would range from US$650 to US$ 1,100 for processing 50-150 kg of waste plastics.

Plastic composites using recycled carpet waste

Material Innovations LLC, the United States, has patented systems and methods of recycling carpet waste to obtain plastic composites. The extruded composite utilized as a building material includes a base polymer, unseparated processed recycled carpet waste and a filler material, which may be a wood filler or other natural fibre.

Carpet waste may be separated into components that may be utilized in a variety of plastics applications, including extruded composites for use as building materials. Separation may include shaving face fibre from bound fibre secured in a backing fibre and/or separating fibre pile and backing fibres from carpet adhesive to remove inorganic materials such as calcium carbonate. Contact: Material Innovations LLC, 30, Kennedy Plaza, Suite 400, Providence, RI 02903, United States of America.


Biodegradable thin film transistor

Along with the usual mix of tea bags, banana skins and eggshells, compost bins of the future could contain biodegradable electronic circuits, say scientists in the United States. Electronic components could be made biocompatible, so that they can be implanted into the body for a short period of time before being broken down and absorbed without the need for a second operation to remove the implant. Such devices could include electronically activated drug release systems or temporary biosensors.

Mr. Christopher Bettinger and Ms. Zhenan Bao at Stanford University set out to fabricate a biodegradable and biocompatible transistor. For two of the device’s components – the substrate and the dielectric – the researchers selected biodegradable polymers approved for medical use by regulatory authorities – poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA for the substrate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for the dielectric. For the semiconducting molecule, they chose 5,5'-bis-(7-dodecyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)- 2,2'-bithiophene (DDFTTF), a robust molecule resistant to harsh conditions and aqueous environments. Gold and silver were used for the electrodes. The transistor performed sufficiently well to operate simple devices that would be suitable for functions such as biosensing and continue to work for several hours in the presence of water. To measure the transistor’s ability to disintegrate, it was placed in citrate buffer to mimic a biological environment and its degradation monitored. For about a month the device stayed relatively intact, after which there was a significant loss of mass and uptake of water. After about 50 days, all that remained was a viscous gel composed of PLGA. Source:

Recycling of rechargeable battery

Umicore, Belgium, plans to build an industrial-scale recycling facility for end-of-life lithium-polymer, lithium-ion as well as nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries. The use of such batteries is set to grow sub-stantially, particularly because of the increasing numbers of (hybrid) electric vehicles and the increasingly stringent legislations that place a heavy premium on the efficient and eco-friendly recycling of batteries.

The new facility will have an initial annual capacity of 7,000 tonnes: the equivalent of some 150,000 (H)EV batteries or 250 million cell phone batteries. It will employ Umicore’s propietary ultra-high-temperature smelting technology. This breakthrough recycling process has high metal yields and will drastically cut carbon dioxide emissions compared with the primary production of cobalt and nickel. This process is also more energy-efficient than current battery recycling processes and does not emit dioxins or other harmful volatile organic compounds. Contact: Mr. Tim Weekes, Director of Group Communications, Umicore, Belgium. Tel: +32 (2) 2277 398; E-mail:

Printed circuit board recycling equipment

Henan Dahua Mining Machinery Co. Ltd., China, offers patented circuit board recycling equipment. Said to be the first complete set of recycling equipment for waste and old printed circuit boards (PCBs), the equipment adopts advanced, innovative physical recycling techniques including crushing and culling. It physically separates metals and non-metals. The purity of recycled metal can reach 97 per cent. Epoxy resin, bakelite and fibreglass are recycled for use as floor bricks, decorative materials, insulation materials and furniture. Contact: Henan Dahua Mining Machinery Co. Ltd., North 400 metres of No. 36, Middle School, Zhengshang Road, Zhengzhou, China.

Electrical cable grinder-separator

Cogelme, Italy, offers a complete system for cable scrap separation. The compact and comfortable system ensures the cable is separated into its original components in pure form. First, cables are grinded to fine, homogeneous size and metals (copper, aluminium and steel) are automatically separated from inert materials (plastics and rubber) and recovered.

Cogelme cable stripper has an anti-block system to avoid knives ruining cable junctions. Regulation of the knives is motorized and easily adapts to different thickness of the covers. Contact: Cogelme S.a.s., S.S. per Genova/Via Postumia, 15057 Tortona (AL), Italy. Tel: +39 (0131) 861 880; Fax: +39 (0131) 866 337; E-mail:


Medical waste disposal system

Vesta Medical LLC from the United States has filed for patent on a system for sorting different types of medical waste items. The system that facilitates medical waste disposal consists of:

* A plurality of container compartments, each container compartment configured to receive a removable container; * Several removable containers, each of which comprises an opening and a machine-readable identification key associated with at least one of the waste categories such that the machine-readable identification key indicates the container’s type to the control system, with the container type defining a category of waste to be placed in the container; * A movable lid for each of the removable containers, which are configured to be placed within the container compartments, with at least a portion of one or more of the lids having a section that permits the fill level of the container to be seen, with the sorting system configured to send an alert signal when a container is full so that that full container can be replaced; * A scanner for receiving bar code information from a waste item; * At least one key reader within the sorting system that reads the machine-readable identification key associated with the container to determine the container type; and * A control system configured to electronically assign the scanned waste item to the appropriate waste category based, at least in part, on the information received from the scanner and a database comprising waste item classification information, and further configured to identify the appropriate container and to automatically open the lid of that container to receive the waste item and then close the lid to permit the appropriate disposal of the waste.

Infectious waste disposal system

Antaeus Group, the United States, offers an infectious medical waste disposal system that fulfils the needs of hospital administrators assessed through a survey. As per the survey, the following 10 characteristics are most crucial for a medical waste disposal system:

* Cost-effective price point; * Low maintenance; * Destruction of waste at the point of generation; * Proven, accepted technology; * No hazardous chemicals or materials used in the process; * No unpleasant odour; * No harmful emissions; * No associated social stigma; * Reasonable capacity; and * Small footprint.

The Antaeus SSM-150 is a hardware/software system designed to safely, efficiently and effectively dispose of infectious medical waste at the point of generation. It measures about 9.5 × 6.5 × 4 ft (l × h × w) and weighs about 1.6 tonne. An accompanying filter-separator, used to de-water the processed solids, measures 4 × 5 ft and weighs an additional 136 kg. The SSM-150 exposes red bag waste to superheated water and steam (155°C) and simultaneously uses a proprietary cutting system to render the waste, non-infectious, non-hazardous and non-recognizable. The infectious medical waste processed using the SSM-150 unit can be discarded as non-regulated waste. Contact: Antaeus Group, 10626 York Road, Suite D, Hunt Valley, Maryland, MD 21030, United States of America. Tel: +1 (410) 6666 160; Fax: +1 (410) 6666 110.

On-site treatment of biomedical waste

Biomedical Technology Solutions Inc., the United States, has announced the introduction of Demolizer® II System into the Geisinger Health organization for on-site treatment of biomedical waste. The Geisinger Health is a leading fully integrated health services organization in the country. Demolizer II is a safe and simple biomedical waste treatment system ideally suited to meet the unique needs of clinics in rural areas where the cost, both financial and environmental, of traditional transport and off-site disposal could be prohibitive. Cost savings from the adoption of Demolizer II are expected to be significant. Furthermore, Demolizer II is an environmentally responsible alternative treatment system that does not need on-site storage between pick-ups and substantially lowers the environmental impact of treatment and disposal of biomedical waste.

Demolizer II is the “green” alternative to biomedical waste disposal and is the only patented, portable and self-contained system able to process both sharps and typical red bag biomedical waste on-site. The processed waste is rendered sterile and discarded as common trash, eliminating up to 100 per cent of the cost associated with its disposal. Demolizer II either meets or exceeds all guidelines of the Environment Protection Agency and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. It does not employ any chemical or liquid, plugs into a normal outlet via a surge protector, and automatically records and prints required documentation. Contact: Mr. David Kempf, COO & CFO, Biomedical Technology Solutions Inc., United States of America. Tel: +1 (303) 6530 100.

System and method for treating infectious waste matter

Digestor LLC, the United States, has patented a system and method for treating infectious waste materials. Treated hazardous materials may be removed from the digester and separately disposed of in an appropriate manner, such as a specially designated landfill or an incineration facility. Paraffin or wax may be added to regulated medical waste prior to or subsequent to the digestion cycle.

Upon heating the materials, the wax or paraffin melts and gets distributed through the aqueous solution. After the waste has been digested and the aqueous solution is allowed to cool, lipid-like materials separate out from and float to the surface of the solution where they re-solidify upon cooling to room temperature. Lipid-soluble waste materials may then be removed from the aqueous phase upon separation of the lipid phase because they would have been captured within the lipid phase. Thus, removing the lipid phase from the solution effectively removes lipid-soluble hazardous materials that are not degraded or consumed in the alkaline treatment as well. Contact: Digestor LLC, 485, Southpoint Circle Building 200, Brownsburg, IN 46112, United States of America.

Treatment system for regulated medical waste

The Matrix System, developed in Australia by Matrix Technology Pty. Ltd., is a treatment system for infectious medical waste. It is based on a proprietary technology patented in the United States of America. The end product is inert, unrecognisable and is beneficial to landfill. There is about a 99.99 per cent inactivation of pathogens after a residence time of five minutes with a continuing effect thereafter. The end product is not unpleasant and can be stored for as long as necessary before disposal at landfill.

Regulated medical waste arrives at the facility in various sized bins. The bins are weighed and recorded by a programmable logic controller (PLC) to ensure that waste feed rates to the plant match the requirements of downstream equipment. Once fed into the feed hopper, the waste is drawn into the shredder. Liquids removed from the process downstream are recycled back into the dump hopper, and the supply of inputs is minimized. The dump hopper is kept at slightly negative pressure by fans withdrawing air from the headspace via high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Alkaline earths are added to the shredded medical waste at a specific ratio related to the weight of the waste before the admixture is hydrated and homogenised in a mixer unit.

While the waste is held for a preset time in the mixer unit, the alkaline earth reacts with the moist shredded waste to render the waste non-hazardous and non-infectious. Then a mechanical screw dewaters the treated waste. Excess liquid is fed back into the front of the process at the dump hopper, to offset the use of fresh inputs. The process essentially achieves zero discharge to sewer, making it an environmentally friendly and economical technology. The treated shredded waste is then transported to an approved landfill. This process has been shown to achieve rigorous United States regulations for the treatment of clinical waste (6 Log 10 reduction in vegetative bacteria and 4 Log 10 reduction in Bacillus spores).

HEPA filters are located on the feed hopper and the mixer and conveyor system. The process residence time is controlled by the rate of waste supplied to the shredder. Continuous monitoring of pH and temperature is recorded by the PLC. Other testing is carried out in accordance with the requirements of the regulators.


Treating oil-contaminated water

In China, a three-year endeavour by the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Applied Chemistry, along with Jilin Shenda, has resulted in the development of new techniques for more efficiently treating wastewater discharged from oil fields. The researchers developed very effective wastewater treatment and water plugging agents using oil field slurry as a raw material, turning the solid wastes into a useful material. They also designed techniques and facilities capable of treating 300 t/y of oil field wastewater, desirable for the industrialized treatment of oil-contaminated water from oil fields and water returned from drilling.

Test runs have shown that the new techniques and equipment worked smoothly to meet the wastewater disposal needs of oil fields. The advantages of the wastewater disposal agent include fast dissolution, low dosage, de-emulsification and fast flocculation. The agent also exhibits enhanced salinity resistance compared with the wastewater disposal agents in current application.

Electrolytic process for water treatment

Canada’s Conceptual Xogen Technologies Inc. has started the next step in the development of its electrolytic process to treat industrial and municipal wastewater. Following successful trials and approval by the Canadian government, Xogen plans to complete the design, construction and installation of a novel wastewater treatment demonstration plant by 2010.

During lab tests under adverse conditions the Xogen technology was able to operate with high efficiency, removing more than 99 per cent of all typical sewage contaminants (E. coli, BOD and ammonia) in minutes and eliminating 98 per cent of the total phosphorus without any need for chemical salts.

The potential benefits of an Xogen plant, as compared with a conventional biological plant, are:
* Complete elimination of most of the infrastructure components of a conventional plant, including the primary clarifier, aeration basin and air blowers, disinfection processes, sludge stabilization processes (such as anaerobic digestion) and final disposal or utilization of the stabilized sludge; * Huge reduction in the footprint of the plant; * Complete elimination or significant reduction in sludge (biosolids) processing costs; * More stable process allowing for rapid start-up and insensitive to toxic shocks; and * The production of a significant energy source in the form of hydrogen that can be used to generate electrical energy for internal use or export.
Contact: Conceptual Xogen Technologies Inc., 440-10816 Macleod Trail SW, Suite 362, Calgary, AB T2J 5N8, Canada. Tel: +1 (403) 2519 788; Fax: +1 (403) 2250 962; E-mail:; Website:

Microscopic bubbles clean oil from water

At the University of Utah, the United States, Prof. Andy Hong and his colleagues have developed a low-cost method to remove oil sheen from water by repeatedly pressurizing and de-pressurizing ozone gas, creating microscopic bubbles that attack the oil so it can be removed by sand filters, which is a conventional and economical process.

Laboratory experiments have shown that “pressure-assisted ozonation and sand filtration” effectively remove oil droplets dispersed in water, indicating it could be used to prevent oil sheen from wastewater discharged into coastal waters. The new method makes a big change to the ozone aeration technology. Instead of just bubbling ozone through the polluted water, the process uses repeated cycles of pressurization of ozone and the dirty water, so that ozone saturates the water, followed by de-pressurization to expand the ozone into numerous micro-bubbles in the polluted water. The tiny bubbles provide large surface area for the oxygen in ozone to react chemically with oil. Pollutants tend to accumulate on the bubbles because they are easily soluble in water. The ozone in the bubble attacks certain pollutants, as it is a strong oxidant, and converts most of the dispersed oil droplets – which float on water to cause sheen – into acids, aldehydes and ketones. Most of these chemicals, in turn, help the remaining oil droplets clump together so that they can be removed by conventional sand filtration.

Treating tannery wastewater

A research team from the Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI), Tamilnadu, India reports that the performance of conventional biological treatment of wastewater from tannery could be improved by applying electrochemical treatment to selected streams. In their study, soak liquor, tanning effluent and post-tanning effluent were treated electrochemically in batch recirculation mode. The team used response surface methodology for designing, modelling and optimizing all the experiments. Considerable removal of COD (94.8 per cent) was achieved by treating the soak liquor in a batch recirculation cell under a circulation flow of 142.8 l/h, a current density of 5.8 A/dm2 and a time of 7.05 h. Salt leftover in the treated soak liquor was partly used to improve the ionic conductivity of post-tanning effluent for electrochemical treatment.

In another treatment, the biodegradability index of post-tanning effluent was raised from 0.3 to 0.67, under a circulation flow of 112.5 l/h, a current density of 2.4 A/dm2 and a time of 2.15 h. Significant reduction in the requirement of reactor volume or residence time of the existing aerated biological treatment of the total wastewater stream could be achieved by applying such an electrochemical pre-treatment. Contact: Mr. C. Ahmed Basha, Head, Pollution Control, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu, India. Tel: +91 (4565) 227 550; Fax: +91 (4565) 227 713; E-mail:

Treatment plants for textile effluents

Researchers at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Clearwaterbay Technology have reported an integrated design process for the systematic development of a treatment plant for textile effluents. The effluents are first characterized to get basic information for process design. Heuristics are used to guide the designer in the preliminary design. Then, the design and operating parameters of the wastewater treatment plant are determined based on bench-scale experimental testing. Finally, various flow sheet alternatives are evaluated to select the optimum process flow sheet using a simulation code. The workflow among various stakeholders to reach the final design is also discussed. Industrial examples are presented to illustrate the design method.

MBR system for industrial/municipal wastewater

Koch Membrane Systems (KMS), the United States, offers its Puron Plus membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant, which has a small footprint and has been optimized for effluent requirements. The plants are available with capacities ranging from 22,730 l/d to 45,460 l/d and feature Puron MBR membrane modules. These modules have improved membrane density, reduced air scour requirements and simplified installation compared with first-generation MBR membrane module designs. The new pre-engineered packaged systems allow customers the ability to single source an MBR system from one company, if needed. KMS supports each system with process and design expertise allowing for a fast installation and start-up.

Treating wastewater laden with nitrogen-containing dyes

Kuraray Co. Ltd. of Japan has patented an apparatus and method for treating wastewater laden with dyes containing nitrogen. The apparatus for wastewater treatment comprises a wastewater inlet connected to an anaerobic tank to bring the wastewater containing a nitrogenous dye into contact with sulphate-reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions, a nitrification tank to bring the wastewater into contact with nitrifying bacteria under aerobic conditions, and a denitrification tank to bring the wastewater into contact with denitrifying bacteria under anaerobic conditions.

The micro-organism immobilization support could be selected from gelled, plastic and/or fibrous support, preferably a polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel. The wastewater treatment apparatus in the present invention can easily decolorize and decompose, at a low cost, any persistent nitrogenous compound in wastewater containing a nitrogenous dye. It is compact, has excellent durability and high processing power, and ensures long-term stable operation.

Study on behaviour of nanoparticles in wastewater

The environmental management of nanoparticle waste could greatly improve following a new study into substances found in wastewater. Researchers from several scientific institutions around the world collaborated on the study, commissioned by the United Kingdom government, which focused on the behaviour of potentially hazardous nanoparticles in sewage treatment plants, particularly silica-shelled nanoparticles. During the course of the studies, it was discovered that coating these nanoparticles with a commercial surfactant enabled their separation from the water together with other waste particles. The scientists say that if the nanoparticles were allowed to “settle out” in this way, then they could be stopped from passing on to the subsequent stage of the waste treatment process, which would help prevent industrial accidents.


Bioremediation of nitrate-contaminated groundwater

Researchers at National Research Council Canada (NRC), Canada, have developed a remediation procedure and a mobile groundwater treatment unit for in situ biological denitrification of groundwater aquifer under substantially anaerobic conditions. The method and unit allow for the efficient and cost-effective treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater having no potential for natural denitrification.

NRC’s remediation procedure uses biostimulation of indigenous micro-organisms through the controlled addition of a carbon source to the contaminated groundwater. The carbon source selected is ethanol for its high COD content, non-toxicity at low concentrations and its high solubility in water. The procedure uses an optimized network of wells placed in the path of the contaminated stream. An extraction well precedes a line of injection wells spaced 10-40 m apart, depending on the hydrogeological and geophysical characteristics of the site. The remediation process is controlled by a mobile unit, which provides remote monitoring and control of the process. Potential applications of the mobile unit for in situ denitrification of groundwater aquifer containing high levels of nitrate and nitrite are:
* Rural areas where nitrate-rich manure and chemicals are extensively used in farming activities; * Areas near airports where nitrate run-offs result from the use of de-icing agents; and * In the vicinity of other anthropogenic sources of nitrate, such as chemical plants and firing ranges. Contact: Mr. Serge Guiot, Group Leader, Environmental Bioengineering, National Research Council Canada, Canada. Tel: +1 (514) 4966 181; E-mail: serge.guiot@cnrc-nrc.

On site bioremediation of liquid waste

Hydrologix Systems LLC, the United States, offers the Grease Reduction System (GRS), a computerized mini wastewater treatment plant that reduces hazardous wastewater, which produces lethal hydrogen sulphide gases, into harmless by-products of water and carbon dioxide. The patented technology uses a thriving culture of specially blended micro-organisms to instantly digest the liquid waste in the holding tank, satisfying the guidelines of Environment Protection Agency for in situ wastewater treatment. The GRS process has been successfully utilized for the treatment of kitchen and sewage wastewater at the source, making it the “greenest and most cost-effective way” to handle disposal of foul industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewater. Contact: Hydrologix Systems LLC., 68-1845 Waikoloa Road, Suite 106, Waikoloa, Hawaii, HI 96738, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (808) 7569 007.

Proven bioremediation

Terra Nova Biosystems, the United States, deploys over 200 strains of powerful, biological microbes specifically designed to break down non-native contamination in soil. After microbial bioremediation, the by-product is clean, contaminate-free soil containing enriched, natural fertilizers. For quality assurance, the process has undergone extensive third party lab testing for certification. These tests have shown that the Terra Nova remediation process is so effective that it can pass even the most stringent Environment Protection Agency requirements. Contact: Terra Nova Biosystems, 34 East 1700 South, Suite 210, Provo, UT 84606, United States of America. Tel: +1 (801) 4486 590; Fax: +1 (801) 6184 079; E-mail: corporate@terranovabiosystems. com; Website: www.terranovabio

Bioleaching to remove iron from mining effluent

In Finland, Ms. Paulina Nurmi has received a Ph.D. from Tampere University of Technology (TUT) for her study on microbiological methods for oxidizing and removing iron in bioleaching. Bioleaching is a process used in the mining industry where microbes are employed to dissolve metals from minerals. The first part of Ms. Nurmi’s study explored factors influencing iron oxidation in bioleaching through determining the oxidation kinetics at pH 1 of a culture of the bacterium Leptospirillum ferriphilum. The culture tolerated very high concentrations of the test metals, and the results obtained were excellent, Ms. Nurmi said. She also developed and tested mathematical models to predict iron oxidation rates in bioreactors. The combined effects of multiple metals on iron oxidation kinetics have not been modelled earlier. The formulas developed help predict iron oxidation reaction rates in bioleaching.

In the second part of her study, Ms. Nurmi developed a method based on iron oxidation and precipitation to remove iron and sulphate from process waters and effluents in mining. Iron and sulphate removal was studied in a lab-scale bioprocess treating acidic process effluent from heap bioleaching. Neural network modelling was employed to predict the amount of ferric iron precipitated in a variety of conditions. Up to 96-99 per cent of the iron precipitated in the process, and under optimal process conditions, an average of 66 per cent of the sulphate precipitated. Talvivaara Mining Company, together with TUT, is further developing this method in a pilot project and applying for a patent.

Bioremediation of phenol

At the University of Mumbai, India, researchers have studied bioremediation of phenol through a partitioning bioreactor using cow dung microbial consortia. A bioreactor has been designed and developed for partitioning aqueous and organic phases. It also has a provision for aeration and stirring, a cooling system and a sampling port. The cow dung microbial consortium’s potential for bioremediation of phenol was appraised in a single-phase bioreactor and a two-phase partitioning bioreactor. The advantages of the two-phase partitioning bioreactor were also investigated.

Pseudomonas putida IFO 14671 was isolated, cultured and identified from the cow dung microbial consortium as a high-potential phenol degrader. The methods developed by the team present an advancement in bioremediation for the biodegradation of organic compounds. The researchers also demonstrated the potential of micro-organisms from cow dung as a source of biomass. Contact: Prof. M. H. Fulekar, Environmental Biotechnology Lab, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098, India. E-mail:

Effective treatment options for mining wastewater

New research from Genome BC, Canada, will harness the potential of indigenous microbes to improve strategies for the bioremediation of contaminated mine sites. This bioremediation method will provide a valuable alternative to some current mine effluent treatment methods that require large-scale employment of chemicals to treat water contaminated by metal leaching and acid rock drainage.

Dr. Sue Baldwin at the University of British Columbia is leading the project entitled, The development of genomic tools for monitoring and improving passive mitigation of mine drainage. Dr. Baldwin says that they are using genomics to find out how to create the conditions in which the microbes will thrive. Essentially, the micro-organisms digest the metal toxins in wastewater, sequestering them or reducing them to less toxic forms. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are known for their efficacy in the clean-up of mine drainage. But SRB do not work in isolation; they rely on members of a diverse microbe community to provide them with essential nutrients so that they can thrive and carry out the detoxification. This is where genomics in the project come in.

Rapid bioremediation for chlorinated contaminants

CL Solutions, the United States, offers natural bioremediation products based on a very concentrated solution of live strains of lyophilized Pseudomonas bacteria that occur naturally in the Earth’s ecosystem. These cultures are pathogen-free and no artificial mutation or genetic engineering is involved. Extracted from a once-contaminated site and isolated under controlled laboratory conditions, these “hungry bacteria®” seek contamination at the source and quickly convert it into harmless, naturally recyclable by-products.

CL-Out™ delivers active, rapid bioremediation caused by chlorinated solvents. It is available as a ready-to-use liquid or as a freeze-dried powder. CL-Out can be used as a stand-alone decontamination solution or as a powerful augmentation to speed the remediation of existing treatment systems. The company also offers Petrox™ for rapid bioremediation of environmental contamination caused by industrial and commercial hydrocarbons. It is available as a freeze-dried powder Contact: CL Solutions, LLC, 3130, Highland Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45219, United States of America.


Power plant patent

CO2 Solution Inc., Canada, has received a new United States patent for its process that uses enzyme for carbon capture at coal-fired power plants. The patent provides for exclusivity in the field of using the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, or an analogue thereof, for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from any fossil power plant, where the captured CO2 is converted into a carbonated species. The company believes that the patent has potentially significant value for efficient carbon capture in coal as well as fossil fuel power plants. Contact: Ms. Annie Chiasson, Director, Corporate Affairs, CO2 Solution Inc., 2300, rue Jean-Perrin, Quebec, Quebec G2C 1T9, Canada. Tel: +1 (418) 842 3456; Fax: +1 (418) 842 1732; Website:

Largest circulating fluidized bed boiler

Lagisza power plant in Poland offers cost-effective energy while reducing emissions. The commencement of operations at Lagisza power plant marked a new era in the evolution of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. At the heart of the 460 MWe power plant is the world’s largest CFB boiler, which is also the world’s first once-through unit (OTU) supercritical CFB boiler. The plant, large enough to produce electricity at utility scale, has met or exceeded all emissions and performance expectations since coming online.

The design of the supercritical CFB boiler, from Foster Wheeler in the United States, is efficient and affordable. High efficiency leads to lower fuel requirements and low levels of ash and emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, CFB technology has excellent fuel flexibility and offers the option of co-firing of biofuels with different grades of coal, further reducing CO2 emissions. The plant also has many other advanced design features that improve reliability, operational flexibility, as well as overall power generation efficiency and economics. These include compact solid separators, Intrex super heaters and low-temperature flue gas heat recovery that recycles the low heat back into the steam cycle, recovering valuable heat that would be lost otherwise. Contact: Mr. Justin Wehrenberg, Foster Wheeler Global Power Group, Perryville Corporate Park, Clinton, New Jersey, United State of America. Website:

CO2 converted into petroleum, diesel and jet fuel

In the United States, researchers at the Sandia National Laboratories have built a machine that uses the Sun’s energy to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) waste from power plants into transportation fuels such as jet fuel, petrol and diesel. The system could provide an alternative to carbon sequestration; the CO2 could be recycled and put to use instead of permanently storing it underground. A prototype of the machine invented by Sandia researcher Mr. Rich Diver was tested recently.

The cylindrical machine, called the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver Reactor Recuperator (CR5), consists of two chambers on the sides and 14 rotating rings in the centre. The outer edges of the rings are made of iron oxide. When the inside of a chamber is heated to 1,500ºC with a solar concentrator, the iron oxide undergoes a thermochemical reaction and gives up oxygen molecules. As the rings rotate (at 1 rpm), the hot side approaches the opposite chamber and begins to cool down. On pumping CO2 is into this chamber, the iron oxide retrieves oxygen molecules from CO2, transforming it into carbon monoxide (CO). CO could then serve as a building block to create a liquid combustible fuel. However, it will probably take 15-20 years before the technology is ready for the market, with the biggest challenge being to increase the system’s efficiency.

Test achieves close to 100 per cent carbon capture

Vattenfall, the Swedish power company, has claimed that its carbon capture and storage pilot plant at Schwarze Pumpe in eastern Germany has captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emission with a purity level of 99.4 per cent. The experimental facility has been in operation since September 2008 and is designed to capture about 75,000 t/y of CO2. The project is a collaboration with Alstom, the French conglomerate, which supplied much of the technology. The carbon capture process uses oxy-fuel technology in which pulverized lignite fuel is burned with a mixture of high-purity oxygen and re-circulated flue gas. The resulting flue gas contains primarily CO2 and water vapour, and trace amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This flue gas is then processed to enrich the CO2 up to 99.4 per cent purity. The Schwarze Pumpe pilot project has been in operation for 2,900 hours and has so far captured 1,600 t of CO2. The two companies continue to study the combustion behaviour and material corrosion characteristics, with a view to commercializing oxy-fuel carbon capture and storage technology by 2015.

New technology cleans coal with CO2

The world has taken a step closer to “clean coal,” thanks to a novel technology that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) to make power generation more efficient. The research by scientists at Columbia University, the United States, means that millions of tonnes of CO2 could be prevented from entering the atmosphere and instead used to turn coal, biomass and municipal waste into cleaner fuel. The technology relies on a well-established process called “gasification” that is used to clean “dirty” fuels by heating them with steam and turning them into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Syngas is then burned in power stations or used to create transport fuels. However, this process makes very large demands on energy and water, and produces substantial CO2 emissions. Researchers have now shown that by actually adding CO2 into the mix and replacing some of the steam, the reaction turns dramatically more efficient and clean. According to lead researcher Prof. Marco Castaldi, efficiency savings of 25-30 per cent could be made.

“The process is operated in a very similar way to a conventional gasifier, in that we take the biomass and mix it with some steam... But that is where the similarities end, because instead of just using steam, we also used CO2, which serves two major purposes. Firstly, it reacts with the biomass a little better than steam. Secondly, because it does a good job, it reduces the steam required, which saves energy and water. It is a two-fold hit,” says Prof. Castaldi. After the removal of hydrogen from the syngas, the remaining carbon monoxide could be safely burned underground.

Gas scrubber prevents toxic chlorine gas release

Wastewater treatment plants combine four primary steps to process sewage: liquid handling, solid handling, pump stations and plant maintenance. During the liquid handling process, chlorine is used to treat the cleaned wastewater. Facilities storing large quantities of chlorine must invest in emergency stand-by equipment to prevent accidental chemical releases.

Purafil ESD FOC-1, fibreglass EGS with Chlorosorb® dry scrubbing medium can be installed adjacent to the chlorination room. Purafil dry chemical EGS is designed to contain all the contents of a fully loaded 1 t chlorine cylinder in a worst-case release scenario. Instead of using toxic, liquid caustic to neutralize the gases, EGS uses non-toxic, dry scrubbing medium. This medium’s chemisorptive process removes chlorine by means of adsorption, absorption and chemical reaction. Chlorine gas is trapped within the pellet where an irreversible chemical reaction changes the gases into harmless solids. The dry scrubbing medium in the unit is non-toxic, non-hazardous and maintenance-free.

Breakthrough for carbon capture prototype

ScottishPower, the United Kingdom, has reported that successful testing at the prototype carbon capture unit at Longannet Power Station has resulted in a major breakthrough in reducing the amount of energy required to separate carbon emissions from a coal-fired power plant. Scientists and engineers working for ScottishPower and Norway’s Aker Clean Carbon AS have been able to demonstrate reductions in energy requirement in the improved capture process by about one-third that of a reference plant.

Technicians have been monitoring the effectiveness of the amine plant that captures the carbon dioxide (CO2) under a range of operating conditions. One of the major challenges with carbon capture has been the energy requirement. The focus for the tests at Longannet has been to reduce this load to a minimum via a combination of process improvements and low-energy solvents. The improved process has been successfully verified in the pilot plant, with the energy requirement being reduced by about one-third. Scientists believe this technology is ready to be applied successfully at full-scale demonstration. Reducing the energy required in capturing CO2 is a critical step in reducing the total cost of carbon capture and storage, bringing a successful commercial-scale project one step closer.


Update on Degradation and Stabilization of Aromatic Polyesters

This handbook provides a comprehensive survey of the degradation and stabilization processes specific to aromatic polyesters, including thermal, thermo-oxidative, chemical, light and radiation degradation and stabilization. Current knowledge of these aspects is discussed and analysed. Materials covered include well-known polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate, less well-known polyalkylene naphthalate and liquid crystalline polyesters, and “new” substances such as polytrimethyleneterephthalate. Contact: iSmithers, Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire SY4 4NR, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1939) 250 383; E-mail:

Management, Recycling and Reuse of Waste Composites

This authoritative reference work provides a detailed review of the management, recycling and reuse of waste composites. The first part of the book reviews the management of waste composites, while the second part discusses current technologies for recycling waste composites. A third group of chapters examine the quality and use of recycled materials. The final section of the book outlines future trends and case studies.

Handbook of Advanced Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment

Until now, no book has provided coverage that includes the latest developments in innovative and alternative environmental technology, design criteria, managerial decision methodologies and regional and global environmental conservation. This guidebook – together with its predecessor, the Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment – fulfils that lacunae and forms a complete and up-to-date resource that contains all the technical information on hazardous industrial waste treatment. It explores new methods of clean production, waste minimization and the treatment of landfills and underground storage tanks. For the above two books, contact: CRC Press, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1235) 400 524; Fax: +44 (1235) 400 525; E-mail:


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