VATIS Update Waste Management . Jan-Feb 2011

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Waste Management Jan-Feb 2011

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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UNEP sounds alarm over increasing pollution of oceans

Large amounts of phosphorus, an important fertilizer, are discharged into oceans as result of inefficiencies in farming and a failure to recycle wastewater, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) states in its 2011 Year Book released in February 2011. The Year Book also expresses concern over plastics pollution in oceans. Both phosphorus discharge and new concerns over plastics underline the need for better management of the world’s wastes and improved patterns of consumption and production, say experts cited in the book.

UNEP’s Year Book 2011 has highlighted phosphorus, the demand for which has rocketed during the 20th century, partly because of the heated debate over whether or not finite reserves of phosphate rock will soon run out. An estimated 35 countries produce phosphate rock, and countries and companies are looking further afield, including on the seabed off the coast of Namibia. The Year Book calls for a global phosphorus assessment to more precisely map phosphorus flows in the environment and predict levels of economically viable reserves.

Further research is also needed on the way phosphorus travels through the environment to maximize its use in agriculture and livestock production and cut waste while reducing environmental impacts including on rivers and oceans, the Year Book avers. It also points to the great opportunity of wastewater recycling. Up to 70 per cent of this water is laden with nutrients and fertilizers such as phosphorus, which is discharged untreated into rivers and coastal areas. Other measures to reduce discharges include cutting erosion and the loss of topsoil where large quantities of phosphorus are associated with soil particles and are stored after application.

The Year Book highlights an emerging concern termed “persistent, bio-accumulating and toxic substances” linked with plastic marine waste. Research indicates that small and tiny pieces of plastic are adsorbing and concentrating from the seawater and sediments a wide range of chemicals, many of which “cause chronic effects such as endocrine disruption, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity,” according to the Year Book.

Fresh move in Sri Lanka to tackle clinical waste

The Central Environment Authority (CEA) of Sri Lanka will launch a new programme to regulate hazardous waste from clinics, said Mr. Charitha Herath, Chairman of CEA. The new programme will be launched in the beginning of 2011, in cooperation with the Health Ministry and the Environment Ministry, he added.

CEA will make arrangements to get cluster-wise incinerators for burning the hazardous waste. It hopes to deal with private sector institute and organizations to develop such cluster based incinerations. The hospital staff will be trained to handle those things and burn their clinical waste.

CEA has already launched an electronic waste (e-waste) management programme at the national level in association with both public and private sectors. E-waste presents an economic opportunity through the recycling and refurbishing of discarded electronic goods and the harvesting of the valuable metals they contain.

China to impose green tax on heavy polluters

China is to impose an environmental tax on heavy polluters under an ambitious clean-up strategy being finalized in Beijing, according to experts familiar with the programme. The tax will be included alongside the world’s most ambitious renewable energy scheme and fresh efforts to fight smog when the government unveils the biggest, greenest five-year plan in the country’s modern history in March 2011.

The environmental tax – which will levy fees according to discharges of sulphur dioxide, sewage and other contaminants – is meant as a disincentive for polluting industries, many of which have flocked to China to take advantage of low costs and weak regulations. The tax is “likely to be levied nationwide, but there is also a possibility that it will initially be introduced in selected regions,” said Mr. Ma Zhong, Director of the School of Environment & National Resources at Renmin University in Beijing. Jianxi province has already applied to host a project.

Domestic media say the tax could come into force in 2013. Carbon dioxide, a key concern given China’s status as the world’s biggest greenhouse gas emitter, may be included in the system later, though the issue is being debated. The revenues would go to the central government, but the main aim of the new system is act as a disincentive to polluters. “In the early phase, the objective of this tax is to change behaviour rather than to raise money,” Mr. Ma stated. The main impact is likely to be felt by the energy sector as well as emission-intensive industries, such as steel, cement and chemicals.

Pakistan’s court asks hospitals to follow waste disposal rules

In Pakistan, the Sindh High Court (SHC) recently called for the strict implementation of hospital waste management rules, and said that any individual could approach the Sindh Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) or authorities concerned if a health facility fails to follow the rules. The court was hearing a petition seeking immediate shutdown of incineration plants of hospitals.

Advocate Qazi Ali Athar, filing a pro bono petition in SHC, submitted that burning of solid waste had made the lives of citizens miserable because of emission of highly toxic fumes. He pointed out that incineration of hospital waste adversely affects human health, which is in violation of the fundamental rights guaranteed under the country’s Constitution. He requested the court to direct the respondents to immediately adopt environment-friendly, non-burn technologies as well as the segregation method for disposing off hospital waste.

The Additional Advocate General placed on record SEPA’s report on hospital waste disposal. He said it was decided after discussions with representatives of hospitals that notices would be published in newspapers to advise healthcare facilities to strictly follow hospital waste management rules. He said it was decided that disposal of hospital waste would be made through any burn or non-burn technology, which must first go through environmental examination or environmental impact assessment. However, the petitioner submitted that only non-burn technology be adopted for hospital waste disposal.

Japanese recyclers eye entry into Asian markets

Taking their cue from manufacturers, recycling businesses in Japan are looking towards booming Asian markets, where demand for environmental services is just starting to take root. The Japanese government is now taking the initiative to assist enterprises that recycle plastic bottles and appliances in branching out overseas. Many emerging Asian economies are seeing their waste dumps grow in tandem with increased consumption driven by explosive population growth.

Officials with the Environment Ministry and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) believe that with their technological prowess, Japanese companies are likely to succeed in emerging economies where demand for recycling is expected to expand sharply. The government has designated recycling businesses, dubbed as “vein industries”, subject to future growth, as opposed to “arterial industries” such as manufacturing.

The Environment Ministry has submitted a budget outlay request for 1.13 billion yen (US$13.75 million) in fiscal 2011 for the development of leading vein industries, such as plastics and electronics recycling, and promoting their overseas expansion. The Ministry will also provide funds for assisting research and skills training at companies looking to expand abroad. An experts’ panel will be set up to brainstorm strategies. In fiscal 2011, METI will begin providing assistance for recycling businesses as part of its push on infrastructure exports. According to METI, by 2020 the Asian recycling market is expected to triple in size from its 2005 level.

Plants to feed on India’s river pollutants

Despite several sewage treatment plants, toxic effluents keep flowing into the River Ganga in India. Soon, aquatic plants would come to the rescue of the river. With the proposed technique, aquatic plants would absorb the toxic heavy metals present in the effluents, thus keeping the river water clean.

At present, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is applying six types of technologies in the sewage treatment plants created under the Ganga Action Plan (GAP). These plants are effective in treating domestic wastewater, but fail to treat industrial effluents with heavy metals. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is therefore considering cost-effective and safe on site bio-remediation technology. The technology is seen as a boon for the existing sewage treatment plants as it would not only reduce the burden of pollutants, but also treat the harmful industrial effluent mixed with municipal sewage, said noted environmentalist Prof. B.D. Tripathi, a member in the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) and Co-ordinator of the Centre for Environmental Science and Technology (CEST), Banaras Hindu University. Acoording to the Ganga Pollution Control Unit of Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam, however, this technology can function only in small drains to check the pollutants at the source. Prof. Tripathi insists that the technology could be scaled up and adds that while engineering-based technologies provide short-term solutions, long-term and sustainable solutions can be achieved only through biological methodologies.

China sets goals to reduce emissions of pollutants

China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection has set a target to cut emissions of major pollutants by 1.5 per cent in 2011 compared with 2010. These main pollutants are Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), sulphur dioxide, ammonia nitrogen and nitrogen oxide. The last two were newly added to the country’s major pollutants monitoring list in accordance with its environmental protection plan from 2011 to 2015.

At a national meet on environmental protection, the Environmental Protection Minister Mr. Zhou Shengxian said that while experiencing quick economic development, the country is also facing increasing energy consumption and rising soil, heavy metal, hazardous waste and chemical pollutions. He said, China will set higher pollutant emission standards for paper-making, textiles, leather, chemical plants and other heavy-polluting industries. More efforts will also be made to control emissions from motor vehicles, build sewage processing plants at the county level, and continue research on developing technology to remove industrial pollutants. In addition, the country will also issue more policies, such as providing financial support for processing pollutants and collecting charges over emissions from motor vehicles on a trial basis, Mr. Zhou added.

Republic of Korea draws up a chemicals management plan

The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea, in consultation with seven other ministries, has drawn up a master plan for chemicals management, which will be implemented until 2020, for minimizing harm on health and environment from chemicals. The plan is along the lines of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) that was set up in 2006 by the United Nations to urge nations to make efforts to reduce hazard of using chemicals.

Following the vision of “minimizing harm from chemicals by managing them in an advanced way”, the plan contains five strategies and 15 core actions for securing more than 80 per cent of information on the harm and hazard of chemicals, and for reducing carcinogen of group 1 by 32 per cent by 2020. Each ministry will make detailed year-wise plans and actively implement them. Main contents of the master plan include the following:

  • To secure scientific information on chemicals, hazard assessment items will be increased from 9 to 13 and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) will be expanded;
  • A system will be set up to prevent and respond to chemical accidents and terrorism, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) will be provided support for emission reduction; and
  • Mercury, nanomaterials and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) subject to international control will be managed in a more enhanced way and participation by citizens in making policies will be expanded.

Sri Lanka to recycle petroleum waste

A petroleum waste recycling project will be launched soon in the country, Sri Lankan Petroleum Resources Minister Mr. Susil Premajayantha said. This recycling project will help prevent fraudulent activities, such as adulteration, reduce losses incurred through evaporation and minimize environment pollution from these wastes. A huge income is also expected from the project, the Minister added.

Panasonic to recycle e-waste in India

Japanese consumer durables firm Panasonic has said that it will reach out to its customers in India for recycling of used electronic items as part of a global campaign to become the No. 1 ‘Green Innovation Electronics Company’ by 2018. E-waste in India is currently estimated to be 800,000 tonnes. “With the growing use of electronics, it becomes imperative that safe and reliant methods are introduced and adopted for the disposal of e-waste,” said Mr. Arjun Balakrishnan, Panasonic India Director (Operations and Planning).

Panasonic India had earlier kicked off an internal recycling programme for used electronic goods in association with E-Parisaraa Pvt. Ltd., a Bangalore-based e-waste recycling firm, to create awareness about the issue. Till mid-February 2011, about 700 kg of material have been recycled as part of the internal recycling process. This includes items such as television sets, fax machines, phones, air-conditioners, fans, as well as compressors.

The next step will be to reach out to consumers through exclusive brand shops, which will act as collection centres, the company said in the statement. The programme will first roll out in Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad and later on, it is likely to move to Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. The company also has plans to promote factory waste recycling in India.


EPS recycling system

Intercon Solutions, an electronics recycling company in the United States, has designed and unveiled an expanded polystyrene (EPS) densification system, which uses a new reverse engineering process incorporating high-volume extruder technology to recycle the material. Using the system, Intercon Solutions says it is able to compress EPS into ingots by processing the material through a crusher, multiple heat bands and an extruder. The process does not emit any harmful emissions. Contact: Intercon Solutions, 1001-59 Washington, 11th and Washington, Chicago Heights, IL 60411, United States of America. Tel: +1 (708) 756 9838; Fax: +1 (708) 756 4094.

Synthetic waxes from plastic wastes

GreenMantra Recycling Technologies, Canada, has a process for recycling plastic into useful waxes and oils. Mr. Pushkar Kumar – a metallurgical and materials engineer and founder of the company – worked with his father, a chemical engineer, on the project to recycle plastic wastes. They reasoned that, as all plastics are polymers made of molecules found in many other materials, those polymers could be broken down and converted into other things that consist of the same molecules.

Mr. Kumar claims his process can handle a variety of plastics, including bags and bottles. Most importantly, it can process mixed loads of material, potentially eliminating the time-consuming job of sorting, since existing recycling processes are mainly limited to a particular type of plastic. The end product is synthetic waxes – usually a by-product of oil refining, but one that refiners try to reduce to maximize production of petrol – which are used to make floor wax, shoe polish and car waxes.

A key to making this work was a catalyst that drives the chemical process that breaks up the molecules. Plastics are bound to contain impurities – bits of metal, glass or other materials – and GreenMantra needed a process that would continue working despite those impurities. The company devised such a process and has fine-tuned it.

Innovative rubber recycling technology

In the United States, University of Akron researcher Dr. Avraam Isayev has developed an innovative rubber recovery technology expected to cause a major shift in rubber reprocessing for industrial use. The unique rubber processing method invented by Dr. Isayev, a polymer engineering professor, and his student research team employs a new technique called ultrasonic devulcanization. The patented innovation allows for the recovery of rubber materials, which has been difficult, if not impossible, due to rubber’s vulcanized, or cross-linked, nature. The new technology enables the devulcanization of rubber – that is the breaking of sulphur cross-link bonds in the rubber compound – permitting the scrap material’s reprocessing and reuse.

Dr. Isayev founded Avraam Corp. to develop an industrial ultrasonic extruder to carry out the process of recovering rubber from tyres, roofing materials, shoe soles and other industrially significant products.

Turning old tyres into new ones

To effectively solve the issue of disposing scrap tyres, the new process has to cope with the high volume of tyres discarded each year. Existing devulcanization technologies do not address the problem, as the volumes they can effectively process are far too low. Sekhar Research Innovations (SRI), Malaysia, overcame this by developing a high-volume processing system applicable to major manufacturers around the globe. After years of research, the company successfully created the “SRI compound”, a recycled material from tyres and waste rubber that can be employed to make new tyres, retread old ones or make automotive parts.

In the process of creating the compound, scrap tyres are first cut and grinded into crumb rubber. This crumb rubber is then put through the SRI Activation Process to create premium rubber, which can be used in a range of products by mixing it with the manufacturer’s virgin compound. The SRI Activation Process is a closed loop recycling process that fully reuses the scrap tyre – including fibre, metal and rubber. This leaves no wastage of valuable materials, creates zero pollution and has a low-energy footprint. The tyre manufacturers need not change their processes when using the recycled compound, says Chief Executive Officer of SRI, Mr. Gopinath Sekhar.

New shredder concept boosts recycling efficiency

Micromat Plus series of variously configurable single-shaft shredders for recycling plastic waste is a new machine concept from the German company Lindner reSource. These units, available in three sizes, are designed for low energy consumption and high productivity. Three different drive concepts accommodate specific application needs, while the available range of square blade or point-blade rotors can be fitted with variously sized blades. The screens with 10 to 300 mm hole diameters make for even greater versatility and are easily replaceable.

The newly developed internal force feeder can be individually adapted to the given application, and an increased filling capacity ensures a constantly high material flow. Waste of different source material characteristics – such as hard plastics, filaments or films – can be shredded just as optimally for further processing as post-consumer plastics such as PET bottles, agricultural film or carpeting. Shutdown times are reduced significantly with the new revision and maintenance hatch that facilitates the replacement of blades and counter-blades. These features, combined with the convenient screen access, make the system quickly adaptable to changing requirements. All machines are equipped with a programmable logic control system. The machine can be fitted with an optional touch-screen visualization system. Contact: Lindner reSource GmbH, Häldenfeld 4, 71723 Großbottwar, Germany. Tel: +49 (7148) 1605 38-0; Fax: +49 (7148) 1605 3838; E-mail:; Website:

Devulcanization of rubber waste

Recyclatech Limited of Scotland, the United Kingdom, has developed a novel microbial process to devulcanize natural and synthetic rubber waste, primarily used rubber tyres, for reprocessing into high value rubber products. The micro-organisms are patented, genetically unmodified bacterial species capable of removing sulphur used in vulcanization. The process does not produce any polluting chemical and the release of the microbial biomass is not an environmental problem.

The process involves the crumbing of rubber tyres, followed by the addition of the rubber crumb together with the microbial cultures into large fermentation vessels where the devulcanization process is completed. Recyclatech technology increases the available cross-linking sites on the surfaces of rubber crumb, following microbial devulcanization enabled by its patented bacteria, allowing significantly more cross-linking of crumb with virgin rubber on reprocessing. The batch process takes six days to devulcanize rubber crumb.

The new technology offers two key competitive advantages, the combination of which no other recycling or disposal methods can currently offer: the environmentally friendly disposal of used tyres; and the ability to produce high quality rubber that can be used in place of natural or synthetic rubber at 50 per cent of the cost, claims the company.

Processing of heavily printed plastic waste

EREMA North America Inc., the United States, has introduced an upgrade of its classic TVE plastics processing series. TVEplus facilitates recycling of the increasingly heavily inked and additive-laden plastics packaging common today, allowing transformation of this waste into the valuable, near-virgin quality pellets typical of EREMA systems’ production.

In the basic EREMA recycling system, scrap material is fed into a large vertical cutter/compactor unit that employs friction to compress, size-reduce and pre-warm the plastic material. A unique advantage of the large cutter/compactor is the ability to dynamically blend scrap materials while they are in the chamber. Scrap, inconsistent in its material make-up and amounts, is blended to produce a steady, predictable melt, which is then fed directly to the extruder screw. Compression and melting occur gradually, at a precisely controlled temperature, adding minimal heat history to the reclaim.

In the TVE series melt filters are placed ahead of a degassing system. The TVEplus series allows a significant increase in degassing efficiency and an improved homogenization process. Tests of TVEplus with heavily printed packaging film have demonstrated an increase of about three times the efficiency at removing gases from ink, binding agents, other additives and incidental contaminating materials. Even traces of these materials can cause bubbles, blisters or film tears to render the finished recycled products unusable. The TVEplus series features a number of configurations able to handle throughputs of approximately 250 to 2,500 kg/hour. Contact: EREMA North America Inc., 23 Old Right Road, Unit #2, Ipswich, MA 01938, United States of America. Tel: +1 (978) 356 3771; Fax: +1 (978) 356 9003; E-mail:


Plasma-assisted e-waste conversion

An inventor from the United States, Mr. Jim Kingzett, has applied for patent plasma-based waste-to-energy (PBWTE) facility/systems, including plasma-assisted gasification systems, which can be integrated into a single system to produce synthesis gas (syngas) and a molten slag, and/or electricity, by treating e-waste, municipal solid waste or discarded tyres.

In the PBWTE system, a stream of waste, which has been shredded to a uniform size, is broken down and converted into gas phase by the intense heat – 8,000° to 15,000°C – of the plasma arc. The speed of this reaction is such that no toxic dioxins or furans are formed. The syngas produced can be cooled using heat exchangers, which produce steam. The steam can be used to power steam turbine-driven electrical generators. Once cooled, the syngas passes through a gas scrubber to remove particulate matter. The clean syngas may then be used as a fuel to power gas turbine-driven electrical generators or an internal combustion engine that powers a generator. Exhaust gases from either the turbine or internal combustion engine are returned to the reaction chamber where they are reprocessed and added to the generated syngas.

In exemplary embodiments, 10-35 per cent of the electricity generated is used to run the PBWTE system and the remaining sold to power companies. Depending on waste composition, each tonne of waste can produce approximately 1 MW of electrical energy. An alternative process could be used where the syngas is fed into a series of bioreactors that contain genetically engineered microbes that convert the incoming gas to either ethanol or acetic acid or a combination of both, depending on the selection of microbes. The bioreactor process would also produce carbon dioxide (CO2) as an off-gas. This CO2 is fed back into the reaction chamber to prevent the formation of nitric oxides, and any remaining CO2 may be captured and fed as a growth stimulant into algae beds where the algae are being commercially produced as a base for biofuels, or may be used to form dry ice. Hydrogen can be produced as a component of the syngas and may be used, for example, to fuel automobiles.

Should one elect to produce acetic acid, about 500 kg of glacial-grade acetic acid will be produced from 1 tonne of waste, depending on the type of waste processed. If ethanol production is the choice, about 485 litres will be produced. The inorganic material that forms a vitrified slag may be sold as a high-quality, non-leachable construction material.

E-waste recycling goes high-tech to boost volume

In Canada, Sims Recycling Solutions, is using a highly automated series of electronic machines to convert tonnes of electronic waste back into raw materials. Annually, the new facility in Ontario will be able to treat and resell 75,000 tonnes of e-waste, including cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors, television sets, personal computers (PCs), and other electronics gadgets such as digital music players and mobile phones.

The Sims operation will rely on a number of techniques to automatically separate and collect plastics, glass and metals from the incoming e-waste stream. It is built around a series of processes to shred and then separate different materials, even capturing the dust created from the shredding process for recycling. After shredding, the waste goes to through a shaking hopper to spread goods out evenly on conveyor belts. A magnet sorts out ferrous metals and then transparency sensors pick out glass from plastics. An X-ray machine is employed to differentiate glass from glass with lead, which is used in old CRT monitors.

Optical sorters – which can be calibrated for size, colour and density – identify different materials, such as printed circuit boards. An eddy current machine takes out the non-ferrous metals, sending magnetic materials into a separate bin while the rest falls onto another belt. Toxic material – such as florescent bulbs that contain mercury or batteries – is manually sorted out beforehand.

Recovery of metal from processed recycled materials

Waste streams from recovery and recycling systems – such as white goods shredder residue (WSR) and automobile shredder residue (ASR) – may still contain ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other recyclable materials, but are typically disposed of in landfills. Mr. Thomas A. Valerio, an inventor in the United States, has patented a system for the efficient and cost-effective recovery of materials from such waste streams, in a manner that facilitates revenue recovery while also reducing landfill. The system uses a dry process, together with a dynamic sensor. The method for recovering metallic material from the waste stream includes the steps of:
  • Processing the waste stream using a dynamic sensor system, which measures the rate of change of a current generated as a result of a metallic object moving past the sensor and generates an indication;
  • Separating the metallic fraction that contains the objects identified by the dynamic sensor; and
  • Processing the metallic fraction with an air separator to concentrate the metal content of that fraction of the waste stream.

Pre-processing and post-processing of the metallic fraction may be conducted to further concentrate the amount the metallic materials. Contact: Mr. Thomas A. Valerio, 3465 Hamilton Blvd. SW., Atlanta, Georgia, GA 30354, United States of America.

Apparatus, system and method for computer recycling

Lenovo Pte. Ltd., Singapore, has secured a United States patent on an apparatus, system and method for disposing off computers. The invention facilitates automatic disposal and/or recycling of computers in a secure manner, independent of the operating system that may be present. The computer’s local persistent storage medium is configured with pre-boot image, which is provided with a set of functional modules that facilitate the disposal or recycling of the computer. The disposal and recycling methods require minimal user intervention and facilitate moving configuration options and data to a different computer. The entire process may be executed from the pre-boot image on the computer’s local persistent storage medium without ever booting the primary operating system.

In one embodiment, the executable functional modules include an interface module configured to prompt the user with at least one disposal option, an archive module configured to store user data contained on a local persistent storage medium at a remote location, and a disposal module configured to safely erase the local persistent storage medium. The pre-boot executable image may reside wholly or partially within bootable read only memory (ROM) or a dedicated region on the local persistent storage medium, or such a pre-boot sector or pre-boot partition. In addition to securely erasing the local persistent storage, other disposal related functions – such as authenticating the user, changing asset records associated with the computer, and archiving user related information such as passwords, configuration data and data files to a remote location – may be provided by the executable modules.

The executable modules may include a recycle module that authenticates a user, boots the computer from a downloadable image provided by an installed server or the like, initiates retrieval of user data corresponding to a new user from an archive server or the like, stores the retrieved user data on local persistent storage medium, and updates asset records corresponding to the computer.

Method of recycling printed circuit board

Denso Corporation, a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in Japan, has taken a United States patent on a method and apparatus for recycling printed circuit boards (PCBs). The invention separates and retrieves component materials, which include the printed metallic material and the insulating material. Both the materials, which are separated and retrieved, are suitable for further recycling.

The PCB recycling method uses hot filtration equipment and resin-metal separation equipment in a hot filtration process. The waste PCB is heated and force-filtered to separate the insulating material. The insulating material and the metallic material are then retrieved. It is preferred that the PCB’s insulating material is made of a thermoplastic resin or a mixture of thermoplastic resin and inorganic loading material.

Machine for recycling waste printed circuit boards

Henan Province Sanxing Machinery Co., China, offers a machine for recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), bare circuit boards, waste components, waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste), etc. The automatic process employed separates metal from the waste by way of crushing and gravity separation processes. The machinery is claimed to be easy to operate and maintain, and to have a high recycling rate. Contact: Henan Province Sanxing Machinery Co. Ltd., Xigang Industrial Park, Zhengshang Road, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 450042.


Turning ammonia wastewater into useful resources

A project on technology and associated demonstration of treatment of highly concentrated ammonia wastewater, jointly undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Process Engineering and Tianjin University, has passed result verification recently. The project has made a breakthrough in the treatment of highly concentrated ammonia wastewater, using proprietary clean techniques. The innovative techniques have resulted in an ammonia pollutant reduction rate and a resource utilization rate that are both claimed to be higher than 99 per cent.

The new technique is built around the differences of relative volatility between ammonia and water molecules. Researchers from the two institutions developed a new system featuring high separation efficiency and scaling resistance, and a fully automated control system. The new technique solves a range of problems, such as high energy consumption and jamming, and is able to reduce the concentration of ammonia to 10 mg/l or lower when treating wastewater with ammonia concentration at 3-30 g/l, satisfying the Class-I emission standard. After treatment, all the ammonia can be recovered in the form of high-purity ammonia. The entire treatment process produces no waste gas, water or dregs.

Using the technology, researchers have built demonstration treatment facilities with capacities ranging from 100 tonnes to 400 tonnes a day in seven places, all working smoothly. The new technology has become a proven technology listed on a catalogue for advanced pollution treatment technologies published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection for 2010 because of its positive environmental as well as economic benefits.

Next-generation industrial wastewater recycling

Water Maze, the United States, has introduced its “Innovator Series” of next-generation wastewater recycling equipment that uses electro-coagulation and chemical treatment to remove emulsified oils, suspended solids and heavy metals from a broad range of waste streams found in industrial washing applications. The four new patent-pending, automated products are modular and can be used individually, or jointly for a more complete filtration process.

The EC2-20A and the CoAg2-20A integrate electro-coagulation and chemical flocculation to speed up the process. The Indexing Polishing Filter (IPF), employed as a pre-treatment or post-treatment to another water treatment technology, utilizes various micron-size media paper to filter out particulates in water. The final component in the Innovator Series is the Clean Water Recycle Module, which manages the flow of water in and out of the system. If treated water will be used, for example, with a pressure wash, the Clean Water Recycle Module serves as the holding tank to deliver water to the washer. Contact: Water Maze, 4275 NW Pacific Rim Blvd., Camas, WA 98607, United States of America. Tel: +1 (360) 833 9100; E-mail:

Flame-based thermal oxidizers

Aqueous waste streams are generated by many processes and biological methods are commonly used to treat them. However, when biological treatment is not technically or economically practical then incineration is the best alternative. Over the past fifty years, Selas Fluid, the United States, has supplied over 35 thermal liquid incinerators handling this special class of waste, meeting the required emission limits and providing high online availability. The units in operation range in capacities from 1 million (0.3 MW) to over 120 million Btu/h (35 MW).

Incineration of waste streams that are basically salt brines – aqueous liquids containing organic contaminants and inorganic salts or metals – offer a particular challenge. Most of the alkaline metals, with melting points lower than that required for complete combustion of organic material, form salts during incineration. These corrosive molten salts are reactive with common refractory materials. Selection of the proper operating temperature and lining material is thus crucial for the plant.

Most of these salts deposit on the walls of the unit, necessitating allowance for continuous removal of the accumulated molten mass. The incinerator is “downfired” into a cylindrical, vertically oriented vessel. Exhaust from the incinerator chamber is directed into a submerged quench (Sub-X) vessel. The Sub-X quench design is particularly efficient for this process, rapidly cooling the gases, dissolving most of the salt into the quench liquor due to high agitation, and providing initial cleaning of the gases. A portion of the salts formed in the incinerator remains suspended within the gas stream at the outlet of the quench. Selas Fluid has the expertise to meet the most stringent air quality standards. Contact: Selas Fluid Processing, Five Sentry Parkway East, Blue Bell, PA 19422, United States of America. Tel: +1 (610) 834 0300; Fax: +1 (610) 834 0473; E-mail:

Activated carbon for dyeing industry effluent remediation

A team of researchers led by Dr. P. Sivakumar from Kongu Engineering College, Erode, India, has studied the applicability of activated carbon made from Euphorbia antiquorum L. wood impregnated with phosphoric acid for the removal of colouring matter present in dyeing industry effluent. Activated carbon prepared from waste plants for the treatment of dyeing industry effluent has high significance in environmental sustainability and economic viability.

The mesoporous nature of the adsorbent was proved by the pore size distribution studies. Majority of the treated effluent samples were completely non-hazardous and colourless in nature. The optimum dose of adsorbent required varies from sample to sample depending upon the nature and concentration of pollutants present in the effluent. On the basis of the optimum dose of adsorbent required to treat 100 m3 of dye house effluent, the approximate cost of effluent treatment was computed and compared with the commercial charcoal. Contact: Dr. P. Sivakumar, Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamil Nadu 638 052, India. Mobile: +919865366488; Fax: +91 (429) 4220087; E-mail:

Treatment for carpet manufacturing wastewater

Aqua-Chem Inc. of the United States and Enviro-Solutions LLC of Canada have announced that the initial results from a pilot project with a high-volume carpet manufacturer in the United States demonstrate that simultaneous removal of dyes and other contaminants in the wastewater used in large-scale carpet manufacturing is both practical and economically feasible.

The project shows that it is possible to produce potable quality water and maintain an 80 per cent recovery rate from wastewater that is typically sent to sewers, while also extracting valuable heat from the water for reuse in production at the facility. “We believe this is the first time that dye separation and water purification have been successful as a one-part process for a high-volume manufacturing facility,” said Mr. David Gensterblum, President and CEO of Aqua-Chem. The two companies are preparing to take the process to market.

Electrifying microbes to clean dirty water

In the United States, University of Utah researchers have developed a new concept in water treatment: an electro-biochemical reactor (EBR) in which a low electrical voltage is applied to microbes to help them quickly and efficiently remove pollutants from mining, industrial and agricultural wastewater. The EBR process replaces tonnes of chemicals with a small amount of electricity to feed microbes with electrons.

Tests have shown that the electrons accelerate the rate at which the microbes remove pollutants such as arsenic, selenium and mercury, significantly reducing the costs of wastewater clean-up. The new EBR method can enhance just about any type of wastewater treatment. It is currently being tested primarily for removing metals from mining wastewater, but could be employed also for other industrial and agricultural wastes. INOTEC, a University of Utah start-up company, is using the research after receiving an exclusive licence to the EBR technology from the University of Utah.

In conventional wastewater treatment, microbes or chemicals alter or remove contaminants by adding or removing electrons. These electrons come from large excesses of nutrients and chemicals added to the systems to adjust the reactor chemistry for microbial growth and contaminant removal. Those large excesses must be added to compensate for alterations in the water chemistry and other factors that limit the availability of electrons.

The EBR system overcomes these shortcomings by directly supplying excess electrons to the reactor and microbes using low voltage and no current, unlike other systems that supply large electrical currents. One volt supplies about one trillion trillion electrons, which replace the electrons normally supplied by excess nutrients and chemicals, at a considerable savings and with more efficiency. A small solar power grid can easily supply the electrons required for a full-scale facility.

Treatment method for wastewater from oil and gas processing

A group of inventors from Manvel, Pearland, Cypress and Houston in the United States has has patented an improved method of treating effluent water generated by oil and gas processing facilities. According to the patent, the group has developed a more efficient method of processing certain kinds of wastewater that could allow facilities operators to more easily comply with environmental guidelines. The method is also said to enable recycling of the water and safe disposal of waste without using an outside wastewater treatment facility. The invention involves a reactor that contains pellets of a porous ceramic material that is used to process the water.

Mining industrial waste for medicine

Industrial-scale production of dye-precursor 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DNSA) creates by-products such as p-nitrotoluene-o-sulphonic acid that are usually tough to break down and non-biodegradable. Therefore, current DNSA waste treatments are costly and energy-intensive, says Mr. Xiaobin Fan, a chemical engineer at Tianjin University, China. Mr. Fan and his colleagues have developed a process to turn that wastewater into a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

The researchers analysed the components in the wastewater and found that all the contaminants had a basic structure in common – a substituted aromatic sulphonic acid. They then thought up ways to convert the chemicals with that basic structure into something useful. The process they came up with has an oxidation, a reduction and a sodium hydroxide treatment step to convert more than 85 per cent of the wastewater contaminants into 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (paramycin), which is part of cocktail treatments for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Paramycin is also used in the production of polymers, pesticides and alumina.

Normal treatment of DNSA wastewater costs about US$4 per cubic metre of wastewater, but this new process can yield US$77 worth of valuable chemicals per cubic metre of wastewater, according to the researchers’ calculations. This route to paramycin is also more environmentally friendly than the existing methods, producing less waste per unit of paramycin produced. Huayu Chemical Company in China, a major world supplier of DNSA, worked with the researchers on the project and has adopted the new process on a pilot-scale to optimize the technique.

Biosorptive recovery of platinum from wastewater

The process of platinum group metal (PGM) refining can be up to 99.99 per cent efficient at best, and though it may seem small, the amount of valuable metal lost in waste streams is appreciable enough to warrant recovery. The method currently used to remove entrained metal ions from refinery wastewaters, chemical precipitation, is not effective for selective recovery of PGMs. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been found capable of sorbing numerous precious and base metals, and is a cheap as well as abundant source of biomass.

At Rhodes University, South Africa, Mr. C.L. Mack, and colleagues from the Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology & Biotechnology have investigated S. cerevisiae for its efficacy in the biosorptive recovery of platinum from PGM refinery wastewaters. The researchers employed yeast immobilized with polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde to produce a suitable sorbent, capable of high platinum uptake (150-170 mg/g) at low pH (less than 2). The sorption mechanism was found to be a chemical reaction, which made effective desorption impossible. When applied to PGM refinery wastewater, two key wastewater characteristics limited the success of the sorption process: high inorganic ion content and complex speciation of the platinum ions.

The results proved the concept of platinum recovery by immobilized yeast biosorption and indicated that a more detailed understanding of the platinum speciation within the wastewater is required before biosorption can be applied. Overall, the sorption of platinum by the S. cerevisiae sorbent was demonstrated to be highly effective in principle, but the complexity of the wastewater requires that pre-treatment steps be taken before the successful application of the process to industrial wastewater. Contact: Mr. C.L. Mack, Department of Biochemistry Microbiology and Biotechnology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.


Microscopic chemical-eating bugs clean groundwater

Defence Logistics Agency (DLA), the combat logistics support agency of the United States Department of Defence, is using microbes to restore and protect the environment at Richmond Defence Supply Centre, the United States, according to a remediation plan and feasibility study published recently by DLA Installation Support’s Environmental Branch. The “OU-7 Proposed Plan and Feasibility Study” – created with support from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality – details the upcoming clean-up of a site known as Operable Unit 7.

The site served as a training area for fire-fighting in the 1960s, says the study. Inflammable liquid chemicals and petroleum products were dumped here into unlined training pits, ignited and extinguished during the training. Those activities are believed to have caused groundwater degradation beneath the site. Part of the plan called for in-situ use of native micro-organisms to decompose contaminants and render them harmless for disposal. “These chemical-eating bugs can knock down chemical concentrations by many orders of magnitude,” said DLA’s Environmental Engineer, Mr. Steven Edlavitch.

According to the plan, in-situ bioremediation involves the addition of a carbon source to the sub-surface, which stimulates micro-organisms to biodegrade contaminants. It lists food-grade and agricultural materials – including molasses, vegetable oil, whey and bark mulch – as suitable carbon sources.

Bioremediation of petroleum-laden groundwater

In the United States, Enviro-Equipment Inc. (EEI) – a provider of water quality monitoring instruments and remediation rental equipment – and OxyGreen Corporation (OGC) – an engineering technology company – announced the completion of laboratory testing of the next generation of OGC’s patented oxygen generating cell. The testing was carried out at a laboratory and manufacturing facility of EEI.

The new generation oxygen cell is operated and monitored by a programmable logic controller (PLC) and is designed to produce a higher amount of pure oxygen than the previous design. The OxyGreen system is a chemical-free bioremediation technology that is designed to remove petrochemical contamination left behind by most groundwater remediation systems, which are designed to only remove gross contamination. The technology is a natural way to oxygenate groundwater. The oxygen generated comes from the ground water via electrolysis.

The prototype cell has been tested in a laboratory setting with a scaled-down control panel. “The test results exceeded all expectations with increases in dissolved oxygen levels and changes in oxidation reduction potential,” explains EEI’s Principal Hydrogeologist Mr. Brian E. Chew. “The new cell design definitely facilitated the higher production of pure oxygen and the power usage to produce the desired production was less than anticipated. These favourable results mean that only minor changes will have to be made to the prototype cell and the controls before full production,” he added.

Low-pH tolerant Dehalococcoides culture

in the United States, Bioremediation Consulting Inc. (BCI), has developed a culture of low-pH tolerant Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacteria to treat groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), converting them to the harmless ethylene (ethene) at pH as low as 5.7.

BCI’s cultures dechlorinate PCE and TCE at acidic groundwater conditions that are much more than what other commercial Dhc cultures can tolerate. This breakthrough addresses one of the most pervasive and persistent problems in bioremediation for cleaning up groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents: acidification of the groundwater during treatment – usually caused by addition of excessive amounts of electron donor. Using an acid-tolerant bacterial culture can be a cost-effective alternative to applying buffering compounds to adjust the pH of entire aquifers. The new low-pH tolerant culture is now available to clients. Contact: Mr. Sam Fogel, Bioremediation Consulting Inc., 39 Clarendon Street, Watertown, MA 02472, United States of America. Tel: +1 (617) 923 0976; Fax: +1 (617) 923 0959; E-mail:

Low-energy remediation of chlorinated solvents

Using funding provided under the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, the United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has launched a demonstration project near one of the former production reactor sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to clean up chemically contaminated groundwater. A portion of the sub-surface at the site’s “P Area” has become contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds that are essentially like dry-cleaning fluid. SRNL, together with Clemson University, the United States, has patented a consortium of microbes that have an appetite for that kind of material. “If they are as effective as we expect in cleaning up the chemical contamination in the groundwater, it would be far cheaper than energy-intensive types of clean-up, such as pump-and-treat techniques or soil heating,” said Mr. Mark Amidon, SRNL’s Project Manager for the demonstration.

The mixture of microbes was found occurring naturally at SRS, where they were feeding on the same kind of chemical that was in the groundwater seeping into an SRS creek. The two institutions worked jointly on the discovery and characterization of the microbes. The mixture is called MicroCED, for “microbiological-based chlorinated ethene destruction,” and when injected into the sub-surface can totally transform lethal chlorinated ethenes to safe, non-toxic end products.

In P Area, the first step was to make groundwater conditions better for the microbes. SRNL personnel injected more than 18,900 litres of emulsified soybean oil, buffering agents and amendments as well as 408,800 litres of water to get the dissolved oxygen and acidity right. “Once the conditions were right, we started injecting the store of microbes we have been culturing,” Mr. Amidon said. An initial application of 68 litres of the microbes was injected to get things started. Approximately 5,680 litres of the microbes will be injected into the demonstration site by the end of the demonstration. Mr. Amidon said it would take about a year to see appreciable results.

Earthworms for treating heavy metal contamination

Scientists from Universidad Centro Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Venezuela, and Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, have studied the viability of using earthworms to process hazardous waste containing high concentrations of heavy metals such as in the bioremediation of old industrial sites, landfills and other such potentially hazardous areas. The common earthworm, Eisenia fetida, could be a useful tool in the processing and safe management of hazardous solid and liquid waste with high metal content, according to the research team led by chemist Dr. Lué Merú Marcó Parra of Universidad Centro Occidental Lisandro Alvarado.

The team has carried out two feasibility studies on the use of worms in treating waste. It first used vermicompost, a compost produced by worms, as a successful adsorbent substrate for remediation of wastewater contaminated with the metals nickel, chromium, vanadium and lead. The second used earthworms directly for remediation of arsenic and mercury present in landfill soils and demonstrated an efficiency of 42 to 72 per cent in approximately two weeks for arsenic removal and 7.5 to 30.2 per cent for mercury removal in the same time period. The team concluded that earthworms offer an inexpensive and effective bioremediation alternative to complex and costly industrial clean-up treatments. Contact: Dr. Lué Merú Marcó Parra, Departamento Quimica y Suelos, Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Decanato de Agronomia, Universidad Centro Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Tarabana, Cabudare 3023, Venezuela. Tel: +58 (412) 510 0557; E-mail:


CO2 scrubber with reusable medium

At Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech), the United States, a team of students a has developed a carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubber, which not only captures carbon but also binds it in a solid form, making a product that can be used as construction material. The team – led by Dr. Komar Kawatra, who chairs the Chemical Engineering Department at Michigan Tech – has designed and built an 11-foot bench model smokestack packed with glass beads. Near the top, a proprietary liquid dribbles down. From below, CO2 bubbles up. By the time the gas reaches the top, half of the CO2 gets gobbled up by the liquid. The liquid itself can be recovered and used again. The group has applied for a patent and hopes to build a pilot plant in cooperation with an industry partner, Carbontec Energy Corp.

There are scrubbers that remove up to 90 per cent of the CO2 from a smokestack, Dr. Kawatra notes, but the liquid must be processed to extract the CO2, which is generally compressed and stored. “This is a very expensive technique, which is probably why we do not see it commonly employed in industry,” says Ph.D. student Mr. Brett Spigarelli, a member of the research team. The group is working to make the scrubber remove even more CO2. In the meantime, it offers a significant benefit to industry. The team aims to not only capture the CO2 at the lowest possible cost, but also to manufacture marketable products.

Innovative catalyst filter technology

Tri-Mer Corp., the United States, has announced a notable advancement in nitrogen oxides (NOx) control at temperatures as low as 176°C. Tri-Mer’s UltraCat catalyst filters are claimed to provide up to 95 per cent NOx removal at the operating temperatures of most industrial boilers. Dioxins are also destroyed by the catalyst at 97-99 per cent efficiency. The Tri-Mer system is modelled on a robust, proven baghouse configuration and uses a reverse pulse-jet cleaning action. It is designed for simplicity of operation, maintenance and low operating cost.

Along with high NOx and dioxin removal, UltraCat filters capture particulate to exceptionally low levels. Typical outlet levels are less than 2.0 mg/Nm3. For industrial boilers, a level of 2 mg/Nm3 is typical, and less than 4 mg/Nm3 is guaranteed. This is significantly better than what is required by the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Rule for new biomass boilers or existing biomass and coal boilers proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

For efficient control (90-98 per cent removal) of sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and other acid gases, the UltraCat system incorporates dry sorbent injection using sodium bicarbonate or lime. With very few exceptions, these efficiencies will meet regulatory limits. Mercury removal options are also available.

UltraCat catalyst filters are manufactured from the combining of advanced, fibrous ceramics with nano-bits of NOx catalyst. The catalyst is embedded throughout the 23 cm filter walls. This creates a very high surface area of catalyst to interact with the gas flow. Urea or aqua ammonia is injected upstream of the filters, reacts with the NOx on the catalyst surfaces, and forms harmless nitrogen gas and water vapour. The proprietary catalyst formulation is highly resistant to sulphur poisoning. Furthermore, because the nano-catalysts are embedded in the filter walls, they are protected from boiler fly-ash as well as sorbent injection particulate.

New scrubber for flue gas stacks

Skyonic Corporation, a chemical engineering company based in the United States, has introduced a new scrubber technology that can remove virtually all sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from flue gas stacks. SkyScraper™ is designed to help power, refining and other industrial plants to safely treat flue gas streams and have the potential to mitigate rising environmental concerns around fly-ash. SkyScraper is claimed to capture 97-99 per cent of the pollutants found in exhaust gases, including SOx, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals, as well as mineralize these and other toxins while producing marketable by-products like chlorine and hydrogen.

SkyScraper can operate down to the 10 MW equivalent level and costs less per kW, says Mr. Joe Jones, Skyonic’s CEO and Founder. While current scrubbing technologies release carbon dioxide (CO2) as they capture acid gases, SkyScraper does not do so. The patent-pending technology is a post-combustion process, and can be easily retrofitted to existing infrastructures or implemented as a new facility.

A key advantage of SkyScraper is its scalability to scrub almost all toxins found in flue gas streams, including 99.9 per cent SOx and 99 per cent NO2. The scrubber achieves this by forcing an energy-efficient chemical reaction between these gases and electrochemically generated caustic soda. The system also removes 97 per cent Hg and other heavy metals with a separate unit.

Effectiveness of water-based fluorine scrubber

Recent research and development work has shown the viability of water scrubbing, with and without a non-caustic additive, for treating corrosive fluorine gas effluent and essentially eliminating the potential of producing lethal oxygen difluoride (OF2). The process, developed and patented by ATMI-EcoSys in the United States, is particularly suitable in the semiconductor industry for the better control of fluorine gas emissions.

“We improved fluorine abatement by combining EcoSys liquid scrubbing technology with a unique injection system that uses an inexpensive, non-caustic chemical agent – the mild reducing agent sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3). This technology replaces the need for using caustic solutions, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, for treating fluorine effluents, said Mr. Josep Arn, Chief Technologist of ATMI-EcoSys. Performance of the new process was examined using point-of-use water-based scrubbing with changing – up to 6 per cent, i.e., 0.5-5 standard litres per minute (slpm) flourine diluted with 50 slpm nitrogen – fluorine concentrations released during a typical perfluorocarbon (PFC) plasma clean. These tests showed that fluorine gas reacts quickly and efficiently with water: the main products of the reaction are hydrogen fluoride, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Results also showed that exothermic effects, if any, were very effectively dissipated within the scrubber and no corrosion was found anywhere within the scrubber.

Pilot plant for CO2-to-polymer conversion

In Germany, the chemicals major Bayer AG worked with the energy company RWE to establish a pilot plant to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into feedstock for the production of polyurethanes. Other project partners are RWTH Aachen University and the CAT Catalytic Centre, which is run jointly by the University and Bayer. Researchers recently achieved a breakthrough in laboratory-scale catalysis technology which makes it possible to put CO2 to efficient use, for the first time, Bayer has claimed. The efficient use of CO2 is only possible because a suitable catalyst, for which experts had been searching for a long time, has finally been discovered.

CO2 used in the project comes from a lignite power plant of RWE Power where the company operates a CO2 scrubber. The pilot plant – designed, built and run by Bayer Technology Services – uses CO2 to produce one of the two components essential for the production of polyurethanes. Bayer MaterialScience is testing these materials, which are used primarily to produce soft and rigid foams, at one of its existing plants. Bayer researchers are testing the compatibility of the catalyst with CO2 from the power plant. RWTH Aachen University, meanwhile, is carrying out an ecological and economic study of the new process.

Effective emission control in a process environment

Pulsejet blowdown filter technology, from Porvair Filtration Group in the United Kingdom, provides effective emission control for the loading and unloading of catalyst hoppers in a process environment. The technology employs a controlled pulse of compressed gas directed into filter element via a control Venturi throat built into the open-end adapter to permit the on-site cleaning of the filter media, thus enabling continued operation without any shutdown.

Porvair developed the Pulsejet emission control system and filter unit to address the difficulties caused by the cyclone units that were part of traditional catalyst hoppers, particularly where the catalyst hoppers were filled from tankers or when catalyst was returned to the hopper post-operation/recovery. The system was to be incorporated into an existing plant so as to minimize the impact upon the equipment and to economically justify the change to plant management. It ensured that as the hoppers were pulsed clean, and the catalyst material that is removed was returned directly to the main catalyst bed and didn’t have to be transported separately. Contact: Porvair Filtration Group, 1 Concorde Close, Segensworth, Fareham, Hampshire, PO15 5RT, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1489) 864330; Fax: +44 (1489) 864399; E-mail:


International Standard Units for Water and Wastewater Processes

This updated 4th edition of WEF Manual of Practice No. 6 continues its goal to establish units of expression that are universally understandable and readily comparable for all design, operation and performance factors. It reflects current design practices of water and wastewater engineering professionals and focuses on particular sectors of the water and wastewater industry. Chapters covered include: Development of a uniform system of units; Accepted representations of units; Standard units for water industry, Water conveyance systems; and Wastewater facilities and reuse.

Contact: Portland Customer Services, Commerce Way, Colchester C02 8HP, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1206) 796351; Fax: +44 (1206) 799331; E-mail:

Handbook of Biological Wastewater Treatment

The scope of this new edition ranges from the design of activated sludge system, final settlers and auxiliary units (sludge thickeners and digesters) to pre-treatment units such as primary settlers and UASB reactors. The core of the book deals with the optimized design of biological and chemical nutrient removal. The book presents the state-of-the-art theory concerning the various aspects of the activated sludge system and develops procedures for optimized cost based design and operation. It offers a truly integrated cost-based design method that can be easily implemented in spreadsheets and adapted to particular needs.

Contact: Portland Customer Services, Commerce Way, Colchester C02 8HP, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1206) 796351; Fax: +44 (1206) 799331; E-mail:

Treatment of Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater

This book gives a comprehensive overview of modern analytical methods and summarizes novel single and hybrid methods to remove continuously emerging contaminants – micropollutants from the aqueous phase. New trends (e.g. sensor technology, nanotechnology and hybrid treatment technologies) are described in detail. The book covers new techniques that are still in the development phase and are to be realized not only in the laboratory but also on a larger scale. The book presents detailed information on various chemical, biological and physicochemical methods that have evolved over the last few decades.

Contact: Portland Customer Services, Commerce Way, Colchester C02 8HP, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1206) 796351; Fax: +44 (1206) 799331; E-mail:


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