VATIS Update Waste Management . Jan-Mar 2014

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Waste Management Jan-Mar 2014

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Child labours engaged in e-waste activities in India

According to a recent study by the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) on ‘Earth Day’ (April 22), about 4.5 lakhs child labours between the age group of 10-14 are observed to be engaged in various e-waste (electronic waste) activities, without adequate protection and safeguards in various yards and recycling workshops. D. S. Rawat, Secretary General ASSOCHAM said, “The informal recycling industry often employs children to dismantle electronic waste. ASSOCHAM’s report strongly advocates legislation to prevent a child’s entry into this labour market. The chamber has also strongly advocated the need to bring out effective legislation to prevent entry of child labour into its collection, segregation and distribution”.

As per the study, India is likely to generate e-waste to an extent of 15 Lakh metric tonnes (MT) per annum by 2015 from the current level 12.5 Lakh MT per annum growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 25 per cent. “E-waste is directly linked to the economic growth of the country and also overall consumer spending pattern. India’s economic growth has lifted millions of people from lower-income group to middle and high-income groups and increased purchasing power,” Rawat said.

More than 70 per cent of e-waste contributors are government, public and private industries, while household waste contributes about 15 per cent. Televisions, refrigerators and washing machines make up the majority of e-waste, while computers account for another 20 per cent and mobile phones 2 per cent, adds the report. “Domestic e-waste including computer, TV, mobiles and refrigerators contain over 1,000 toxic material, which contaminate soil and ground water. Exposure can cause headache, irritability, nausea, vomiting and eyes pain. Recyclers may suffer liver, kidney and neurological disorders”, said Dr. B. K. Rao, Chairman of ASSOCHAM Health committee. However most of these products can be recycled, refurbished and redeployed going down the value chain and reused by a bit of reconstruction process, reducing overall impact on the environment.
Source: http://www.

China tells firms to start reporting carbon emissions

The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), China’s top economic planning agency, said in a note on its website that all companies that emitted more than 13,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) in 2010 must report their future annual emissions of all six major greenhouse gases. “The reporting is to tighten the control over major emitters, provide statistics for capping greenhouse gas emissions and launch a carbon trading scheme,” the note said.

The lack of credible emissions data is among the key challenges in building a national market, because imposing facility-level carbon caps is difficult if no one knows how much each power plant or factory emits. It did not specify when mandatory reporting would begin, but analysts told Reuters they expected the rule to enter into force from 2015. China is the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases, blamed by scientists for causing global warming, but has pledged to cut emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45 percent by 2020, compared with 2005 levels.

Carbon trading is Beijing’s main policy to cut emissions. It is launching pilot carbon markets in seven cities and provinces to prepare for the launch of a national market later in the decade, expected some time between 2017 and 2020. Experts said a nationwide emissions database would also be useful in evaluating other policies, such as a potential tax on carbon emissions. The NDRC did not specified a plan for how and when appropriate monitoring equipment would be installed across the many thousands of facilities in China covered by the new rule. Some experts said installing equipment and verifying the data could be major challenges for many, especially in the nation’s underdeveloped western region.

India announces new emission standards for major industries

In order to implement the State Council Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, and push forward industrial transformation and upgrading by formulation and amendments of major industrial emission standards, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), India, together with Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quar-antine (AQSIQ), announced three emission standards of air pollutants, including Emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry (GB 4915-2013), Standard for pollution control on co-processing of solid wastes in cement kiln (GB 30485-2013) and its supplementary standard Environmental protection technical specification for co-processing of solid wastes in cement kiln (HJ 662-2013).

The new version adjusted the emission limits to air pollutants and set special emission limits in key regions. The new standards specify tougher requirements for emission of PM and NOx. Considering the technological progress in dust removal and de-NOx, the new standards set tougher PM emission limit, that is, 30 mg/m3 (for thermal equipment such as cement kilns) and 20 mg/m3 (for ventilation equipment such as cement grinding mill), in comparison to 50 mg/m3 and 30 mg/m3 respectively according to ongoing standards. The NOx emission limit is set at 400 mg/m3 in comparison to the current 800 mg/m3, in order to urge the cement producers to combine the process control (e.g., low NOx burner, graded combustion in decomposing furnace, fuel replacement) with end-of-pipe control (SNCR is the currently available mature technology) of NOx emissions.

The co-processing of solid wastes in cement kilns shall apply Standard for pollution control on co-processing of solid wastes in cement kiln (GB 30485-2013), in addition to Emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry (GB 4915-2013). In the principle of whole-process pollution control, the GB 30485-2013 sets corresponding control requirements for each of the pollution links in the co-processing, which include control of the waste varieties allowed for co-processing, control of batch feeding of toxic elements to the wastes, selection of feeding points, and control of flue gas pol-lutants. MEP also announced the Emission standard of pollutants for battery industry (GB 30484- 2013) and Discharge standard of water pollutants for leather and fur making industry (GB 30486- 2013), apart from the aforementioned standards. The two new standards will help substantially control heavy metal pollutants.

Plastic waste recycling plant in Sri Lanka

The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development, Sri Lanka, has opened, plastic/polythene recycling center at Matara. As a result of present developing process the waste are gathering in huge quantities to the environment. Central Environmental Authority (CEA) got the challenge to find the proper solutions to manage the waste and it is conducting more practical programmes to covert the waste as a resource. National Post Consumer Plastic Waste Management Project was born to find out proper solutions to minimize the plastic/polythene waste by strengthening the recycling pro-cess. To build up a recycling center at Matara, the Municipal Council will be spending 13.5 million with the machineries to process final production of the recycling for the first time in Sri Lanka.

Kazakhstan launches new e-waste management project

The Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Kazakhstan, has launched a new project on recycling electronic waste. According to the Minister Nurlan Kapparov, about 3 million computers were imported into Kazakhstan over past 10 years, and at present more than 120,000 mobile phones are delivered to the country. Now the question of their utilization becomes urgent. Currently, old cell phones and computers are sent to disposal fields that are located near populated areas.
Meanwhile, these wastes contain hazardous substances like lead, mercury or cadmium. In the near-est future, people will be able to leave old phones in special eco-boxes, which will be installed in electronics stores. First such boxes are expected to appear in Astana this summer. Although system modernization program of solid waste management has already been developed in Kazakhstan.

Bangladesh to improve ship-recycling standards

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United Kingdom, and the Government of the Peo-ple’s Republic of Bangladesh have signed a landmark agreement to work together to improve safety and environmental standards in the country’s ship-recycling industry. A Memorandum of Under-standing (MOU) formalizing the cooperation between the two was signed by Mr Nicolaos Charalam-bous, Director, Technical Cooperation Division, IMO and Mr. Md. Ashadul Islam, Additional Secre-tary, at the Ministry of Finance (MoF) in Government of Bangladesh, on April 2014.

IMO and Bangladesh will jointly implement a project entitled “Safe and Environmentally Sound Ship Recycling in Bangladesh – Phase I”. With an annual gross tonnage capacity of more than 8.8 million, the Bangladesh ship recycling industry is one of the world’s most important, second only to neighboring India in terms of volume. The project, aimed at improving standards and sustainability within the industry, will consist of five work packages, covering studies on economic and environmental impacts and on the management of hazardous materials and wastes, recommendations on strengthening the Government’s One-Stop Service (in which all the various ministries with a responsibility for ship recycling, offer a single point of contact for related matters), a review and upgrade of existing training courses and the development of a detailed project document for a possible follow-up project to implement the recommendations of phase I.

It will be executed by the Marine Environment Division of IMO, in partnership with the Ministry of In-dustries of Bangladesh, over the next 18 months. The Bangladeshi ministry will coordinate input from the different stakeholder ministries within the country, while IMO will also collaborate with other relevant UN agencies including the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to ensure successful delivery of the project. IMO, the Government of Bangladesh, Norad, and BRS have been working towards the establishment of this project for a number of years. It demonstrates a major commitment from the Government of Bangladesh to improve safety and environmental standards within this vital industry.

Safe disposal of e-waste in India

The Environment department of government of Delhi, India, made e-waste disposal as theme for Earth Day, on April 22. The Delhi Pollution Control Committee has authorised 23 companies, who are bulk producers of gadgets, to collect e-waste and issued notices to market associations to dispose off their electronic waste only with authorised collection centres. The department authorised 12 common collection centres to collect the e-waste in large quantities.

These common centres are located mostly in the major markets dealing in junk. The list of the centres has been circulated within the market of these common collectors as well. Earlier, the Delhi government, along with New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC), had tried to experiment on ways to dispose e-waste safely. However, the methods did not work.

Officials said, the authorised companies would give people a minimum amount in return for their disposed e-waste. “People usually sell their gadgets to junk dealers and create an unsafe environment rather than giving it to companies that dispose them safely. In foreign countries people pay companies to dispose off their e-waste. But in India, we demand money and this attitude needs to be changed,” the official said.

China to improve environmental protection legislation

China’s top legislature has decided to continue reviewing the environmental protection law draft amendment and plan for laws on water and soil pollution prevention and control. China’s top legislature had second and third readings of the environmental protection law draft amendment in 2013, but was yet to vote, said Fu Ying, spokeswoman for the National People’s Congress. “Normally a law will be voted after three readings,” said Fu.

“The added review would better absorb social intelligence and reflect the public concern and we hope we can enact a high-quality and effective environmental protection law. The laws on water and soil pollution prevention and control are already on plan agenda,” Fu said. The top legislature will start enforcement examination of the law on air pollution control this year and consider revising it.

Viet Nam to solve pollution problem using red sludge steel

According to tests conducted by the Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Thai Hung Company, Viet Nam, red sludge, or red mud, a toxic by-product of the production of alumina from bauxite contains high amounts of iron. Scientists that this could give Viet Nam an advantage in steel production. The report said that a batch of steel refined from red mud met the strict standards set for Japanese SD 390 steel.

Nguyen Van Tuan, director of Thai Hung Company, said 2.4 tonnes of dry red mud could produce a tonne of iron ore. Assessing the result of the trial project, Professor Nguyen Van Hieu, a leading scientist, said the project was a breakthrough in various ways, including opening up a path for more sustainable bauxite development.

Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung Hai praised test results, saying they would help provide solutions to environmental degradation around the mining sites in the Central Highlands. Hai added that the Government would consider supporting the project with appropriate policies.


Plastic shopping bags make a fine diesel fuel

Researchers at the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC), a division of the Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois, the Unite States, have reported that plastic shopping bags, an abundant source of litter on land and at sea, can be converted into diesel, natural gas and other useful petroleum products. The conversion produces significantly more energy than it requires and results in transportation fuels, that can be blended with existing ultra-low-sulfur diesels and biodiesels. Other products, such as natural gas, naphtha (a solvent), gasoline, waxes and lubricating oils such as engine oil and hydraulic oil also can be obtained from shopping bags. A report of the new study has been published in the journal Fuel Processing Technology.

There are other advantages to the approach, which involves heating the bags in an oxygen-free chamber, a process called pyrolysis, said Brajendra Kumar Sharma, a senior research scientist at ISTC, who led the research. “You can get only 50 to 55 percent fuel from the distillation of petroleum crude oil. But since this plastic is made from petroleum in the first place, we can recover almost 80 percent fuel from it through distillation,” Sharma said.

Previous studies have used pyrolysis to convert plastic bags into crude oil. Sharma’s team took the research further, however, by fractionating the crude oil into different petroleum products and testing the diesel fractions to see if they complied with national standards for ultra-low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel fuels. The diesel mixture had an equivalent energy content, a higher cetane number (a measure of the combustion quality of diesel requiring compression ignition) and better lubricity than ultra-low-sulfur diesel. However, the researchers were able to blend up to 30 percent of their plastic-derived diesel into regular diesel, “and found no compatibility problems with biodiesel,” Sharma said.

Extrusion method for post-consumer recycled film

Macro Engineering, Canada, has developed and patented a new process to produce trash bags using high percentages of post-consumer materials. With conventional methods for producing bags with high amounts of recycled material, the reclaim is normally buried in the core layer of a coextruded structure between skin layers of mostly-virgin material. The issue with this method is that defects, such as gels/pinholes, that may originate from impurities in the recycled materials of the core layer tend to migrate through all layers of the structure. Macro’s process is to create a two-ply film by joining two films immediately after extrusion. This configuration adds strength to the overall film structure as weak spots in each layer are reinforced by the complimentary layer.

To block the film, two methods can be employed, the first is a conventional blown film extrusion setup where the bubble is collapsed before the melt cools. This method creates a single sheet. The second is by extruding through a dual-orifice blown film die and having the two films join which form a collapsed tube. Macro has tested blends of post-consumer recycled materials with virgin resins as well as structures comprised of 100% in-house scrap. The tests found that both tear strength and tensile strength were consistently better, by 25 % over a single layer film structure. The technology will allow a range of 0.5% to 100% reclaimed plastic material to make up the final film structure and is best suited for industrial applications that utilise thicker gauges.

Turning old tires into a useful material

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), there are approximately 300 million discarded tires every year in America. Frequently these tires are thrown into landfills or discarded illegally and are a potential fire hazard. However, in recent years these no-longer-useful tires have been the topic of new and innovative ways of being used. Magdy Abdelrahman, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at North Dakota State University (NDSU), the United States, is creating a way to use old tires to improve the roads we travel every day.

Abdelrahman is experimenting with “crumb” rubber – which are old tires ground up into different sized particles – and combining them with other materials to improve roads. The experiment is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States. “It’s very durable. We mix it with different materials and in different percentages, and in different conditions, to find the best ways to add rubber to asphalt,” Abdelrahman said.

An NSF five-year grant of around $400,000, will also provide educational courses linked to Abdel-rahman’s research in the area of recycled materials. Plans to develop procedures to train and men-tor students in undergraduate and graduate programs in the field are also in the works. “It is really important for them to understand that if we keep using new materials, that our grandchildren won’t have anything left. We’re trying to get them to think about what will be available to the next generation in the way of resources if we cannot, or do not, use recycled materials. The goal is to educate high school, middle school and elementary school children, and show them that this is what needs to be done,” he added.

Transforming plastic bags into usable fuel

A group of scientists in India have developed a process to transform disused plastic bags into usable fuel. Researchers at the National Institute of Technology (NIT), India and the Centurion University of Technology and Management (CUTM), India, have developed a process to transform disused plastic bags into usable fuel. They are targeting low-density polyethylene plastics (LDPE) for their high petrochemical content. Instead of recycling the plastics into new plastic products, the process extracts useful fuel from the petroleum-based bags, diverting waste from the landfill while also creating energy.

It’s true that plastic bags have been banned in many areas across the United States, but their presence still remains, creating hazards on land and in our many waterways. In order to combat this problem, the researchers sought to add another step in the lifecycle of plastic products by reverting them to their petrochemical components. The process involves a low-heating technique that combines the plastic waste with kaolin, a clay mineral and catalyst. The gentle heating (around 400°C) causes the plastic to break down in a process called thermo-catalytic degradation. Through this process, carbon-rich molecules similar to petrochemicals are released.

If the process is enacted on a large scale, the resulting petrochemical-like fuel could be used to power machinery or possibly even vehicles. LDPE plastic can not only be found in plastic bags, but also containers, medical equipment and computer components, which could all potentially be recycled into fuel if the process is perfected.

Waste plastics unzipped into useful chemicals

A team of students working under Nicholas Robertson, from Northland College, the United States, and Michael Carney, from the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC), the United States, have developed a way to depolymerise polyesters and polycarbonates into diols and methanol, using ruthenium based pincer catalysts developed by David Milstein and co-workers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. These catalysts have an impressive variety of uses, including polymer synthesis. However, when exposed to high pressure hydrogen gas, the process is reversed and depolymerisation takes place. The pincer catalyst hydrogenates the ester linked backbone of the polymer, unzipping it into small molecules.

Robertson said, depolymerising plastics into value added chemicals, which are currently more expensive than the monomers from which the polymer is derived, means there is potential for this approach to become cost competitive with petroleum sources. “We can potentially start to reduce the flow of petroleum in some of these areas,” he adds.

Chemical recycling is a nice and complementary approach to the ultimate goal of sustainability in polymer science, said Marc Hillmyer, at the University of Minnesota, the United States. In the future Nicholas and his team hope to better understand the mechanism of the catalysis, so as to be able to expand the substrate scope, and be able to depolymerise more plastics more efficiently and cheaply.

Recycling technology to recycle PET bottle waste

NRT Polska, Poland, has acquired depolymerization process technology using microwave radiation developed by researchers at the Czech Centre of Microwave Technology of the Academy of Sciences (ASCR), Czech Republic. ASCR has developed recycling technology to recycle PET bottle waste at a new processing plant under construction in the Lodz region. The new NRT PET processing operation will have 10,000 metric tons per year of recycling capacity.

The 42 million euro ($58 million) project, launched by the Polish firm in November 2013, is set to be completed by the end of January 2015, according to NRT. It received grants worth more than 14 million euros ($19.3 million) from the European regional development fund towards the innovative scheme.

NRT says the technology will enable it to lead the world in the production of high quality transparent recycled film material. The use of microwave technology also substantially reduces energy consumption by 95 percent in the depolymerization process, the firm adds. The new technology has already been patented, not only in the Czech Republic but also in five other countries including Germany, France, Italy, the UK and China, according to ASCR.


Recycling old battery electrodes into new electrode

A team of researchers led by Malgorzata Osinska at Poznan University of Technology, Poland, have found that nickel recovered from used batteries can be used to make new electrodes for hydrogen storage, fuel cells and even new batteries. They have incorporated the nickel into composite carbon-nickel electrodes. Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries have largely been superseded by nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries, but disposing of old ones is difficult as they contain two toxic metals. European Union (EU) regulations state that at least 45% of used batteries in the bloc must be collected by 2016, and at least 50% of these must be recycled, so the pressure is on to find solutions.

Osinska and the team removed nickel from spent batteries using a chemical leaching process. Nickel sulphate recovered from this process was then used in an electrolyte. A fabric made from carbon fibre was immersed in the electrolytic bath as an electrode and a current passed through the system for five hours. Around 30 mg/cm2 of nickel was deposited onto the carbon fabric. The re-searchers then immersed the C-Ni composite electrodes in a solution of palladium (II) chloride to add a thin layer of palladium. The palladium increases the electrochemical activity of the electrode. The electrode was found to exhibit the characteristics of both nickel and palladium catalysts, due to the palladium being deposited in grains, seen on an electron microscope.

The team tested the C-Ni-Pd electrodes for use in the sorption and desorption of hydrogen in elec-trochemical hydrogen storage systems, and for methanol electro-oxidation, the main process in di-rect methanol fuel cells. They also tested the composite’s suitability for new Ni-Cd and N-MH batteries. In all cases, the electrodes performed well and were extremely stable. According to the researchers, their technique is the first time nickel recovered from batteries has been used in electrodes for hydrogen storage and fuel cells.

Recovering precious metals from electric waste

A new method, patented by the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy, will allow to recover precious metals from electric and electronic devices which are no longer used. As a result, this waste category could soon become an important source of supply of metals such as gold, silver, lead and tin in Italy, that currently has limited amounts of mineral resources. Computers, cell phones, photovoltaic panels and lithium batteries which are no longer used are today classified as Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), a waste category from which it is possible to recover minerals useful for the production of increasingly requested new electronic equipment.

The innovative method, patented by ENEA, will allow to “recycle” these precious metals by using an extraction process carried out at almost room temperature, with limited gas emissions in the air. This technique can also be carried out in small plants and is extremely advantageous as compared to the methods used so far, which require high temperatures and produce polluting emissions. In order to show and test the new technology potential, an experimental plant is being built at the ENEA Research Centre at Casaccia, that will be useful for the early demonstration campaigns, and will also be available to enterprises working in the WEEE field that are interested in implementing plants for the recovery of precious metals from unused equipment.

Tetronics begins plasma refining plant

Tetronics International, the United Kingdom, a global leader in plasma arc technology for metal recovery and hazardous waste treatment applications, has announced that its customer and partner, Solar Applied Materials Technology Corp. (Solartech), Taiwan (Province of China), has confirmed full operational status of its plasma plant where the Tetronics technology, capable of recovering >98% of (PGMs) from spent catalysts, will be used to process and recover PMs and PGMs from spent catalysts and electronic waste.

The main advantages of Tetronics’ patented plasma technology are that it couples the highest technical recovery rates and operational flexibility, with the lowest environmental impacts and cost base. The process chemistry in the technology is designed to smelt and preferentially separate the PMs from less valuable material, which is vitrified into an inert, safe usable product called Plasmarok®, in a single processing step. The process will also destroy any hazardous organics contained within the material. Contact: Kate Colclough, Tetronics International, UK. Tel: +44-0-1793-238-500.


Recovering metals and minerals from waste

Scarcity of clean water is one of the most serious global challenges. In its spearhead programme, VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland, has developed energy-efficient methods for reuse of water in industrial processes and means for recovering valuable minerals and materials from waste for recycling. Rapid tools were also developed for identification of environmental pollutants.

When water and wastewater systems are developed in a comprehensive manner, it is possible to recover valuable metals and other materials and secure availability of clean water. Cleaning and treatment processes can also be linked to energy production, and the processes and urban struc-tures designed in such a manner that wastewater treatment does not consume energy or cause ex-tra costs. “Wastewater treatment and waste treatment have mainly been implemented by legal necessity. Now we should modify our way of thinking so that we would be able to regard waste disposal sites and purification plants as sources or raw materials and energy,” said Mona Arnold, Principal Researcher at VTT.

VTT has developed extraction methods for metals and minerals from waste materials. Biological extraction methods by which metals are recovered from mining, metal and recycling industry waste by utilising microbes and chemical reactions are under testing stages and they are forcasted for market uptake within the next few years. The VTT spearhead programme also developed sensor technology for easy and rapid detection of pollutants. VTT indicators facilitate rapid identification of, for example, small but hazardous cyanobacterial toxin levels and phenolic, hormone-like compounds. There is need for such indicators in developing countries, suffering from lack of trained personnel and laboratories. The technology will be ready for production use within the next few years.

Recycling industrial wastewater

A team of researchers headed by Dr. Martin Prechtl and their colleagues at the Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Germany, have discovered a new method of generating hydrogen using water and formaldehyde. The generation of hydrogen from liquids is of particular interest when it comes to fuel cell technologies. The results of the project, entitled “Selective and mild hydrogen production using water and formaldehyde”, have recently been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Among other applications, the new approach can be used to recycle industrial waste water contaminated by formaldehyde to break down the contaminants whilst simultaneously generating hydrogen. With the aid of this method, it is possible to reclaim an important raw material from industrial waste water. Prechtl and his colleagues have also identified an air-stable and robust catalyst that can be employed with the technique. The researchers have already filed a corresponding patent application.

Formaldehyde is one of the most important raw materials used in chemical engineering; around 30 million tonnes of the substance are produced annually around the world. It is therefore available as a source of hydrogen in large quantities and at low cost. Contact: Dr. Martin Prechtl, University of Cologne, Germany. Tel: +49-221-470-1981; E-mail: martin.

Electrode reversal removes more methyl orange

According to researchers, the periodic reversal of electrodes could greatly improve an electrocoagulation (EC) process to remove azo dyes like methyl orange from wastewater. Up to 15% of dye can be lost during textile dyeing processes and finds its way into wastewater. Most dyes are resistant to biodegradation and may have various adverse effects on both humans and the environment. However, a team of researchers led by Andrea Gerson, from Hubei University of Technology, China and the University of South Australia’s Mawson Institute, have investigated that the wastewater must be treated to remove the dye. They used various removal techniques including chemical coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and EC.

EC is an attractive treatment option as it is economical, simple, operates at ambient temperature and does not require lots of chemical additives. However, in continual operation, the electrodes become less reactive and the process less effective. Gerson and the team noted that the periodic reversal of current in conventional electrolysis prevents the loss of reactivity, and decided to test whether it would also work for EC. They set up an EC cell with aluminium electrodes and filled it with synthetic wastewater containing methyl orange. A few drops of NaCl solution were added to improve the conductivity of the wastewater. The current was switched on for 30 minutes, before allowing sedimentation of the coagulated particles for another 30 minutes. Traditional EC was carried out alongside periodic reversing electrocoagulation (PREC).

Researchers found that the rate of removal of methyl orange was 20% higher for PREC than for EC. The optimal conditions for PREC are a cell voltage of 4.4 V, a current density of 185 mA/cm3, a pH of 7.4, a reaction time of 14 minutes and an electrode reversal interval of 15 seconds. Under these conditions, 97% of the dye was removed. “These performance characteristics indicate that the PREC approach may be more promising in terms of practical application, as a cost-effective treatment, than conventional electrocoagulation for textile dye removal,” said the researchers.

Efficient magnetic adsorbent for wastewater treatment

A research team led by Prof. LIU Huizhou at Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) of Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed novelamino-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic microspheres (m-PGMA-PEI) with polyethylenimines modifying reagent. The micro-spheres exhibited a large amino group capacity (6.25 mmol/g) and a high saturation magnetization (8.6 emu/g). With such saturation magnetization, they could be easily and quickly separated from a suspension by applying an external magnetic field.

The application of m-PGMA-PEI microspheres for Cr(VI) removal from wastewater was studied by batch adsorption method. The results demonstrated that the microspheres showed a high adsorption capacity with the maximum adsorption capacity of 492.61 mg/g, which is much higher than others reported. The Cr(VI) adsorption rate is rapid, and the adsorption reach equilibrium within 15 min. The regeneration study revealed that the adsorbent has a good reusability. In conclusion, the m-PGMA-PEI should be a promising adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal. These achievements laid a foundation for high efficient magnetic separation of Cr(VI) from wastewater and published in Chemical Engineering Journal.

Efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants

The German Federal Environmental Foundation: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU), has announced the launch of a groundbreaking project for which the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden- Rossendorf (HZDR) is developing sophisticated measuring sensors. The aim is to supply oxygen more efficiently to the microbes that are used in biological treatment stages. Such efficiency speeds up the purification process and saves energy. In addition to HZDR and the TU Dortmund University, Germany, three partners from the industrial sector are also participating in the project.

The sensors developed by the HZDR, float like toy submarines through the turbid mixture. Every twenty seconds the sensors measure the ambient pressure, the temperature and, using an accel-eration sensor, the direction and strength at which they are tossed back and forth by the flow in the treatment plant’s basin. This data helps scientists determine how well wastewater is mixed and how well the bacteria contained within it are supplied with oxygen. In a pilot program sponsored by the DBU, this smart measurement method is to be utilized for the first time in existing wastewater treatment plants.

In addition to the HZDR, the consortium consists of the Institute for Water & Energy Bochum GmbH (IWEB), TU Dortmund, Süd-Oberlausitzer Water Supply and Wastewater GmbH and the Ruhrverband AG, Germany. The consortium partners have requested nearly EUR 370,000 for the project, of which approximately EUR 160,000 would go to HZDR. The duration of the project is three years. The funding for the first year has now been granted in the amount of nearly EUR 140,000 (including EUR 55,600 for HZDR).

A new technology cleans up wastewater

It may be tricky to see dollar signs or green qualities when you think about sewage, but Ostara, Canada, has found a way to connect the three by pulling commercial value from waste water. Its technology harvests phosphorus and ammonia from municipal sewage treatment plants and turns it into fertilizer pellets. The process saves cities money by keeping sewage treatment plants humming efficiently, and it will likely reduce polluted runoff from agriculture because the fertilizer is easier for plants to absorb than standard fertilizer applications. Founded in 2005, Ostara has been providing municipal sewage treatment plants in Canada, the US, and England. But it soon hopes to expand its business to industrial customers, including commodities-grade phosphorus rock processing plants.

The company is offering an important service to municipal treatment plants. State and federal regulations have grown increasingly stringent on the amount of phosphorus that can be in the water a plant returns to nature after processing. That’s because, although phosphorus occurs naturally, when there is too much of it in water. Ostara partners with plants that meet their phosphorus discharge limits by using microorganisms to remove the element from the rest of the sewage, a process called bio-P. The microorganisms are then treated in a digester, which in turn creates a solid “sludge cake” that is given to farmers as a soil amendment or incinerated, biogas, and a liquid waste stream. The latter contains most of the phosphorus and is typically routed back through the treatment plant.

Ostara has developed a new process to harvest phosphorus from that water, which the fertilizer company can then reuse in its facility or discharge it into the environment. Ostara has done pilot projects and commercial demonstrations at phosphate fertilizer plants in Florida and is talking to other processors in China and South America. It has also done pilot studies on animal waste. It has not yet made an industrial deal, and business models are still under discussion.

Toxic metals removed from wastewater

Anglo American, the United Kingdom, one of the world’s largest mining companies, has selected GE’s Advanced Biological Metals (ABMet) Removal Process technology to remove nitrate and se-lenium from wastewater discharge at its Peace River Coal Trend Mine in Tumbler Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. The project will represent the first installation of ABMet in Canada.

ABMet is a patented biological water treatment system that uses naturally occurring microbes to reduce the amounts of selenium and other metals that can escape in discharge waters from coal mines and power plants. GE’s ABMet process involves running wastewater through a biologically active filter, which is “seeded” with naturally occurring microbes that target selenium and other potentially toxic metals. While selenium is typically difficult to remove from wastewater, ABMet enables the metal to be captured and removed from the wastewater stream.

Mr. Brendan Crisp, specialist project engineer at Anglo American’s Peace River operations, said that “Before selecting GE’s ABMet technology for our new wastewater treatment plant, we commissioned a pilot study and competitive tender with multiple vendors. Ultimately, GE presented a turnkey water treatment solution allowing us to achieve compliance with nitrate and selenium discharge limits. It also will be used as a demonstration plant to assess performance and develop the criteria for additional wastewater treatment plants at our operations.”

Recovering valuable substances from wastewater

Not only plants, but also humans and animals need phosphorus, which is a building block of DNA. Many biological processes in our body can only take place if phosphorus atoms are also present. But farmers and industrial enterprises use so much of this element that soil is over-fertilized and wa-terways are contaminated.

Now, experts of the German Phosphorus Platform (DPP) are aiming to recover the phosphorus from the water, on the one hand in order to protect the environment and on the other to reutilize this valu-able raw material so that no new phosphorus has to be taken from the deposit sites because phos-phorus is getting more and more scarce. Although these sites still have enough phosphorus for the next 250 years, very few countries export this element so that if the geopolitical situation were to be become volatile. Another problem is that in many mining areas the phosphorus deposits are contaminated with heavy metals. Unfortunately industry is heavily reliant on phosphorus, not just the food and drinks industry, but also the building material and detergents industries as well as semiconductor and lighting manufacturers.

Researchers have attached bonding sites for phosphorus to these particles so that they fish the phosphate anions out of the water and carry them “piggyback”. Using a magnet the particles, along with their phosphorus load, can then be removed from the water, leaving the water clear of phospho-rus. “This way other hazardous substances, such as toxic heavy metals, can also be removed rela-tively easily with magnets,” said Dr. Carsten Gellermann, head of business unit.

Contact: Dr. Carsten Gellermann, Fraunhofer Project Group for Materials Recycling and Resource Strategies IWKS, Brentanostrasse 2, 63755 Alzenau, Germany. Tel: +49-931-4100-511.


New micro-algae cleans highly radioactive waste

A single-celled green alga that can tolerate extreme conditions may soon be widely used to clean up radioactive effluents and wastewater from nuclear facilities in an inexpensive and environmentally-safe manner. Most organisms are killed by the radioactivity, but the micro-alga Coccomyxa actina-biotis is extremely radioresistant and strongly accumulates radionuclides. Coccomyxa actinabiotis can resist a radiation dose of 20,000 grays (Gy), about 2,000 times the lethal human dose. The gray is a unit of ionizing radiation dose defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy by one kilogram of matter.

Scientists from Grenoble University, Montpellier University and Institut Laue-Langevin, France, have discovered ‘Coccomyxa actinabiotis’ in a cooling pool for spent fuel at a French nuclear facility. After analyzing the properties of this unique species, researchers now foresee new strategies for the bioremediation of radioactive contamination. Coccomyxa actinabiotis nov. sp., which uses photo-synthesis and metabolic processes to take up contaminants, creates the potential to develop cheaper and more environmentally-friendly solutions for decontaminating radioactive effluents and wastewater. Their growth can therefore be controlled by illumination. In order for them to grow at a given place, it is sufficient to illuminate them, the scientists said. Inventors Corinne Rivasseau, Emmanuel Farhi, Alain Coute, Ariane Atteia have applied for a U.S. patent for Coccomyxa actinabiotis as a radioactive cleaning agent.

Researchers are collaborating with scientists in the Division of Nuclear Energy in a government agency known as the CEA, the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission. In one hour, the scientists said, Coccomyxa actinabiotis has proved as effective as conventional physico-chemical ion-exchangers in purifying radioactive effluents. Using this organism, an efficient real-scale radionuclide biodecontamination process was performed in a nuclear fuel storage pool with an important reduction of waste volume compared to the usual physico-chemical process. The CEA and the Institut Laue-Langevin have put together a bioreactor pilot study based on Coccomyxa actinabiotis to provide a proof of concept, which will optimize the bioremediation strategy.

Scientists engineered bacteria to remove lead from wastewater

A team of researchers from Jing Zhao of Nanjing University and Peking University’s Shenzhen Graduate School, China, has claimed that it has engineered bacteria to efficiently remove lead from wastewater. Currently, cost is a major barrier to effectively managing lead in wastewater. “The most current lead adsorption techniques rely on using expensive activated carbon and ion-exchange resin adsorbents that are difficult to adapt to large-scale wastewater treatment,” the researchers said in their report. Wastewater utilities often grapple with lead problems. “Lead pollution is present in wastewater, waste gases, or waste residues, which often contain other metals, including zinc, cadmium, and mercury. Simply selective detection and adsorption of lead has been a challenge,” the report said.

However, according to Chemical & Engineering News, a publication of the American Chemical Soci-ety, a team of Chinese scientists thought they could find a better way to solve the lead problem. The group developed a more sustainable approach to recover heavy metals from contaminated water for potential reuse in industry. In an initial project, the researchers engineered a bacteria to express a gold-binding protein that enabled them to detect this metal in wastewater.

Researcher Zong-Wan Mao of Sun Yat-Sen University, China, and his colleagues engineered E. coli to express a lead-binding protein on the cell’s surface. With the protein on the surface, the bacteria can grab large amounts of lead without letting the metal accumulate inside the cells, which can reduce their growth. The researchers also included a set of genes that allowed the bacteria to produce a fluorescent signal when lead binds to the surface proteins. “The modified microbes could collect 5 to 12 percent of the lead in solutions with concentrations between 5 and 300 µM of the metal. In China, lead concentrations up to 5 µM are allowed in wastewater, but illegal discharge sites may have concentrations of 300 µM or more,” said Zhao.

Mushrooms used for bioremediation to clean pesticides

Putting ideas into action, Ocean Blue Project, a restoration nonprofit group based in Oregon, the United States, is harnessing the power of mushrooms to clean up pesticides and other pollutants that plague Oregon and national waterways. The test project has been launched in January on the banks of Sequoia Creek. Using recycled burlap bags filled with used coffee grounds, straw and yellow oyster mushroom spawn, the purpose of the unusual potpourri will be to harness the extremely effective filtering capabilities of mycelium.

A kind of root system for fungi, mycelium demonstrate a wide variety of biological powers, from breaking down oil, pesticides and harmful bacteria to acting as natural pesticides against some of the most problematic pests. Paul Stamets, a leading expert on the power of mushrooms, has a word for the natural properties of fungi to fight human-made pollution ‘mycorestoration’. “Oyster mushrooms, for example, can digest the complex hydrocarbons in wood, so they can also be used to break down petroleum byproducts. Garden Giants use their mycelia to trap and eat bacteria, so they can filter E. coli from agricultural runoff,” said Stamets.

Waterways in the U.S. are increasingly imperiled from various agents, including agricultural and industrial discharges, nutrient loading (nitrogen and phosphorus), and biological agents such as pathogens. Pesticides discharged into our nation’s rivers, lakes and streams can harm or kill fish and amphibians. These toxicants have the potential to accumulate in the fish we eat and the water we drink. As pesticide use escalates and waterways and drinking water become increasingly polluted with unregulated contaminants like pesticides and other toxicants, low-cost and natural alternatives for restoring waterways are desperately needed.

Plants used to weed out soil pollution

Scientists from the Center for Environmental Remediation of the Institute of Geographic Sciences, China, and Resources Research under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), have developed soil remediation technologies to prepare for large-scale applications. The technologies focus on using plants to absorb heavy metal contaminants in soil. Soil contamination is serious in China, with large areas of cropland polluted, said Lei Mei, a professor at the center. Soil remediation technologies have been applied on 133 hectares of land in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, Henan, Yunnan and Hunan provinces and Beijing on a trial basis, and Lei believes the technologies will have “good application prospects”.

A report from the Ministry of Environmental Protection showed that about 19.4 percent of farmland in China was polluted. “The publication of the survey result is a milestone for soil remediation in China,” Lei said. In 2005, scientists from the center proved in the laboratory that the plant Pteris vittata, or Chinese brake fern, had cleansing abilities when planted in soil polluted by heavy metals such as lead, zinc, sulfur and arsenic. After the fern becomes saturated with heavy metals from the polluted soil, the aboveground part of the plant is cut off and burned. A new shoot grows from the root, and the process is repeated.

Field experiments since 2010 on 60 hectares of polluted land in Hechi, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, showed the plant can reduce heavy metals by 10 percent a year, which means it can help reduce pollutants to safe levels within three to five years. The scientists have promoted planting of the fern among local farmers. The ferns are intercropped, or grown in the same fields, as cash crops such as flax. Meanwhile, scientists are developing a new passivator, which is a coat with an oxide layer that protects against heavy metal contamination of the soil.

Microalgae, aquatic plants can remove radioactive pollution

A research group led by Yoshihiro Shiraiwa of the University of Tsukuba, Japan, said that 17 mi-croalgae and aquatic plants efficiently absorb radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium, which con-stitutes the radioactive pollution in the environment. Researchers claimed that these plants could help remove radioactive pollution from waters around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A powerful earthquake and devastating tsunami caused heavy damage to the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011. The plant suffered multiple meltdowns and subsequently released large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. “The volume of radio-polluted water is increasing daily because of the continuous injection of cool water and the incurrent of underground water into the still defective reactor,” the researchers said in their study.

Specifically, a eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, was found to be the most proficient. It eliminated up to 90 percent of cesium, without any need for further treatment. The researchers said that the algae decreased radio pollution by accumulating cesium on its cell surface. Since the plant strains are easy to grow and dry, they could be used to eliminate radioactive cesium from radio-polluted water. The findings could help groups looking to develop bio remedial methods to reduce radioactive contamination from the wild and agricultural areas and lower the volume of the polluted water in and around Fukushima.

“Biological concentration of radionuclides is an essential technology for bioremediation of radio-pol-luted soils and water. Therefore our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollu-tion in the Fukushima area,” said Shiraiwa, lead author of the study. Japan’s Ministry of Energy has estimated that the decontamination of the world’s biggest environmental disasters will cost about $35 billion. The study has been published in the Journal for Plant Research.


New inline scrubber system

The new inline scrubber system from Wärtsilä Corporation, Finland, is designed to offer notable benefits over conventional exhaust gas cleaning systems. Its compact form saves considerable space, which is particularly important in smaller vessels and when being retrofitted, while the lower cost structure of the new design offers CAPEX advantages. With just one scrubber system per engine, installation is faster and easier, which consequently reduces the out-of-service time for the vessel. Operational flexibility is also improved.

The inline scrubber system operates as a conventional Wärtsilä open loop scrubber system, but has three water inlets in the main body of the scrubber, as opposed to two in the conventional system. The exhaust flows enter from the bottom and exits at the top, with water being sprayed in three stages in a counter flow to the exhaust. A Wärtsilä designed water trap prevents the scrubbing water from entering the engine. The inline configuration can be offered on the hybrid scrubber system as well.

The first vessel to utilise the new Wärtsilä inline scrubber system will be Color Line’s SuperSpeed 2. The contract was signed in June 2013 and the installation took place in March 2014 at FaYard in Denmark. This high speed ferry sails twice a day between Larvik in Norway and Hirtshals in Denmark and has limitations on the available space in the funnel. The inline system thus offers a practical solution for overcoming this restriction. In September 2013 contracts were signed for the fitting of the Wärtsilä inline scrubber system to three other Color Line vessels. Contact: Mr. Sigurd Jenssen, Director, Exhaust Gas Cleaning, Environmental Solutions, Wärtsilä Ship Power, Finland. Tel: +47-90-14-06-11; E-mail:

Using CO2 to make new chemicals

In a new research, published in the journal Angewandte Chemie, Soon Hong and colleagues from the Institute for Basic Science, Republic of Korea, have caught CO2 from exhaust gas and incorporated it into useful chemicals. One product is called alkynyl carboxylic acid, which has many uses, including making food additives. Another, cyclic carbonate, is used to make polymers for cars and electronics. Cyclic carbonates can also be used in place of phosgene, a very reactive and highly toxic chemical that is a starting material for a wide variety of useful products.

Hong compared these reactions to ones performed using highly pure CO2 , which is sold at a high price and requires lots of energy to make, in the same chemical reactions, but there was hardly any difference in the final yield. As in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, Hong passed ex-haust fumes through a solution of amines, where CO2 was captured and other gases pass unhindered. The resulting salt was then heated to yield pure CO2 for chemical reactions. Hong can recycle the amine solution at least 55 times without a loss in yield.

In another research paper published in Nature Communications, Matthias Beller and colleagues at the University of Rostock, Germany showed a new reaction that can use CO2 . Called alkene carbonylation, it usually requires the use of carbon monoxide (CO), which, as home detectors know well, is a highly toxic gas. The researchers carried out a number of reactions and confirmed that the source of the newly formed C-O bonds was CO2 . This work shows that CO2 can be used as a viable alternative to carbon monoxide in carbonylation reactions, which could increase the importance of CO2 in the chemical industry.

A copper catalyst to convert CO and H2O to ethanol

Researchers at Stanford University, the United States, have now developed an electrochemical process that could be far cheaper and better for the environment. The work is still experimental, but it’s significant because the group was able to synthesize ethanol and other desired products with so little energy input. “The levels of activity for CO reported here are unprecedented and a large step toward the realization of a practical system for converting CO to ethanol,” said Clifford Kubiak, a professor at the University of California (UC), the United States.

The scientists created a copper-based catalyst that is very effective at producing ethanol and other carbon compounds from carbon monoxide and water in a simple chemical reaction. They say the process, described in a paper published in Nature, could be powered by renewable sources of electricity, such as solar and wind, and would be an alternative to traditional biofuel production. Making ethanol is normally remarkably energy-intensive, involving gathering and treating biomass and then fermenting the sugar found in the plant matter. The Stanford paper shows it’s feasible to produce ethanol directly from water and waste gases using an electric current.

The key to the new catalyst is preparing the copper in a novel way that changes its molecular structure. Until now, copper catalysts produced a wide range of carbon-based compounds, rather than one desired product, and required a lot of energy. The Stanford group starts with copper metal and, by heating it in air, grows a layer of copper oxide on top. Then that surface layer is chemically converted back to metallic copper. In the process, the copper takes on a very different surface with more active area for it to act as a catalyst. It will take years to know whether a device based on this chemistry would be commercially viable. But if perfected, it could provide an economic incentive for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Turning water and carbon dioxide into gasoline

In a development with enormous potential implications for the world’s energy needs, researchers from the Ben-Gurion University (BGU), Israel, have invented a process to make gasoline from water and carbon dioxide. While if the process can be scaled up to industrial production it could have enormous impact worldwide, its immediate effects would undoubtedly be felt first in Israel, where Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has repeatedly emphasized that developing oil alternatives is a national priority for Israel. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) analysis report, “Israel’s total primary energy demand is significantly higher than its total primary energy production… the country relies heavily on imports to meet its growing energy needs.”

The process was developed at BGU’s Blechner Center of Industrial Catalysis and Process Develop-ment by a research team including Professors Moti Herskowitz, Miron Landau and Dr. Roxana Vidru. The BGU crude oil process produces hydrogen from water, which is subsequently mixed with carbon dioxide and synthetic gas, which is then passed through a special reactor to create a “green feed” made up of liquid and gas, which would subsequently be used as raw feedstock for future refineries, replacing oil, as the feedstock, which according to Herskowitz will be used to produce gasoline, jet fuel and diesel.

The major issue now facing the BGU’s Blechner Center for Industrial Catalysis and Process Development team, is to secure additional funding to move their research from the laboratory to a commercial industrial scale production prototype. Given the immense potential of the breakthrough, there will most likely be a number of investment firms and individuals willing to assist the BGU team in making this transition. The team received partial funding from the Israel Strategic Alternative En-ergy Foundation (I-SAEF).

New catalyst to convert greenhouse gases into chemicals

A team of researchers at the University of Delaware (UD), the United States, has developed a highly selective catalyst capable of electrochemically converting carbon dioxide – a greenhouse gas – to carbon monoxide with 92 percent efficiency. The carbon monoxide (CO) then can be used to develop useful chemicals. “Converting carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to useful chemicals in a selective and efficient way remains a major challenge in renewable and sustainable energy research,” said Feng Jiao, the project’s lead researcher.

The researchers found that when they used a nano-porous silver electrocatalyst, it was 3,000 times more active than polycrystalline silver, a catalyst commonly used in converting carbon dioxide to useful chemicals. Silver is considered a promising material for a CO2 reduction catalyst because it costs much less than other precious metal catalysts. Additionally, because it is inorganic, silver remains more stable under harsh catalytic environments. The exceptionally high activity, is likely due to the UD-developed electrocatalyst’s extremely large and highly curved internal surface, which is approximately 150 times larger and 20 times intrinsically more active than polycrystalline silver.

To validate whether their findings were unique, the researchers compared the UD-developed nano-porous silver catalyst with other potential carbon dioxide electrocatalysts including polycrystalline silver and other silver nanostructures such as nanoparticles and nanowires. Testing under identical conditions confirmed that the non-porous silver catalyst’s significant advantages over other silver catalysts in water environments. “Selective conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide is a promising route for clean energy, but it is a technically difficult process to accomplish. We’re hopeful that the catalyst we’ve developed can pave the way toward future advances in this area,” said Jiao.


Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition

This book addresses the three main categories of wastes (hazardous, municipal, and “special” wastes) covered under federal regulation outlined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), an established framework for managing the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of several forms of waste.

Focusing on integrating the technical and regulatory complexities of waste management, this book covers the historical and regulatory development of waste management and the management of municipal solid wastes. It also addresses hazardous wastes and their management, from the perspectives of identification, transportation, and requirements for generators as well as the treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.

Conversion of Large Scale Wastes into Value-added Products

This book discusses various selected classes of large-scale waste and their current applications and potential future applications. It provides a snapshot of a continually evolving field, which includes both well-established processes and a drive toward developing strategies for new applications of wastes. The first chapter provides a general introduction to the area of large-scale waste utilization, including drivers for waste recovery, and secondary processes and products for waste reuse.

The final chapter presents a general conclusion to the broad subject of waste utilization, summarizing the topics and addressing future trends in waste research.

Air Pollution Control Equipment Selection Guide, Second Edition

This book is a good discussion of various air pollution control equipment. It covers a wide range of equipment and gives a good overview of the principles and applications. Very valuable is the practical experiences that are not commonly available in a typical textbook. The language is easy to understand, especially for those who do not have formal training in air pollution control. It provides hybrid systems such as those applied to biomass gasification, odor control using biological technology, plasma arc waste reduction, and more.

Contact: CRC Press. Tel: +44-123-540-0524; Fax: +44-123-540-0525; E-mail:


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