VATIS Update Waste Management . May-Jun 2004

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Waste Management May-Jun 2004

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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International treaty on POPs in force

UNEP has announced that the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) will be legally binding from 17 May 2004. France became the 50th country to ratify the agreement. According to UNEP Executive Mr. Klaus Toepfer, By committing nations to eliminate production as well as environmental releases of POPs, the Stockholm Convention will greatly benefit human health and the environment. It will also strengthen the overall scope and effectiveness of international environmental laws.

Governments will pursue a rapid start to action under the treaty when they get together for the first session of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention (COP 1) in Uruguay in early 2005. One of this meetings priorities will be to help nations fight malaria by replacing DDT with safe and effective alternatives. The COP will also establish a committee to evaluate other chemicals as well as pesticides that could be added to the initial target list of twelve POPs DDT, aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endrin, hexachlorobenzene, dioxins and furans. Furthermore, the COP will focus on finalizing guidelines aimed at promoting best environmental practices and best available techniques that can reduce or eliminate releases of dioxins and furans from a wide range of industrial as well as other sources.

Apart from banning uses, the treaty focuses on eliminating the growing collection of unwanted and obsolete stocks of pesticide and hazardous chemicals. Dump sites and toxic drums from the 1950s to 1970s are decaying and leaching chemicals into the soil and poisoning water resources, wildlife and people. In the case of PCBs, although they are no longer produced, hundreds of thousands of tonnes are still in use in electrical transformers and other equipment. Governments have until 2025 to phase out these uses, which gives them time to arrange for PCB-free replacements. By 2028, governments have to compulsorily dispose these PCBs in an environment friendly manner.

Contact: Mr. Eric Falt, Director of UNEPs Division of Communications and Public Information, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254 (20) 623 292



Incentives proposed to reduce hi-tech trash

A new report by the United Nations University (UNU) states that global government incentives are essential to extend the life of PCs and slow the growth of hi-tech trash. The report reveals that production of computers is materially more intensive than cars or refrigerators. Researchers found that to manufacture a desktop PC and a 17-inch CRT monitor, at least 22 kg of chemicals, 240 kg of fossil fuels and nearly 1,000 kg of water are required.

According to the UNU report, the combination of intensive production processes, large-scale adoption of PCs worldwide and the rapid rate at which they are discarded has added up to a growing heap of IT waste, environmental pollution and resource depletion. UNU has identified some options open to national, regional and local governments who intend to mitigate the impact of computers. These include:
  • Mandatory product take-back, recycling and eco-labelling;
  • Environmental regulation of production processes and the environmental characteristics of computer products, such as banning the use of heavy metals; and
  • Funding education and public awareness campaigns on the environmental impact of computers.

The study also analyses the European Unions (EU) WEEE Directive, that will enforce computer recycling throughout EU starting in 2005. It was observed that none of the existing legislation in EU really strives to extend the lifespan of computers and components, despite this being the option preferred by researchers. The report sums up that all computer users have a role to play in reducing the waste mountain.


Harnessing market forces helps to improve environment

The United Nations University reports that many East Asian nations could save millions and improve environmental compliance of industries by incorporating more market incentives in their command-and-control legal and regulatory approach to environmental protection. According to the book titled East Asian Experience in Environmental Governance, the rigid command-and-control approach leads to high compliance costs and widespread under-compliance. This plight is compounded in East Asia by the deficiency in enforcement capacity as well as limited human and financial resources for large-scale investment in environmental protection. Several nations in this region have been experimenting with market mechanisms to aid efforts at environmental management charging polluter fees for effluents, for example.

An earlier study by the World Bank demonstrated that Chinas Beijing and Tianjin, with multiple water pollution sources, could reduce pollution abatement costs from US$47 million to US$13 million per year by introducing an emission charge, a saving of US$34 million from this group of enterprises alone. Creation of apex government agencies to coordinate economic development and environmental protection is necessary for long-term economic development, the book says. Furthermore, they help reduce complexity in policy and legislation, and even inter-ministerial conflicts of interest. Among other potential innovations, organizations with ISO 14001 certification could receive priority in bidding for government deals, spurring a greening of the market place.

Contact: Mr. Terry Collins, United Nations University, Canada. Tel: +1 (416) 5388 712



China imposes new criteria for scrap companies

BIR World Recycling Organization reports that latest requirements in China allow for imports of scrap and other recyclables from only those overseas companies registered as supply enterprises. Registration is expected to be completed by the exporting firm before 1 July 2004. Applicants have to fulfil a range of criteria and provisionally register, free of charge, with the Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine.

This latest initiative is designed to strengthen the supervision of waste exports to China. Since there is still no clear legal distinction between processed and unprocessed waste and that, in view of recent scandals involving unscrupulous waste management operators exporting household wastes to developing nations, BIR opines that it can only support measures aimed at tighter controls. BIR is negotiating with authorities in China to obtain special conditions for all BIR members if they can prove that they are officially registered with their national/environmental bureau and they meet the required quality criteria.

Contact: Website: 


New electronics recycling facility in China

Citiraya Industries Ltd., Singapore, is constructing a recycling plant in China to recycle electronic equipment such as computer screens, main boards, chips, handsets and TVs. Expected to be completed by the end of this year, the new plant will have a capacity of 60,000 t/y. The company is also setting up a recycling network in several major Chinese cities.


Grants for hazardous waste management studies in China

The United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) awarded two grants to Chinas State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for projects relating to toxic waste management. While the first grant of US$284,364 was given for a feasibility study on the development of a hazardous waste management facility in Suzhou, the other grant of US$223,256 will fund a study related to the development of a similar plant in Hangzhou. Furthermore, USTDA plans to sponsor a technical assistance programme for SEPA that is designed to accentuate the United States-based equipment suppliers and service providers in the toxic wastes sector.

The Suzhou and Hangzhou facilities are a result of new SEPA guidelines on the management and disposal of medical, hazardous and radioactive wastes. The National Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Plan of SEPA calls for the establishment of up to 40 centralized hazardous waste treatment and disposal plants. The USTDA-funded studies will help SEPA by supporting the development of a framework to implement comprehensive hazardous waste transportation, storage and disposal facilities at Hangzhou and Suzhou. These two new plants need detailed analysis of rotary kiln incineration and recycling processes, and the development of hazardous waste landfill sites.


Korea restricts scrap exports

The Republic of Korea has imposed export restrictions on scrap iron and steel bars, owing to pressure from the domestic market. Efforts would also be increased to clamp down on speculative stockpiling of scrap iron and other raw materials. The nations scrap iron exports stand at 300,000 t/y. While the local scrap demand is estimated at 2.3 million tonnes, Korea imports seven million tonnes of scrap iron to meet local demand. Steel makers have been forced to repeatedly raise prices in order to reflect the surge in import expenses, passing on the financial burden to the nations main industrial sectors automobile, ship building and construction. Industry experts are of the opinion that this serious supply shortages may further worsen as China, the United States and India seek to restrain outflows of raw materials to protect their own steel industries.


Toxic e-wastes

A study undertaken by researchers at the University of Florida in the United States reveals that devices that enable e-mails, e-news and e-commerce eventually end up as e-hazardous waste. The team states that in lab-scale trials, many devices ranging from computer mouses to cell phones often released enough lead to be classified as hazardous wastes as per the rules of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Experts estimate that more than 20 million computers were obsolete in 1998 alone and project that over 60 million would be discarded in 2005.

Researchers examined cell phones, VCRs, computer mouses, flat-panel monitors, printers, keyboards, laptops, CPUs and remote controls. These devices were tested using a standard EPA procedure for toxic wastes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Samples were screened for the presence of eight toxic metals, including cadmium, mercury, arsenic, barium, selenium, silver, chromium and lead. It was found that every type of electronic gadget leached lead, exceeding the hazardous waste levels in at least some cases. Lead comes from the solder used to connect the circuits. None of the seven other hazardous metals showed up as problems in the test.


Drive to increase recycling in Korea

In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Metal Can Recycling Association has launched a campaign to boost the recycling of metal cans, thus providing more scrap iron to steel makers facing a prolonged scrap iron shortage. The associations efforts had resulted in 74 per cent of waste metal cans being recycled last year, compared with 13 per cent in 1994. Established in 1994, the association has among its member 330 firms. The nations recycling ratio of iron cans has come up to levels similar with those of developed economies like Japan (85 per cent), Germany (78 per cent) and the Netherlands (77 per cent).


Duty cut on scrap

In Pakistan, the Federal Cabinet has reduced customs duty on re-rollable scrap from 25 per cent to 10 per cent. This initiative is meant to facilitate local manufacturers of M.S. bars and steel rolled products. The Cabinet also decided to eliminate the current levy of 3 per cent withholding tax on ships imported for scrapping and 6 per cent withholding tax on the import of other raw materials and intermediary products. It has even resolved not to charge any withholding tax on raw material imports by Pakistan Steel Mills and several other industrial manufacturers against exemption certificate. However, income of these importers from the finished items are taxable according to existing rules and regulations.


Industrial waste incinerator developed in Viet Nam

In Pakistan, the Federal Cabinet has reduced customs duty on re-rollable scrap from 25 per cent to 10 per cent. This initiative is meant to facilitate local manufacturers of M.S. bars and steel rolled products. The Cabinet also decided to eliminate the current levy of 3 per cent withholding tax on ships imported for scrapping and 6 per cent withholding tax on the import of other raw materials and intermediary products. It has even resolved not to charge any withholding tax on raw material imports by Pakistan Steel Mills and several other industrial manufacturers against exemption certificate. However, income of these importers from the finished items are taxable according to existing rules and regulations.


Chinese guidelines regulate disposal of hospital sewage

In China, the central government has tightened laws on hospital wastewater disposal to prevent the spread of diseases like SARS. The State Environmental Protection Administration issued detailed regulations on the quantity, discharge criteria and disposal systems of hospital sewage. According to these guidelines, wastewater from areas with patients should be discharged separately to wastewater from areas that do not have patients, and hospital waste must not be discharged with sewage. Waste material and gas produced during disposal should be collected and burned in accordance with the requirements for medical waste, thereby preventing further contamination.


Viet Nam sets new regulations for waste material import

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Viet Nam, issued new regulations pertaining to import, transportation, storage and usage of waste materials for production. These rules stipulate that imported waste materials should be used in production. Organizations and individuals importing wastes and using imported wastes for production will be held responsible for any pollution caused by the waste. Additionally, they can only import waste materials suitable for their production needs. Permissible types of wastes include sub-standard and scrap materials made of alloys, metals, cardboard, paper, glass and plastics, and containing none of the components or products that are banned as per the nations laws and the international treaties that Viet Nam has signed or acceed to.



Recycling of post-consumer PET

Panchal Plastic Machinery Pvt. Ltd., India, offers a recycling system to convert post-consumer PET bottles into granules. The whole process, from grinding through to granule, is accomplished in this system. PET bottles are fed into the grinder to obtain PET flakes, which are then manually or automatically fed into a crystallizer/drier for removal of moisture. Next, the dried flakes are sent to a screw feeder for efficient and continuous feeding into an extruder. The single-screw extruder plastifies and then homogenizes the material before passing it on to the screen changer. The final leg involves filtering and pelletization.

Agglomerator/densifier supplied by Panchal is used for plasticizing and recycling thermoplastic film, tape, PET bottle flakes, etc. This system comprises a drum container and a high-speed rotor with blades placed inside the drum itself. Plastic films are inserted inside the drum where the blades cut, mix and plasticize the material. Water is added to cool and partially solidify the melted mass. Persisting blade rotation get the solidified mass into irregular shaped clots, which enable easy handling, stocking and extruder feeding. This unit can handle PE, PP, PET, Nylon, polyester yarn, plastic films, tapes and fabric wastes.

Contact: Panchal Plastic Machinery Pvt. Limited, Plot No. 127, G.I.D.C. Estate, Umbergaon 396171, Gujarat, India. Tel: +91 (260) 2563 391/392; Fax: +91 (260) 2562 892



Waste plastics used as binder

In the Philippines, researchers at the Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) have come up with a useful way to dispose plastic wastes use them as binders for plywood, particleboard and other composite panels. This breakthrough is expected to yield results of great importance in developing eco-friendly, technically and economically sound panels. Some benefits of using plastic wastes as a potential binder include:
  • Free from formaldehyde;
  • Can press the plywood several times;
  • Hot pressing higher MC veneers is possible;
  • Provides strong bond quality with increased mechanical and physical strength; and
  • Decreases the cost of binders, which constitute about 12 per cent of the total cost of the panels.

In another related development, the Industrial Technology Development Institute-Department of Science and Technology and the private sector involved in the manufacture of PET recently established a PET recycling task force to address the increasing volume of wastes generated daily. The task force feels that converting waste plastics into value added products e.g. binders could be the most practical and sound method of protecting the environment.


Plastics as fuel

Plastic Energy, the United States, plans to start transforming waste plastics such as old grocery bags, empty containers, take-out boxes, etc. into clean-burning low-sulphur diesel. To achieve this objective, the company will apply a process known as reverse refining, wherein plastic wastes are melted. A catalyst degrades the plastic into a gas, cools it into distilled liquid petroleum, then distils it further into ultra-low-sulphur diesel fuel and low-octane petrol. Fuel thus produced will have less than 15 sulphur parts per million, implying low emission levels and particulate matter being released into the environment. About 3.17 kg of plastic is required to produce 4.5 l of fuel.


Panelling waste plastics

In the United Kingdom, scientists at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering (IPTME) have developed foam-filled panels for use in the bodywork of commercial vehicles. These panels weigh 60 per cent less than the traditionally used plywood panels. The environment friendly product called Panelplus was developed with funds provided by the Waste and Resource Action Programme, in partnership with Europrojects Ltd. Other potential uses of the recyclable panels are also being studied.

Contact: Ms. Judy Smyth, Publicity Officer, the Loughborough University, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (01509) 228 697



New plastic  granulators

In China, Zerma Machinery and Recycling Technology Co. Ltd. offers GSL slow-speed granulators, from 180/120 to 180/430, for application in the injection and blow moulding sector. These units are mounted on either low or high-level baseframes, depending on the end use, and incorporate suitable suction trough/bag fill chute. The material to be granulated is fed through a sound-absorbing feed hopper, available in a range of variants.

Granulators in the GSL 300/400 and 300/800 range are primarily intended for grinding scrap mouldings and sprues. In addition to the benefits and features of the GSL 180 range, these slow running machines are especially suitable for larger mouldings like car door liners, bumpers or hollow bodies. V-shaped arrangement of the staggered rotor blades holds pre-cut material in the centre of the cutting chamber. This prevents material sticking to the side walls and considerably reduces wear on the grinding chamber walls when processing fibre and glass reinforced plastics. The staggered rotor blades mean only one blade cuts at once, thus increasing the cutting torque.

All machines in the GSC range yield constantly high quality granulate, whether it be from injection moulded articles, sprues, profiles, sheets or films. The machines are economical, reliable, easy to clean and have a long service life. GS range of high-performance granulators are based on the latest machine concepts and provide a solution for most problems related to plastic granulation. The robust steel housing is suitable for universal applications because of the removal deflector wedge and is designed to meet the most demanding applications. All systems in the GS range yield high-quality granulate.

The extremely tough granulators in the GSH range are designed to fulfil even the most demanding applications and can cater to the versatile requirements of a modern recycling company. The shatter-proof housing can handle extremely heavy strains. Bearing, knife attachment and rotor shaft are oversized and ideally suited for heavy-duty applications. A simple changeover makes the machines suitable for granulation of heavy lumps and thick walled pipes, as well as for hollow objects and films.

Contact: Ms. Jane Huang, Zerma Machinery & Recycling Technology Co. Ltd., 5, Xinjie Road, Xinqiao, Township Industry Park, Songjiang, Shanghai, China. Tel: +86 (21) 5764 5573; Fax: +86 (21) 5764 6766




Recycling of chemical feedstock

In the United Kingdom, Greenward Environment Technology (GET) is developing a catalyst technology, with the cooperation of a company specializing in thermal cracking of polymers, for use in the recycling of chemical feedstock (oils) from post-consumer plastic wastes. The new viable solution for plastic disposal will also make a marketable product, which is gaining support within the recycling community.

Dundee University has invented and patented a catalyst formula based on an alloy of palladium and zinc. GET has an agreement to obtain licences for the manufacture of the catalyst materials and operate exclusively in the plastics recycling field. The catalyst is designed for use in the presence of halon gases (fluorine, chlorine and bromine) and superior to other catalysts.

Contact: Dr. D. Hutson, Greenward Environmental Technology, c/o AMCET Ltd., Carnegie Building, Perth Road, Dundee DD1 4HN, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (01382) 348 316



Recycling bottles

Teijin Ltd., Japan, has developed an advanced technology for recycling plastic PET bottles used for packing beverages. This process involves decomposing plastic into ingredients with the same levels of purity as the chemical agents that are newly synthesised from petroleum.


Recycling plastics found in automobiles

In the European Union, a group of companies have jointly developed technology to obtain methanol from plastic wastes. The new eco-friendly process converts shredded residue from bumpers, dashboards and car upholstery into methanol. Those involved in developing this process are SVZ Scharze Pumpe, Tecpol and the Brussels Association of Plastic Manufacturers in Europe. Technicians at the SVZ company mix shredded car parts with a small amount of coal and heat the mixture up to 1,600C to obtain synthetic gas which is converted into methanol.



Medical waste treatment autoclaves

McGill AirPressure Corp. is offering autoclaves for sterilzing infectious and medical wastes. Autoclaving is a proven sterilization method, which provides an economical solution to medical waste disposal problems. Autoclaves in the new MWS series feature a breech-lock door with an air-energized gasket that extends the doors working life. Unauthorized changes in the cycle parameters is prevented by a key-lock control. A low-profile track makes it easy for workers to load and unload the autoclave. Multi-stage safety devices prevent accidents during operation. Apart from standard configurations, the company also supplies custom-designed sterilizers, as per requirement.

Contact: E-mail:


Disinfecting and sterilizing wastes

Meteka GmbH, based in Austria, offers solutions for the disinfection and sterilization of medical and biological wastes. The company employs the most up-to-date microwave technology to guarantee effective disinfection. The Medister system is used in hospitals, microbiological laboratories and isolation stations. The Medister hygiene and control system comprises three stages:
  • Collection of waste in Meditainer containers and trolleys: Specially developed trolleys help eliminate handling mistakes and are easy to use. The lids can be opened by foot and are tightly sealed. Needles and sharp items are collected in special boxes to be placed directly in the container. The reusable container is resistant up to 140C, as are the waste bags;
  • Immediate disinfection: At regular intervals the container is closed and put into the disinfection/sterilization device. The disinfection cycle lasts about 45 minutes, depending on the size of the load, and the required temperature is maintained for the necessary time; and
  • Disposal with regular household waste: After the disinfection cycle the container is taken out of the device and labelled, and can be easily disposed of with normal waste.

Medister system is available in three models. A major benefit of Medister devices is that they just require a power supply to operate.

Contact: Meteka GmbH, Burgasse 108, 8750 Judenburg, Austria. Tel: +43 3572 85166; Fax: +43 3572 851666




New incinerators

HAAT Incinerators India Pvt. Ltd., India, offers PD range of biomedical waste incinerators, designed spe-cifically for disposing Type-4 wastes, which may contain up to 85 per cent moisture. These units are available in capacities varying from 20 to 200 kg/h, with the following features:
  • Horizontal design primary and secondary chambers are housed in a single shell;
  • Nearly 99 per cent destruction efficiency;
  • Special high-alumina low-cement castable refractory provides for high cold crushing strength;
  • Operates on 220-240 V single phase 50 Hz AC supply;
  • Extended residence time exceeding or equal to one second;
  • Separate small ash doors;
  • Complies with CPCB norms with no downstream equipment; and
  • Long equipment life.

The use of a single pressure jet oil-fired mono block burner enables high cost savings. Waste loaded in the primary chamber is burnt and the products of combustion flow across the hearth, into a secondary after-burn chamber. The flue gas stream passes through the core of the burner flame and travels across the primary chamber for recirculation, providing for more dwell time prior to emission, thereby facilitating total destruction of suspended carbon particulates, smoke, fumes and odour. A standard system consists of the following components:

  • A 1.2 m long chimney, refractory lined with smut arrestor;
  • Panel board;
  • Diesel tank with pipelines, filter and valve;
  • Ash rake;
  • Thermocouples with thermowells;
  • Temperature indicator;
  • Fuel pressure gauge; and
  • Automatic electronic sequence monitoring device.

Contact: HAAT Incinerators India Pvt. Ltd., 35 B&C, Jigani Industrial Area, Anekal Taluk, Bangalore 562 106, Karnataka, India. Tel: +91 (80) 7825 449; Fax: +91 (80) 7825 299



New processor for medical wastes

Premier Medical Technologies Inc. (PMT), the United States, has developed a system for medical wastes disposal. In this process, waste is electronically weighed and loaded automatically into the processor. After passing through a low-speed grinder, the shredded material is mixed with PMT100 chemical and water (8 per cent by weight). This mixture then passes on to a high-speed grinder for final processing. A computer is used to precisely add PMT100 and water, based on the weight of the wastes, and to control processing times as well as waste movement, through inputs provided by 60 sensors and actuators.

The processed waste is sterile and can be disposed of in landfills.

Contact: Premier Medical Technologies Inc., 2200, Post Oak Boulevard, Suite 416, Houston, Texas 77056, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (713) 3582 142/9413 852



New technology for on-site disposal

Elastec/American Marine, based in the United States, offers a portable system to eliminate medical waste. MediBurn can be easily and safely operated with minimal training. It is especially designed for use in small hospitals/clinics, remote locations, labs, animal cremation, disasters, etc. Key features include:
  • Has dual chamber combustion and high exhaust temperatures in excess of 1,000C;
  • No on-site construction;
  • Preset cycle time automatically controls start-up and shutdown;
  • Built for safe, easy operation with state-of-the-art controls; and
  • Efficient fuel consumption is ensured by thermostatic temperature control.

Contact: Elastec/American Marine, 121, Council St., Carmi, IL 62821, United States of America. Tel: +1 (618) 3822 525; Fax: +1 (618) 3823 610



Scrubber for medical waste incinerators

Envitech Inc., the United States, is offering a wet scrubbing system for use in medical waste incinerator gas cleaning systems to enable compliance with new, stricter regulations. Components of the Envitech system and their features are listed below.
  • Quencher: Provides turbulence to saturate the gas while collecting large particulate matter and absorbing acid gases. This efficient gas-conditioning procedure reduces the demand on downstream elements by ensuring steady gas flow through the system.
  • Condenser/absorber: Sub-cools and scrubs off acids from the gas. Water vapour in the gas stream is removed by condensation, lowering energy requirements. Heavy metals like mercury, lead and cadmium are condensed and collected. Additionally, this unit causes fine particles and heavy metals to condense and grow in mass, resulting in enhanced removal efficiency.
  • Venturi scrubber: Uses fine drop atomization to create large surface areas for efficient collection of particulate matter and acid gases. No spray nozzles are used. This allows recirculation of the scrubbing liquid without typical problems of plugged nozzles or piping.
  • High-efficiency, multi-stage waveform entrainment separator: Collects fine droplets from the gas stream effectively while operating at a low pressure drop. Removal of water from the gas stream is extremely important since the presence of any entrained liquid degrades system performance.

Contact: Envitech Inc., 2924, Emerson Street, San Diego, CA 92106, United States of America. Tel: +1 (619) 2239 925; Fax: +1 (619) 2239 938



Biomedical waste disposal system

Yale University, the United States, has acquired a large autoclave for sterilizing biohazardous waste produced at the Universitys medical school and other research facilities. This development makes it easier for researchers to fulfil the standards already adhered to and is intended to improve environmental aspects of waste disposal. Autoclaving is a procedure where the materials are heated to a standardized temperature and pressure to kill biological matter and sterilize the material. In the new system, waste is placed on large metal carts that go directly into the autoclave. After undergoing heating, the waste is shredded and disposed like normal trash.



Removing dioxins from exhaust gas

Cosmo Engineering Co. Ltd., Japan, has combined German technology with the Kombisorbon process to ensure effective removal of dioxins from exhaust streams. Key features of the process are:
  • Dioxins in the exhaust gas from incinerators are adsorbed and removed through a fixed-bed adsorption column;
  • A mixture of granular activated carbon and an inactive material is used for the adsorbent. As such, hot spots do not occur and the activated carbon does not ignite. As activated carbon granules do not cohere, a uniform gas flow is ensured;
  • As a countermeasure for dioxins emitted from an existing incinerator, this process is cheaper in terms of unit cost and operating expenses than the method of replacing an electric dust collectors bag filter and blowing the activated carbon powder into the dust collector;
  • The use of a fixed-bed adsorption column ensures easy operation and no moving parts; and
  • For final processing with a newly installed incinerator, this process can also be used as a police filter, which prevents temporary increases in dioxin emissions that accompany load changes, etc. In case of clean exhaust gas, a dioxin outlet concentration of 0.05 ng-TEQ/m3N or less can be attained from an initial concentration of 500 ng-TEQ/m3N.

The Cosmo process is especially useful for city garbage incineration facilities, industrial waste incineration plants and other such facilities emitting dioxins.

Contact: Cosmo Engineering Co. Ltd., 2-5-8, Higashi-shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 5462 0150; Fax: +81 (3) 5462 0159.


Dioxin reduction

Sumitomo Precision Products Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering a process to reduce dioxins present in effluents. The Advanced Oxidation Process utilizes hydroxyl (OH) radicals produced by the combination of ozone, ultraviolet (UV) light and hydrogen peroxide, if necessary. Dioxins are dechlorinated by UV radiation and decomposed by OH radicals. Dissolved dioxins are transformed into carbon dioxide, water and inorganic chlorine compounds. Key features of this system are:
  • Ozone generator that produces the worlds highest concentration of ozone gas (over 250 g/m3N);
  • Unique procedure for ozone gas injection;
  • High-intensity, low-pressure UV lamp;
  • Patented thin-film reactor geometry for efficient UV radiation;
  • Efficient absorption of ozone and efficient dechlorination by means of high-pressure processing; and
  • One-third of installation space in comparison with conventional units.

Contact: Sumitomo Precision Products Co. Limited, 8-11, Harumi 1-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104 6108, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 6220 0725; Fax: +81 (3) 6220 0735



New facility to decompose dioxins

Ebara Corp. of Japan is offering a low-temperature heat decomposition system for dioxins. An effective way to lower dioxins from waste incineration facilities is to eliminate dioxins present in fly-ash, which occupies 80-90 per cent of total emissions. The new systems heating dechlorination process is a hi-tech fly-ash dioxin process. Dioxins are decomposed by heating the fly-ash in a hypoxic atmosphere at 300-400C, producing a dechlorination reaction. Some salient features of the system marketed by Ebara, under license from Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH of Germany are:
  • Decomposes 95-99 per cent of dioxins;
  • Automatic operation;
  • Fly-ash is agitated, heat transformed and conveyed with a paddle conforming to the dimension of the systems stator drum;
  • A compact size enables installation in limited space;
  • Simple construction and easy maintenance; and
  • Installation to an existing furnace is feasible.

Contact: Ebara Corporation, 1-6-27, Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108 8480, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 5461 6111; Fax: +81 (3) 5461 5780



Dioxin removal from flue gas

NKK Corp., Japan, has introduced the WKV Dioxins Removal system from WKV GmbH, Germany, to remove dioxins from flue gas along with heavy metals like mercury. The new system uses activated carbon base adsorbent, which is packed in a specially designed adsorber to remove dioxins and heavy metals from flue gas. Efficient contact of flue gas with the adsorbent facilitates high removal efficiency. Moreover, a part of the adsorbent is regularly drawn out from the adsorber, ensuring stable operation of the system for a long period.

In the WKV unit, flue gas is passed from the bottom of the adsorber. Toxic substances like dioxins in flue gas are removed by the adsorbent packed in the adsorber while the cleaned flue gas is vented at the top. Adsorbent degraded by adsorption of toxic substances is drawn out from the bottom of the adsorber, along with a small amount of accumulated dust. Fresh adsorbent of the same quantity is supplied from the top of the adsorber. Since the quantity of adsorbent used is relatively small it will be incinerated in a furnace, thus decomposing the dioxins.

Contact: NKK Corp., 1-1-2, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 8202, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3217 3284; Fax: +81 (3) 3214 8423



Cleaning up DDT contamination

Dr. Ian Singleton of the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, the United Kingdom, along with researchers from Thailand and Australia, has perfected a technique that employs seaweed to rejuvenate land tainted with the toxic pesticide DDT. The most effective blend, 0.5 per cent seaweed added to waterlogged soil, managed to remove 80 per cent of DDT in six weeks. According to Dr. Singleton, the seaweed has to be ploughed into the soil utilizing agricultural equipment to get the right mix. DDT is degraded by specific microbes which function anaerobically in soil. Seaweed acts as a good source of dissolved organic carbon and sodium, which significantly enhances the microbes performance.


Nanosponges for soil remediation

Researchers at Cornell University, the United States, have designed polymer vesicles that, when forced through soil, trap contaminants and carry them to the surface. The team created these particles from long polymer molecules. Each molecule comprises a hydrophobic (water repelling) and a hydrophilic (water attracting) segment. In water, the molecules self-assemble into soluble particles with hydrophobic chains oriented towards the centre and their hydrophilic chains facing outside. With an average diameter of around 20 nm, the particles can travel swiftly through water in the soil without getting stuck.

Researchers tested the particles in sand contaminated with phenanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon typically found in coal tar. The team placed the polluted sand in a stainless steel column and then added a solution of the particles, pumped from the bottom. As the particles travelled up through the column, their hydrophobic cores drew the phenanthrene compounds off the sand grains and into their interiors. Researchers opine that by replacing surfactants with the new particles, the efficiency of remediation processes can be greatly raised.



Systems for solvent recovery

System Components Corporation, the United States, is offering solvent recovery systems designed for high volume applications. Models in the M and DAS series have throughput capacities varying from 180 l/d to 6,800 l/d. While heat for distillation in the M series systems is provided by electric heaters immersed in thermal oil surrounding the solvent chamber, an external oil heating package or in-plant steam is used in the DAS series. The reclaimed solvent vapours are condensed in water-cooled stainless steel heat exchangers mounted on the rear of the unit. Waste contaminants remain in the solvent chamber as liquid or semi-liquid still bottoms.

Notable features of the solvent recovery units include:
  • DAS systems feature an automatic internal scraper to clean the side walls of the solvent chamber and improve heating efficiency;
  • DAS systems are most effective for distillation of viscous solvents or solvents with thermosetting solids;
  • M series units are virtually maintenance free and exceptionally cost-effective when used for applications that leave flowable still bottoms;
  • M series systems feature a large front-mounted door with sludge discharge valve for easy access to the solvent chamber; and
  • All M and DAS series units are available with vacuum assistance to reduce the boiling point of the waste solvent.

Contact: System Components Corporation, 6750 West Highway 40, Ocala, Florida 34482, United States of America. Tel: +1 (352) 2378 848; Fax: +1 (352) 2378 558



Air purification and solvent recovery

Donau Carbon GmbH and Co. KG, Germany, is offering Supersorbon process for recovering solvents, up to 99.5 per cent, and purification of exhaust streams. The new fixed-bed adsorption system has been used to recover toluene present in exhaust air from rotogravure printing presses. In this system, solvent-laden air is routed through adsorbers packed with Supersorbon activated carbon. Solvent present in the gas stream adsorbs on to the activated carbon bed. Adsorption continues to breakthrough i.e. until the full retentive capacity of the adsorbent for solvent vapours is utilized.

Regeneration of the adsorbent is achieved by desorbing the solvent with a counter-current flow of steam. The mixture of water and toluene vapours is condensed and toluene separated in a gravity separator. The solvent thus recovered can be reused in the printing presses without further treatment. Supersorbon technology involves the following components:
  • Three solvent-laden air filters;
  • Solvent-laden air exhausters, frequency controlled;
  • Three solvent-laden air coolers;
  • Four horizontal adsorbers, 3,500 17,000 mm;
  • Condenser siphon;
  • Heat recovery condenser;
  • Condenser, after-cooler;
  • Vertical cylindrical decanter;
  • A combined solvent and water collecting tank;
  • Four cooling towers with separate water basin;
  • Wastewater treatment stripper;
  • Compressed air-conditioning;
  • Stack exhaust monitoring to TA-Luft emission regulations;
  • Exit air solvent concentration measurement for adsorber cycling;
  • Volumetric flow measurement;
  • Adsorption cycle computation;
  • System balancing software; and
  • Automatic shutdown control.

Contact: Donau Carbon GmbH and Co. KG, Gwinnerstrae 27-33, 60388 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Tel: +49 (69) 4011 607; Fax: +49 (69) 4011 535



Drying and evaporation systems

Horizon Technology Inc., based in the United States, is offering Speed-Vap II 9000 solvent evaporation system. This module incorporates a unique airflow design and precise temperature control to maximize solvent evaporation, thus providing safe and speedy evaporation of n-hexane solvent for oil and grease extractions. A precision-controlled low-temperature heating unit assures consistent and gentle heating of all samples to prevent loss of volatile analytes in the samples. Evaporation is accelerated by applying vacuum to create a gentle flow of air over all samples for even and consistent evaporation of n-hexane. Key features include:
  • Enhances lab productivity by reducing evaporating times by up to 50 per cent;
  • Ensures controlled evaporation and easy, reliable gravimetric results;
  • Reduces operator exposure to hazardous solvents; and
  • Frees up valuable hood space with bench-top design.

DryVap is an innovative solvent evaporation system that includes in-line solvent drying. Designed for evaporating semi-volatile compounds, DryVap is a multi-position evaporation station that can automatically dry the solvent extract of residual water before starting the evaporation process. DryVap which utilizes a combination of vacuum, sparge gas and heat has been fabricated to ensure maximum recoveries of semi-volatile compounds. The system also uses individual internal heaters that automatically shut off whenever the solvent level reaches a set point. Evaporation continues with vacuum and a gentle gas sparge even after the heaters are turned off.

Solvent Trap has been designed to capture n-hexane solvent vapours from oil and grease extractions. On Integration with Speed-Vap, this unit condenses n-hexane vapours from the exhaust stream of Speed-Vap and collects it in a 500 ml flask for reuse or disposal, minimizing the release of n-hexane into the environment.

Contact: Horizon Technology Inc., 8, Commerce Drive, Atkinson, NH 03811 9978, United States of America. Tel: +1 (603) 8933 663; Fax: +1 (603) 8934 994



Solvent adsorption and recovery units

JR Fibreglass Industries Pvt. Ltd., India, is offering systems to reclaim valuable solvents from waste air streams. Solvent recovery by adsorption is a batch operation requiring multiple adsorbers for continuous recovery. At any time, one adsorber remains in operation while the other is being regenerated/reactivated. These units are designed to operate with the least pressure drop. Special grades of activated carbon are used to suit the particular solvent as well as achieve the highest efficiency at minimal operating cost. The required cooling is provided by a condenser for condensation of the mixture of desorbed solvent and steam during regeneration with steam.

The solvent adsorption and recovery systems are used in chemical processing, pharmaceutical, printing and lamination, spray painting, metal finishing, ink and varnish, and textile industries.

Contact: JR Fibreglass Industries Pvt. Limited, 1/21, Rocky Industrial Estate, I.B. Patel Road, Goregaon (East), Mumbai 400 063, India. Tel: +91 (22) 8735 693/8732 069; Fax: +91 (22) 8735 864



Distillers for solvent reuse

FIDI GmbH of Germany is offering distillers that allow the recycling and reuse of degreasing and washing solvents. A simple distillation procedure separates contaminants such as resins, polymers, pigments, paints, oils, etc. from the original solvent. A peripheral heating jacket filled with diathermic oil, heated by an electrical element, is used to boil the solvent. Vapours from this stage are conveyed to a condenser cooled by air or water. Solvent recovered in this manner is suitable for reuse. Contaminants stay behind as residue inside a disposal bag.

Systems in the DIstatic series have capacities ranging from 12 l to 180 l while units in the DYnamic series vary in capacity from 30 l to 120 l. Systems in the DYnamic series can be connected to a vacuum unit suitable for high boiling solvents or inflammables. The vacuum module can be equipped with either an air-operated vacuum pump or an electrical one.

Contact: FIDI GmbH, die Adresse fur Abwasser-Losemittel-Aufbereitung, Backerstrae 9, D-21244, Buchholz i.d.N., Germany. Tel: +49 (4181) 9230-3; Fax: +49 (4181) 9230-40.


Recovery and recycling of solvents

The United States-based Chicago Boiler Co. is offering a recovery and recycling system capable of distilling and recondensing the volatile part from raw waste slurry. Hydro-Tek system leaves behind a completely dry residue in an easy-to-handle granular form. Computer-controlled process parameters ensure perfect results shift after shift without excessive operator involvement. Key features and benefits of the sealed system include:
  • No vapours, contaminated liquid or risk of exposure;
  • Water and solvent-based slurries and sludges are easily handled;
  • Designed and constructed for maximum duty cycles;
  • Achieves process temperature faster and maintains the temperature more efficiently; and
  • Auto cool down.

Available in a variety of sizes, the Hydro-Tek system can be used for a variety of applications including paint, adhesives, resins, ink and dry cleaning.

Contact: Chicago Boiler Co., 1300, Northwestern Avenue, Gurnee, Illinois 60031 2348, United States of America. Tel: +1 (847) 66 24 000; Fax: +1 (847) 6624 003




Recycling of lithium batteries made safer

A consortium of companies comprising major European players has developed a cost-effective recycling approach for safely disposing spent lithium batteries. Valibats strategy uses neither combustion nor heat/cold, but is carried out at ambient temperature at a pressure of 50 mbar above atmospheric pressure. The technology also involves inert gases with oxygen at low concentration. Valibat has developed four state-of-the-art processes:
  • Shredding and deactivation of waste lithium batteries under safe and economic conditions;
  • Separation of steel from plastic and paper;
  • Hydro-metallurgical treatment processes to recover cobalt, nickel, manganese and lithium; and
  • Recovery of fluorine compounds and lithium salts, including lithium triflate, in aqueous solution.

As such, Valibat processes provide a source of secondary materials that can be recycled back into the manufacturing process.


Recycling cadmium from domestic Ni-Cd battery waste

Researchers in the United Kingdom have successfully employed chlorination process to recover cadmium from sealed nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery wastes. This breakthrough also demonstrates that it is feasible to recirculate the chlorinating gas, making the technique eco-friendly. The team also exhibited that it is possible to recover all the cadmium by burning PVC to yield hydrogen chloride, which reacts to produce volatile cadmium chloride that may be condensed and collected in a separate reactor. Chlorine may also be used, alternatively, to chlorinate cadmium, which is recovered more quickly when exposed to sustained, controlled flow rates of chlorinating gases produced using compressed gas cylinders and flowmeters.

Compared with conventional open and closed furnace distillation techniques, the new method is efficient and clean.

Contact: Dr. A. Cox, Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, United Kingdom.


Recycling batteries

Nu-Life Industries, Canada, offers new processes to recycle different types of batteries. Lithium batteries are cooled in a container of liquid nitrogen and shredded to expose the contents. Gases or fumes given off during shredding are treated in a scrubber system. The shredded part is put into a large tank containing an alkaline solution where water reacts with metallic lithium to form hydrogen gas. Lithium metal, ignited by the shredding action, or by reaction with water in turn ignites hydrogen from the tank and forced venting serves to keep its concentration well below the explosive limit. The solutions pH is maintained by adding alkali to assist soluble components of the battery to dissolve. As the concentration of these salts reaches the solubility limit, lithium salts precipitate from solution. They are recovered for use as an additive in concrete, to prevent alkali-silica reaction, or converted into high-grade lithium carbonate used in the battery industry.

Sealed alkaline cells are recycled using a patented process involving breakdown of cell composition to segregate alkali, plastic, paper and metal components. The plastic part is washed and reused while metal fraction is washed, dried, blended with fragmented carbon steel and hydraulically briquetted. Briquette is remelted to make new products.

Nickel metal hydride, vented Ni-Cd and Ni-Cd batteries are recycled by a pyrometallurgical process. Here, the shredded cells are blended with other nickel, chrome and iron bearing wastes and smelted in an electric arc furnace to produce nickel alloy pigs, used as feedstock by speciality steel producers. Cadmium portion is converted into pellets in a retorting unit, for reuse primarily in the battery industry.

Contact: Nu-Life Industries, 1-3347-262nd Street, Aldergrove, BC V4W 3V9, Canada. Tel: +1 (604) 8575 588; Fax: +1 (604) 8575 775



Recharging alkaline batteries

ATG, the United States, has developed a new technique of recycling alkaline batteries. Battery Recycler is an industrial/commercial battery recharger based on patented technology. This system can safely and effectively recharge standard alkaline batteries several times.

A battery typically has a piece of plastic between its two electrodes, called a separator, to insulate the electrodes from each other as well as allow the electrolyte to pass from one side to the other via thousands of small channels. The recharging process produces small particles called dendrites, which clog up the channels and prevent the electrolyte from passing through. The Ingenius technology substantially lowers the formation of dendrites during battery charging. As such, the channels are kept relatively clear and the battery can be recharged several times.



Filtering flue gases for toxic elements

ABB K.K, Japan, offers a system for simultaneous filtration and sorption of flue gases and their contaminants, using a ABB fabric filter acting as both filter and chemical reactor. The filsorption unit can be installed after the wet scrubbers in waste-to-energy plants for the final removal of dioxins and heavy metals. It also acts as a polishing filter for dust and acidic gases.

ABBs process comprises injection of a mix of lime and activated coke or carbon upstream of the fabric filter for absorption of the contaminants. This is a safe and proven technique to ensure extremely low emissions. The fabric filter used in this application is the well-proven Optipulse filter. The process has a uniform sorbent distribution over the bags, producing a constantly low dust emission. The fabric filter acts as a fixed-bed reactor where flue gases pass the absorbent layer formed on the bags. The filter bags are cleaned by directing compressed air pulses down through the bag openings. The end product from the filsorption system is normally fired in the waste furnace where lime acts as an absorbent contributing to a pre-separation of acidic gases from flue gas stream. The filsorption system, reactor and filter, has been designed with vertical or very steep walls in the ducts and hoppers, thus ensuring effective dust discharge.

Contact: ABB K.K, Japan.



Solutions for air pollution control

Alderley Group, the United Kingdom, offers air pollution control solutions in the following areas: fluidized bed scrubbing, hot gas scrubbing, wet chemical scrubbing, Odorgard, particulate removal, wet electrostatic precipitators and toxic gas incineration. The company has developed a range of systems to treat hot gases, which can arise from industrial processes like metal melting furnaces, incinerators, etc. Either wet or dry solution or a combination of both can be provided. The hot gases will be quenched and then undergo acid gas removal using a suitable alkali in a packed tower. Micron particulate and sub-micron particulate removal is achieved using a venturi scrubber, a wet electrostatic precipitator or bag filter. Sub-cooling could be incorporated to reduce water loss and the recovered heat used to optimize the design of stack reheat to give invisible discharge.

A dedicated disposal system can be provided to ensure that the discharge of toxic gases in the semiconductor manufacturing processes is in line with local regulations. The system amalgamates controlled combustion with particulate removal. If acid gases remain, these can be neutralized by injection of a suitable dry absorbent. In a ceramic-lined burn box, gases are oxidized and decomposed in a controlled atmosphere. A normal burner system provides the flame while air is aspirated into the system to provide cooling. Particulates and gases traverse through a bag filter, followed by an induced draught fan, which discharges clean gas into the atmosphere. The absorbent can be introduced upstream of the filter and will react with the acidic elements.

Odorgard process is a catalytically enhanced wet chemical scrubbing system employed primarily for the destruction of hydrogen sulphide and low level VOCs associated with sewage treatment. Waste gases are absorbed by mass transfer within a single-stage scrubber into a recirculating liquid containing a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite. The nickel-based catalyst reduces hypochlorite to brine leaving an unstable oxygen molecule on the catalysts surface. This molecule provides a powerful oxidizing agent, which helps degrade the absorbed contaminants into harmless compounds, which can be discharged as waste.

The patented Turboscrubber unit involves fluidization of ellipsoidal elements in a purpose-built scrubber vessel. Elements tumble rapidly, within the fluidized bed, creating high turbulence in the fluids flowing through the vessel. Turboscrubber harnesses and controls the power of gaseous and liquid turbulence within the confines of the three-phase fluidized bed. Owing to rapid shearing actions produced in the fluidized bed, various phases are forced into intimate contact at the molecular level in a very small volume. This results in greatly enhanced number of contacts per unit time, which in turn leads to massive enhancements in mass and heat transfer in both the gas and liquid phases.

To remove particulates generated in industrial processes, Alderley offers complete systems incorporating the following:
  • Venturi scrubbers;
  • Packed tower scrubbers;
  • Bag filters;
  • Cyclonic separators;
  • Wet electrostatic precipitators;
  • Turbulent flow scrubbers; and
  • Fluidized bed scrubbing.

The wet electrostatic precipitators capture sub-micron particulates and mist aerosols in waste exhaust gas streams from numerous industrial processes. The egg crate layout of tubes with electrode rods gives rise to a compact robust unit with high collection efficiencies in the sub-micron range. As the electrodes are spiked rods, there are no wires to break; reducing maintenance costs and down time. Low running costs are also possible, owing to the low pressure drop. For corrosive duties, the unit may be fabricated using a range of materials, which includes exotic metals.

Wet chemical scrubbing is offered to remove gaseous contaminants from waste gas streams to a degree that renders them suitable for direct discharge into the atmosphere at industrial and municipal sites. The facilitys design range from simple single-stage units for the removal of ammonia to more complex multi-stage systems.

Contact: Alderley Group, Arnolds Field Trading Estate, Wickwar, Wotton-Under-Edge GL 12 8JB, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1454) 299 888; Fax: +44 (1454) 299 720.


Reduction of NOx emissions

Kobe Steel Limited, Japan, offers a system based on high-temperature combustion catalyst to reduce NOx emissions. Catalytic combustion is a kind of flameless combustion wherein fuel is oxidized perfectly without high temperature zone and which scarcely produces thermal NOx. The catalyst powder, made of Mn-substituted hexa-aluminate, is extruded to a honeycomb shape and sintered at high temperature.

Honeycomb shape, with 300 cells per square inch, is used for natural gas combustor. In this gas-turbine combustor, three kinds of catalyst honeycombs are amalgamated and arranged. At the top of the catalyst bed, traditional noble metal catalyst honeycombs that have a high reaction activity under low temperature are located. Two varieties of hexa-aluminate honeycombs are used in the middle and bottom parts. Fuel is mixed with air, heated by pre-burner to 450C and oxidized smoothly in the catalyst bed in which temperature increases continuously to about 1,200C.

A test device for a 150 kW prototype catalytic combustion turbine was prepared. In the test, turbine pressure ratio, air flow rate and combustor inlet air temperature were 8.5, 1.8 kg/s and 350C, respectively, and both combustion efficiency higher than 99 per cent and NOx emissions less than 40 ppm were attained after 215 h of continuous operation. No visible cracks were observed in either the catalyst honeycomb or catalyst holder after the test.

Contact: Kobe Steel Ltd., Japan.



Treating air pollution

Bio-oxygen Australia Pty. Ltd. has refined a process, first used over 90 years ago in Germany, which purifies and deodorizes air in rooms served by air-conditioning. Up to 99 per cent of pollutants such as food odours, cigarette smoke, nicotine, small dust particles, bacteria and chemical fumes can be eliminated using this technology. While other electrostatic air cleaners ionize the pollutants and leave them in air, Bio-oxygen air purification oxidizes and removes airborne contaminants. It also generates negative ions known to provide beneficial health effects reduce stress, increase alertness and improve work performance. The Bio-oxygen units are installed within the mixing plenum of the air-conditioning duct, where fresh air merges with returned air and helps to continually disinfect the cooling coil. As such, the growth of micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi and viruses are prevented. The oxygen ions also oxidize and remove dust particles from the system, thus keeping the cooling coils clean.

A Bio-oxygen unit uses discharge lamps to generate an energy field through which air is passed. Oxygen molecules then take up this charge, become strongly magnetic and are attracted to each other. Clusters of up to a million oxygen molecules with higher than normal activity are formed and they circulate through room air. Fumes, dust and gases are oxidized and neutralized in mid-air as they collide with the masses of oxygen ions.

Contact: Bio-oxygen Australia Ltd., 36, Bennett Place, Castle Hill, New South Wales, NSW 2154, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 9899 7059; Fax: +61 (2) 9899 3161




Catalytic incineration

Nippon Shokubai Co. Ltd., Japan, offers catalytic incineration system to transform exhaust gases into a harmless and odourless gas stream. Exhaust gases containing organic compounds are sucked into a heat exchanger for preheating and further heated in the gas heater before they get into the reactor. After the gas is decomposed and purified by the catalyst in the reactor, treated gas is recycled into the heat exchanger to recover the reaction heat before being discharged from the stack, into the atmosphere.

Based on the contents and other conditions of the exhaust gas and the design of the heat exchanger, this system facilitates an energy-saving operation, which decreases or does not require auxiliary fuels. Potential application areas of the system include food manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, industrial wastes handling, odour substances handling, etc.

Contact: Nippon Shokubai Co. Limited, Japan.




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