VATIS Update Waste Management . May-Jun 2005

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Waste Management May-Jun 2007

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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International effort to fight coastal pollution

The fight against coastal pollution recently gained momentum with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Secretariat of Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Toxic Wastes and their Disposal and the Regional Seas programme of UNEP. The main area of cooperation relates to environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, to prevent coastal and marine pollution. Marine litter is targeted through eco-friendly handling of plastic wastes, used lead-acid batteries, as well as used oils and lubricants.

Many of the joint activities will be carried out using the thirteen Basel Convention Regional Centres, or BCRCs, as platforms for regional cooperation with various Regional Seas Programmes. The 13 BCRCs are located in Argentina, China, El Salvador, Egypt, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Senegal, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (Samoa), South Africa, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay. The Basel Conventions Secretariat and the Regional Seas Programme will also work together on the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, known as the Barbados Programme of Action.

Contact: Ms. Nicole Dawe, Basel Convention Secretariat, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (22) 9178 220; E-mail: Nico; Or Mr. Michael Williams, UNEP, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (22) 9178 242



IFC ventures into plastic recycling

The International Finance Corp. (IFC) has invested around US$1.2 million in a new plastics recycling plant at Guangzhou, China. Developed by a United States-based company, MBA Polymers, this facility uses the first technology that can recycle, on a commercial production scale, highly mixed waste streams of high-value plastics e.g. those common to discarded consumer durables and electronics. The raw material is transformed for reuse as high-value engineering plastic while at the same time providing an environmentally attractive processing route for a recyclable source that would otherwise be destined for landfills or incineration. The investment was made available through the Environmental Opportunities Facility, which is part of IFCs Sustainable Business Assistance Programme.


Centre of excellence in waste management

In India, the Manipal Education and Medical Group (MEMG) has teamed up with Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Germany, for setting up a state-of-the-art centre of excellence in waste management at Manipal Hospital, Bangalore. This centre, the first of its kind, would develop intellectual properties in the field of environment management and Manipal Academy of Higher Education will offer diploma courses in the area of environmental and waste management. The centre will even showcase world-class biomedical waste management motifs, including segregation, collection and disposal, effluent treatment, Environmental Management Systems, etc. The centre will be open to all medical establishments in India for visits and results would be made available as case studies. It will also organize workshops, seminars and training.


China sets up national work group on POPs phase-out

China has set up a national work group to coordinate the country's efforts to implement the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to rid the nation of dangerous pesticides and other hazardous chemicals. The group will be responsible for examining policies, standards, laws and regulations related to POPs control in the country, said Ms. Wang Jirong, vice director of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA).

The group, which has some major challenges ahead, consists of many related government departments, including Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Health. SEPA has estimated that it could cost at least US$400 million to get a clear picture of POPs in the country. China has five years to stop production of four of the pollutants covered by the Stockholm Convention DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane and mirex still in use, after applying for immunity.


Forum for plastic recyclers

In India, about 200 plastic recycling units based mostly in the eastern part of the country have enrolled with the Federation of Indian Plastics Recycling Industries (FIPRI). The plastic recycling sector comprises about 20,000 units spread across the country. Mr. Sadhan K. Ghosh, coordinator of FIPRI and the Centre for Quality Management System at Jadavpur University, expresses that several local plastic recycling units working in the unorganized sector require a platform to resolve their problems. Nowadays, the volume of wastes required to be handled by plastic recycling units is increasing, and at the same time these units are under tremendous pressure to close operations. The absence of coordination among pollution control boards (PCBs) municipal bodies and recycling units is the root cause of problems facing the industry.

FIPRI is cooperating with the West Bengal PCB for resolving pollution-related issues and the outcome of this effort is anticipated to provide guidelines for other recycling units. PCBs are expected to move away from sudden closure to a policy that will lead to relocation of recycling facilities to demarcated clusters or special zones for plastic recycling. Recyclers will be able to continue operations, subject to compliance with pollution regulations. PCBs can help recyclers secure No objection or Consent to operate certification after upgrading. PCBs are also in a position to grant trade licences to unorganized units if they abide by pollution norms.


Survey on biomedical wastes

In India, the Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) has initiated an in-depth survey to assess the quantity of biomedical garbage generated across the state. A 15-member task force comprising representatives from hospitals, the health department, senior doctors and GPCB was formed to identify problems faced in the implementation of biomedical waste disposal. The survey is one of the key measures mooted in the action plan drawn up by the task force to ensure implementation of guidelines at the earliest.

GPCB has ten centres across the state, which are collecting the data. The study covers 486 primary health centres, 52 general hospitals and 540 community health centres, apart from the other healthcare establishments.

Based on the survey results, a detailed programme on implementation will be designed. Other measures identified by the task force include evaluating the performance of existing biomedical waste treatment facilities and upgrading them as per the latest guidelines. The state has 11 common incinerators. The action plan lays emphasis on awareness about the guidelines, especially in rural areas.


New plant for recycling tyres

In Malaysia, a joint venture formed by Octagon Consolidated Bhd and K.K. Incinerator Engineering and Construction (M) Sdn Bhd (KKM) plans to build a waste tyre pyrolysis facility for converting waste tyres into commercially marketable products. Scheduled for completion during the fourth quarter of 2006, Advance Pyrotech Sdn Bhds (AP) facility will have capacity to process 120 tonnes per day of tyres. Waste tyres would be recycled into products such as high-quality carbon black while recovering oil and steel wire chips. On successful commissioning of this facility, Octagon will own 51 per cent equity in AP while KKM would have the remaining 49 per cent.


Accumulation of e-wastes gives rise to trepidation

India produces about US$1.5 billion worth of electronic waste (e-waste) on a yearly basis, reports MAIT, the association representing hardware makers. Producers and assemblers generate approximately 1,050 t/y of electronic scrap. It is estimated that nearly two million PCs have become obsolete. The MAIT report states that e-waste recycling has become a lucrative business as electronic equipment consists of high-priced materials like gold, copper, plastic and glass. However, the presence of toxic components makes e-wastes hazardous to health. For example, PCs contain toxic substances like lead, cadmium, mercury and plastic, among others.


Law on environment protection

In Pakistan, the Sindh Environment Protection Agency has issued a general environment protection order making it mandatory for hospitals in the province to dispose potentially hazardous wastes in line with the prescribed guidelines. Subsequent to the enforcement of the Pakistan Environment Protection Act (PEPA) 1997, the first class magistrate of each district has been notified as environmental magistrates, to apply the Act and its rules. They can take actions against all contraventions punishable under subsection 2 and 4 of section 17 of PEPA 1997. Sindh Environment Protection Agency is the only provincial chapter of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency that has taken this step.



Plastic recycling

Fujitsu Automation Limited, Japan, offers a system for recycling waste plastics. Developed together with Yoshioka Sangyo Corp., PlasticBlend 530 system incorporates a crusher, tumbler, screw extruder and a moulding machine. This system can be used to recycle wastes that normally end up either in landfills or incineration plants. Recyclable products like round poles or board material can be obtained from plastic wastes. Some notable features of PlasticBlend include:
  • Recycles mixed plastic material;
  • Thermoplastic resin and thermosetting resin can be mixed and reproduced; and
  • Broken or unused reproduced products can be reproduced as a 100 per cent recycled material.

Contact: Fujitsu Automation Ltd., 4-1-1, Kamikodanaka, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki Kanagawa, 211 8588, Japan. Tel: +81 (44) 7543 805; Fax: +81 (44) 7543 380



Next-generation tyre recycling systems

Van Aarsen International, based in the Netherlands, has launched next-generation tyre recycling systems for producing tyre-derived, value-added rubber powders and granules. According to the company, their system delivers new opportunities in the integral project approach to tyre recycling. Progress achieved in output quality, efficiency, flexibility, maintenance and durability assures good hope for future tyre recycling professionals. Van Aarsen supplies turnkey systems and also individual machines that could be integrated easily into existing multi-machine processing streams.

Contact: Van Aarsen International, Panheel, the Netherlands. Tel: +31 (475) 579 444




Recovering valuable materials from electronic plastics

The Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Germany, is offering processes for recycling plastics and industrial wastes. One of the process, based on selective extraction of the target polymer followed by a purification stage, allows plastics such as PET, ABS and Styropor to be recycled into contaminant-free recyclates. This type-pure recyclate is on par with that of virgin polymers, in terms of quality.

CreaSolv has been developed for recycling plastics found in electronic wastes. This patented technology enables plastics contaminated with high levels of hazardous substances to be effectively recycled. It helps the electrical industry and waste disposal industry fulfil their recycling quota, as laid down in the current European Union Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. The third technology pertains to the purification of PET, which is mixed with other varieties of plastics, to a degree that allows it to be reused for beverage bottles.

Fraunhofer Institute has developed a variety of processes that enable useful auxiliary production materials to be recovered and then reused in manufacturing techniques. Other developments touch on coolants from various metal cutting methods, cutting and grinding materials as well as production wastes from the manufacture of microchips, solar cells, etc.


Fuel from plastics

A team of students from Velammal Engineering College, Chennai, India, has developed a process to transform waste polythene and polypropylene, mainly from discarded bags and biomedical wastes, into a kind of petroleum and diesel through catalytic cracking. Plastic wastes are subjected to the process that breaks down the carbon chain. The correct proportion of catalyst and degraded material is taken in a reaction flask to achieve greater yield. At about 400C, plastics begin to yield a distillate crude. Fractional redistillation of the crude yields a type of petroleum at 100-120C and kerosene at 150-180C. Finally, diesel is left over as the residue.

During trials, the team produced around 2 l of crude from 2.5 kg of plastic wastes and after distillation, 1 l of petrol, 0.5 l each of kerosene and diesel. Moreover, heating plastic wastes in the absence of oxygen ensures that the production of toxic dioxin emissions is eliminated, thus making the fuel eco-friendly. The leftover paraffin mass (about 500 g) can be used to make candles.


Breakthrough in tyre recycling

Molectra Technologies, Australia, offers a unique and highly innovative tyre recycling technology. This process can recycle tyres of all sizes and different types of rubber from bicycles, golf buggy and car tyres to those used on trucks, tractors and huge earth-moving machinery.

The Molectra technique integrates mechanical, chemical and microwave treatments to efficiently and cleanly break the tyre down into its base materials oil, carbon, rubber granules, steel and plastic fibres. In the first step of the process, the two steel beadwires are removed intact, mechanically, from the rim of the tyre. This high quality wire can be cut into small pellets suitable for sandblasting shots. Next, tyres are sliced into 4-12 sections depending on the tyre diameter, doing away with the need for energy-intensive shredding equipment. This fragmented portion is chemically treated using a blend of softening agents, including oil extracted from tyres in the last stage of the process. In addition to dramatically softening the rubber component of tyre segments, this step cleans the rubber particles by removing dirt and other drosses prior to devolatilizing. The reinforcing steel wires and fibre cords embedded in tyre segments are mechanically separated from the rubber and from each other using a series of purpose-designed rollers.

The softened rubber, which has been partially granulated in the separation process, is then further granulated into various mesh sizes ranging from the size of a peppercorn down to a very fine powder. The value-adding potential for this granulated rubber is huge with markets in the sporting, construction, equestrian, mining, automotive, landscaping and agricultural industries. Typically, a 10 kg tyre yields 7.6 kg of clean marketable crumb rubber that can be used to manufacture a variety of value-added rubber products. Else, any/all of the crumb rubber can continue through to the end of the process and into a high-temperature vacuum microwave where it is transformed into carbon, oil and zinc oxide.

The patented MolectraVac system uses industrial microwave energy within a continuous-feed chamber under complete vacuum. Initially, the rubber is heated to neutralize it and recover the remaining solution used in the chemical treatment process. The temperature gradually rises to 1,300C to extract the hydrocarbons that are basically the building blocks of the rubber compound. The gases are recovered within the unit and undergo distillation to yield various types of quality hydrocarbons. After rubber is devolatized, the remainder is 97.3 per cent pure carbon.


Pulverizers and fine grinders

Germanys Herbold Meckesheim GmbH offers SMF model grinders and PU model disc pulverizers that have been designed for pulverizing plastic granules, and regrinding soft and semi-rigid materials. Final size of the particles obtained are in the range of 0-1,000 m and 0-200 m, depending on the type as well as configuration of the machines.

Herbold specializes in milling soft and rigid PVC/PE (for coating, rotomoulding and the textile industry) and cellulose and production of metallic powders, e.g. calcium. SMF model fine grinders are suitable for soft, fibrous, thin-walled and/or elastic materials such as PE drilling and milling shavings or cellulose sheets. The PU model disc pulverizer is used for grainy or brittle materials like PE granules or rigid PVC regrind.

The systems are available with or without screening machines, tandem units with a pre-pulverizer for raw material and a separate re-pulverizer for oversized material returned from the screener. To pulverize heat-sensitive and/or explosive materials, nitrogen cooling systems and pulverizer lines that operate utilizing an inert gas atmosphere are available.

Contact: Herbold Meckesheim GmbH, Industriestrasse 33, Meckesheim D-74909, Germany. Tel: +49 (6226) 932-0; Fax: +49 (6226) 932 495



Upgrading scrap tyre pyrolysis residue

Independent tests by Akron Rubber Development Laboratory confirm that the generic CBp process can be successfully employed for upgrading raw pyro-carbon residue, or char, into cost-competitive grades of black reinforcing fillers that can be reused in rubber manufacturing for replacing or blending with carbon blacks and as an asphalt modifier. The patented and proprietary post-treatment technology developed by CBp Europe reinforces properties concerning the quality of the raw heterogeneous pyro-char. Tests have confirmed that CBp technology is an economical solution necessary to commercialize pyrolysis know-how for scrap rubber.

Carbon black is described by the Rubber Manufacturers Association as an important ingredient in nearly all rubber products to improve traits such as tensile strength, modulus and wear resistance. Scrap tyres and rubber can contain about 25-35 per cent carbon black. A modular pyrolysis plant with a capacity to process 4,000 tyres/day can yield 3,500 t of CBpCarbon per year or less than 0.05 per cent of the present carbon black market, allowing for major niche product market growth potential. The surplus of regional scrap tyre pyrolysis feedstock is not subject to the volatility of the imported oil presently being used to manufacture carbon black. This can permit stable long-term price guarantees. In earlier tests, reinforcing fillers were also obtained by CBp upgrading pyrolysed automotive shredder residue, i.e. ASR or fluff.



Medical waste processing plant

Murata Machinery Ltd., Japan, offers a medical waste processing solution that helps fulfil legal requirements while encouraging recycling. This solution involves: Waste management companies Recycling Auto storage and retrieval system Incinerator Process complete. Key features of the solution are:
  • Perfect match with the manifest and construction of a comprehensive management system;
  • Applies safe controls on handling infectious medical waste material and minimizes manual labour; and
  • Treatment of supplies to meet characteristics of melting furnaces, dedicated incinerators and other such equipment.

The installed equipment and their features are as follows:

  • Pallet AS/RS: allows inventory control of the wastes received in the manifest units. Management of specific data such as on leaking, dry or shattered items is possible. Weighing countenances addition of incineration efficiency to controlled items, enabling supply of wastes to meet the determined incineration efficiencies of various furnaces;
  • High-speed automatic dispatch machine (space storage): provides high-performance and high-density storage. Infectious as well as non-infectious wastes can be received in a short period of time and fed to the furnaces (optimization of the melting furnace system); and
  • Automated overhead travelling vehicle: ensures steady and optimal feeding of wastes to the furnaces, based on weighing and management data from the AS system.

Contact: Murata Machinery Limited, Logistics and Automation Division, 136, Takeda-Mukaishiro-cho, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612 8686, Japan. Tel: +81 (75) 6728 111; Fax: +81 (75) 6728 691.


Sterilization process for medical wastes

France-based EI Consultant (EIC) supplies and installs thermic treatment equipment to process medical wastes. STEAMAX facilitates treatment of medical wastes utilizing a process that destroys contaminated genes, mitigating the propagation of endemic and infectious diseases.

STEAMAX has been validated by Pasteur Institute and the French Health and Environment Ministries. To suit individual requirements, EIC offers three versions of the machine designed on the same processing technology, with equal performance and capacity, but with different ways of installation and operation.

The equipment comprises a basic unit and some peripherals. The basic unit is a double-closed autoclave, certified to 4.5 bars, which has a chamber above it for feeding and shredding wastes. Following manual or automatic feeding, a revolving paddle just above the shredder ensures that the bags containing waste are properly spread out. A PLC panel is incorporated along with power relays, electrical protection, cycle controller and printer. Peripherals include a steam producer and a compressed air producer. Optional accessories include an air treatment device, service platform, automatic/manual containers washer, a weight control device and a mobile unit to detect radioactivity of the waste.

STEAMAX 2000 PE treats 180 kg/h of contaminated waste in regular and continuous use. Contact: EI Consultant, 56, rue de la Republique BP 6031, 78176, St. Germain-en-Laye, France. Tel: +33 (1) 3921 8244; Fax: +33 (1) 3921 8382



On-site treatment process

Aegis Bio-Systems, based in the United States, is offering patented technology that enables the safest sterilization of regulated medical wastes. JYD Series on-site treatment method includes an advanced proprietary shredding and steam sterilization system with thorough batch monitoring, testing and quality control auditing. It achieves healthcare standard Log 6 sterilization of waste, thus assuring minimization of liability to healthcare facilities with regard to safe and proper disposal of wastes. Additionally, it operates at a very high capacity. The JYD Series onboard computer manages a quality control, audit process that gives a permanent record of each batch. This electronic/paper record provides documentation for each sterilized batch to the JYD Series operator and healthcare facility.
JYD Series technology is superior since it utilizes extensive system automation, which ensures:
  • Safest treatment process, as this procedure is regulatory compliant owing to lack of pollution and emission of dioxins and the treated waste product is totally sanitized;
  • Can withstand the rigours and stresses of a high up-time system;
  • More cost-effective, as the need for manual handling is lowered. The waste is processed quickly, enabling higher volume reduction; and
  • Higher throughput capacity.

Contact: Aegis Bio-Systems, 2500, South Broadway, Suite 250, Edmond, OK 73013, United States of America. Tel: +1 (405) 3414 667.



Mechanical solution for reprocessing consumer electronics

Consumer electronics equipment such as television sets, radios and video recorders are most common. However, recycling post-consumer electronic scrap is only beginning. In Sweden, characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, sink-float test and IR spectrometer. A comparison of TV scrap, PC scrap and printed circuit boards scrap showed that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much lower than in PC scrap or printed circuit boards. It is expected that recycling of TV scrap will not be cost-effective using conventional manual disassembly. The result of particle shape analysis has indicated that non-ferrous metal particles in TV scrap, formed as a variety of shapes, is more heterogeneous than in plastics and printed circuit boards. Results of sink-float tests have shown that a high ratio of recovery could be achieved for copper through an effective gravity separation process. Identification of plastics reveal that the major plastic in TV scrap is high-impact polystyrene. Gravity separation of plastics may face some hurdles in the separation of plastics from TV scrap because of variations in the specific density.

Furthermore, mechanical recycling of TV scrap to reclaim non-ferrous metals is highlighted utilizing various techniques such as air table, eddy current separation, optical sorting, etc. The separation results disclose that air table separation is effective in recovering metals from consumer electronics scrap. By using a DGS table, approximately 90 per cent of non-ferrous metals were recovered in the heavy product with a purity of 40 per cent. Printed circuit boards and cables in TV scrap cause metal loss due to the fact that metals in printed circuit boards and cables are not liberated from plastics and ceramic materials. The study shows that eddy current separation and optical (metal) sorting procedure provide alternatives to recovering metals from TV scrap.
New developments in eddy current separation, like wet eddy current separation and Magnus separation have been discussed in the thesis. A comparison study of eddy current separation and Magnus separation on aluminium recovery shows that wet eddy current separation is more effective.

Contact: Mr. Cui, Jirang, Mineral Processing Division, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Geosciences, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87, Lulea, Sweden.

Shredder takes on electronic scrap

The United States-based Franklin Miller Inc. has launched Taskmaster TM2300, a shredding system for processing electronic scrap such as computer chips, circuit boards, electronic components and similar items. Electronic scrap is fed into the system via a drum loader, carefully metered, shredded into fine pieces and then fed into a discharge drum, reducing the bulk volume by up to 80 per cent. TM2300 features a high-torque shredding mechanism with two counter-rotating banks of cutters that intermesh to chop and shear the solid material into small particles. In addition, a sophisticated controller integrates all the shredding cycles and monitors the systems operations. The shredders heavy construction is designed to ensure minimal maintenance while the split-body design facilitates complete cutter-stack removal without dismantling the unit.

Contact: Franklin Miller, United States of America. Tel: +1 (973) 5359 200.


Recycling printed circuit boards

Summit Metals Recovery Corp., the United States, offers technology for recycling printed circuit board scrap. Scrap laminate materials are brought to one of two refineries, where they are treated with chemical oxidation followed by electrolysis. Materials are then immersed in a liquid mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, forming a copper-acid solution. On passing an electrical current through this solution, the following chemical changes occurs copper acts as an electrolytic ionic conductor that degrades into cathode concentrates. Copper ash is utilized in chemical fertilizers while the epoxy glass fibre trimming is sold to electronic plants for manufacturing toy parts, etc.

The company recycles computers, soldered board trim, scrap circuit boards, copper laminate boards and trims and other types of low-grade, copper or aluminium-bearing scrap.

Contact: Summit Metals Recovery Corp., One Exchange Place, Suite 1000, Jersey City, NJ 07302, United States of America. Tel: +1 (201) 2096 402; Fax: +1 (201) 3959 231.


Recycling TV screens

Aquatest, based in Czechoslovakia, specializes in waste reprocessing technologies, especially in recycling television (TV) screens. Monitor and TV screens are deemed hazardous owing to the content of luminofor, applied on the inner portion of the screen. Aquatest has developed a patented method, which is based on the rationale of mechanical separation of the screen into two parts, shade and cone. The shade paste and cone paste both have a different chemical composition. Following the removal of the hazardous luminofor, the screen is no longer considered as hazardous, thereby facilitating for further processing.

The company also offers technology for treating electronic wastes and home appliances. This type of waste includes fixed line and mobile telephones, tape recorders, computers, radios and other household equipment (washing machines, microwave ovens, etc.). Performance is divided into two phases manual dismantling and technological processing. The final products are non-ferrous metals and precious metals. In this way 75 per cent of the material can be recycled.

Contact: Aquatest, Geologick 4, 152 00 Praha 5, Czechoslovakia. Tel: +420 (234) 607 111; Fax: +420 (234) 607 700



Smelting and refining electronic scrap into valuable products

The recycling chain for electronic scrap comprises various, usually sequential, steps collection, dismantling, shredding/pre-processing and end-processing of the different materials and metals. Each of these require experienced specialists with dedicated technologies. Umicore, based in Belgium, specializes in end-processing, which is recycling in the true meaning of the word physical recovery of metals in their pure metallic form. In the context of value recovery and environmental impact, transformation of specific e-scrap fractions like circuit boards and other materials into precious metals, copper and other base and special metals forms a crucial and integral part of the recycling chain.

Umicores plant at Hoboken uses a unique metallurgical flow chart, based on copper, lead and nickel as collector metals to secure high recovery yields for precious metals and numerous other ones. At the heart of this technological quantum leap is a new smelter (Isa Smelter), which functions as a gateway and upgrading step for most incoming scrap fractions. Any plastic/organic residues contained in these are also used, as a reducing agent and partly as a fuel substitute. All processes are equipped with highly efficient off-gas and wastewater cleaning systems, which make it possible to comply with strict environmental standards, even with difficult and complex feed materials. The plant is ISO 9001 and 14001 certified.

More than 95 per cent of the feed is converted into useful products and the final slag from the plant is used for construction purposes (e.g. for dyke construction). As to the small remaining, non-usable fraction of the feed, toxic elements from the feed (such as cadmium or mercury) are also systematically extracted and subsequently disposed of in a safe and controlled way. This clearly avoids the risk of contaminating the environment, which would happen if the materials were not processed in the right way.

Unlike other operations, Umicore Precious Metal Refining processes electronic scrap on-site, achieving up to at least 99.95 per cent fine metals.

Contact: Mr. Thierry Van Kerckhoven, Umicore, Hoboken, Belgium. Tel: +32 3 821 74 83; Fax: +32 3 821 78 07



Electronic scrap recycling

Environmental hazards associated with obsolete consumer electronics are now becoming increasingly well-publicized and responsible firms and consumers are rapidly implementing programmes to recycle them. In the United States, ECS and its sister firm, United DataTech Distributors, have been recovering value from obsolete electronics for many years. ECS samples, values and merges both end-of-life and manufacturing scrap electronics for their metal value. The company also provides assured and certified destruction services for product manufacturers, thereby preventing obsolete or off-specification products from finding their way back into the marketplace. United Datatech sorts, repairs and re-markets obsolete electronic items (primarily PCs and peripherals).

ECS processes scrap electronics by shredding them and separating the components into ferrous metals (steel), copper and precious metals, aluminium and plastic fractions. While steel, aluminium and plastics are recycled, copper and precious metals are sampled, prepared and packaged for shipment to a primary copper smelter. Products obtained from electronics scrap recycling are:
  • Copper ingot, prepared pulps and granulated electronics with precious metals;
  • Granulated electronics without precious metals;
  • Steel (magnetically separated);
  • Aluminium (eddy current separated); and
  • Plastics (separated).

Contact: ECS Refining, 705, Reed St., Santa Clara, California 95050, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (408) 9884 386/9885 154.



Eliminating PCBs

Enervac Corp., Canada, is offering a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) destruction system that has been designed for decontamination of electrical insulating oils, which have been tainted with low levels of PCBs. Oils containing up to 7,000 ppm of PCBs can be processed to below detectable levels of 2 ppm.

Essentially, the chemical process reverses the procedure by which PCBs originally develop. A small amount of molten metallic dispersion is blended with degasified and dehydrated insulating oil in a mixing tank. PCBs are transformed into harmless compounds, common salt and a few hydrocarbon residues, which are removed from the oil as sludge using a centrifuge. The PCB-free sludge can be disposed of in any industrial waste disposal facility. The reclaimed insulating oil offers excellent electrical properties, on par with that of new insulating oil meeting the ASTM standard, and can be reused in electrical equipment. Enervacs system is cheaper than burning or any other means of disposal.

Contact: Enervac Corp., Canada. Tel: +1 (519) 6239 890; Fax: +1 (519) 6238 250



Destruction of polyhalogenated POPs

Tribochem, based in Germany, offers technology for the safe disposal of PCBs, DDT, HCH, PCP, dioxins and other hazardous and recalcitrant polyhalogenated contaminants. Dehalogenation by Mechanochemical Reaction (DMCR) technology is an alternative to incineration, biological or chemical remediation processes. By applying ball milling to tainted materials, polyhalogenated wastes are reductively dehalogenated in the presence of metals and hydrogen sources directly inside the polluted matrix at ambient pressure and temperature, virtually regardless of their state of matter.

Notable characteristics of DMCR technology include:
l Virtually universal destruction of PCBs and a variety of other polyhalogenated toxic compounds in solid, liquid, and solid-liquid tainted materials (e.g. mineral oils, sludges, soils) and literally pure hazardous compounds or mixtures;
  • Total degradation of pollutants through reductive dehalogenation by employing base metals directly inside the contaminated matrix at room temperature and in a short time. Scrap metal can be applied;
  • Only a few well-defined, harmless and/or easily disposable and/or even profitably functional degradation
    products occur through the reaction mechanism;
  • Implementation on-site or off-site using relatively small and mobile plants;
  • No particular pretreatment/pre-processing; and
  • Low energy costs, no harmful emissions, detoxified materials can be recycled while toxic compounds could be transformed into useable products.

Contact: Tribochem, Dr. Volkr Birke, Dipl.-Chem., Environmental Technologies, Georgstrasse 14, D 31515 Wunstorf, Germany. Tel: +49 (5031) 67393; Fax: +49 (5031) 8807



PCB treatment

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Limited, Japan, has developed technology for PCB treatment, with cooperation from the Railway General Technical Research Institute (RGTRI). This hybrid system employs high-speed ultraviolet technology and natural microbe treatment, i.e. using non-engineered organisms. The treatment system resolves PCB up to less than 3 g/l of sewage removal standard, which can be normally discharged. This process can also handle irresolvable highly chlorinated trans oil. A pilot plant is presently under operation to conglomerate engineering information. Contact: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


On-site cleaning of soil or sediment

Environmental Technology Inc. (ETI), based in the United States, offers a revolutionary system for effective cleaning of soil or sediment (referred to as soil matrix) as well as mixed wastes. Methex is a patented on-site separation process that returns the soil matrix to its pristine, natural state without releasing emissions, chemical by-products or other side effects. Methex can easily remove halogenated compounds, including, but not limited to, PCBs, pesticides, dioxins, creosotes, furan and TNT. This technique uses separation to achieve a reduction in contaminant waste volume of up to 98 per cent over other methods. It can separate PCBs from radioactive mixed waste mediums like transuranic sludge. Methex is uniquely effective in displacing moisture so as to reach the contaminated surfaces. Likewise, it is also effective in penetrating paraffin oils. With its low solvent expense, ongoing reusability and speedy process, Methex is a very cost-effective solution to halogenated compound contamination.

The proprietary solvent extraction process comprises an inexpensive and easily retrievable organic solvent base with small measures of co-solvent compounds, which are added to raise the total efficacy for specific site and contaminant conditions. These solvent combinations, when utilized together with ETIs aqueous solutions, allow for successful soil treatment over a wide spectrum of contaminants from organic hydrocarbons to inorganic metals. The list of contaminants that are easily solvated and removed from soils include chlorinated hydrocarbons, dioxins and furans, PCBs, aromatic nitro compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated pesticides and herbicides, and metals like arsenic, lead, cadmium, etc.

Contact: Environmental Technology Inc., Post Box 595, Guilderland, New York 12084, United States of America; Or Research and Field Operations, P.O. Box 7750, North Carolina 28403, Wilmington, United States of America. Tel: +1 (910) 2626 007; Fax: +1 (910) 7912 143



Dioxins removal

Shinko Pantec Co. Limited, Japan, offers D-Max system to efficiently remove dioxins, including coplanar PCBs (or DXNs) present in exhaust streams from industrial/municipal waste treatment plants, incinerators, etc. Installed after the air pollution control equipment, D-Max consists of a mist separator, duct heater and an adsorbing tower. Key features of the fixed-bed type equipment include:
  • Absorbs DXNs in the exhausted combustion gas with high efficiency and provides stable removal abilities
  • As the adsorbing tower does not require any driving part structurally, maintenance work is easy
  • Compared with a system that adopts the procedure of blowing powdered activated carbon into the air pollution control equipment, D-Max requires less quantity of the adsorber and as such results in lower operating costs; and
  • Can be adopted to both wet type and dry type air pollution control systems at the front stage.

Contact: Shinko Pantec Co. Ltd., 1-4-78, Wakinohama-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 651 0072, Japan. Tel: +81 (78) 2328 018; Fax: +81 (78) 2328 051



Dioxin elimination technology

Dioxins and acid gas removal process Blue Bird Co. Ltd., the Republic of Korea, offers a flat bag filter system to simultaneously remove dioxins, gas quotient matters (SOx, HCl, HF) and heavy metals from municipal and industrial waste incinerators. In this process, slaked lime and activated carbon are injected into the dry reactor at the forepart of a bag filter to create physical and chemical reactions with acid gas and dioxins. Particles generated by the reaction are removed from the flat-type bag filter to bring about simultaneous elimination of dioxins and acid gases.

Efficiency of removing dioxins and acid gases is raised by increasing contact ratio of the reactant. Filling 10 per cent of abrasion-proof ceramic balls into the perforated plate rotational crusher and rotating the balls at a speed of about 1 rpm help improve the contact efficiency. The balls are made to crash against the inner wall of the cylinder, causing the disintegration of the reactants and dust, which then results in a larger surface area. Reactants that can be used more than once are collected at the bottom of the bag filter. They can easily be recirculated into the dry reactor and used to increase the concentration of reactive agents, thus improving the efficiency of acid gas removal.
Application areas for the flat bag filter system include municipal and factory waste incinerators, large-scale boilers and chemical plants, etc.

Contact: Blue Bird Co. Ltd., 4th Floor, Minwook Building, 978-34, Bangbae dong, Seocho gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (2) 3472 7982-5; Fax: +82 (2) 3472 7921




Dioxins and acid gas removal process

Blue Bird Co. Ltd., the Republic of Korea, offers a flat bag filter system to simultaneously remove dioxins, gas quotient matters (SOx, HCl, HF) and heavy metals from municipal and industrial waste incinerators. In this process, slaked lime and activated carbon are injected into the dry reactor at the forepart of a bag filter to create physical and chemical reactions with acid gas and dioxins. Particles generated by the reaction are removed from the flat-type bag filter to bring about simultaneous elimination of dioxins and acid gases.

Efficiency of removing dioxins and acid gases is raised by increasing contact ratio of the reactant. Filling 10 per cent of abrasion-proof ceramic balls into the perforated plate rotational crusher and rotating the balls at a speed of about 1 rpm help improve the contact efficiency. The balls are made to crash against the inner wall of the cylinder, causing the disintegration of the reactants and dust, which then results in a larger surface area. Reactants that can be used more than once are collected at the bottom of the bag filter. They can easily be recirculated into the dry reactor and used to increase the concentration of reactive agents, thus improving the efficiency of acid gas removal.
Application areas for the flat bag filter system include municipal and factory waste incinerators, large-scale boilers and chemical plants, etc.

Contact: Blue Bird Co. Ltd., 4th Floor, Minwook Building, 978-34, Bangbae dong, Seocho gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (2) 3472 7982-5; Fax: +82 (2) 3472 7921;





Patent for adsorption clarifier media

USFilter Corp. has won a Canadian patent for its Microfloc Products rolled and scarified buoyant media. The Adsorption Clarifier media is manufactured utilizing high-density polyethylene plastic beads, which float in water. During operation, coagulated solids are passed upwards through the media, where in-bed flocculation and contacting occur. Flocculated solids are captured in the upflow clarifier bed, decreasing influent turbidity by 70-90 per cent. Captured solids are flushed from the bed periodically using air and raw water simultaneously.

The new patent relates to design improvement where the round media beads are rolled and scarified. The beads are rolled to get an elongated shape, resulting in a tightly packed bed. Scarification places an edge on the elongated beads providing increased surface area and a site for flocculated particles to adhere. Both design improvements provide a greater level of flocculated particle removal and high-quality effluent. The adsorption clarifier media is mostly used in Microfloc Trident family of treatment units, which are pre-engineered treatment facilities with an integral adsorption clarifier and mixed media filter.


Waste liquid combustion system

Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., Japan, has developed a furnace for treating wastewater. The new water-cooled incinerator features easier operation and maintenance than conventional refractory furnace, together with a heat recovery system fulfilling the requirement for saving energy. Slurry can be combusted at a low operating cost without creating any secondary pollution while also recovering waste heat. Benefits of this system are:
  • Eliminates the need for repairing refractory materials, thus resulting in lower maintenance costs;
  • The temperature can be raised and lowered easily and quickly; and
  • Minimizes radiation heat loss.

Contact: Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., Japan.



Recycling industrial wastewater for potable use

Aquabio Ltd., the United Kingdom, is offering technology for recycling wastewater from food processing facilities into a usable commodity. This process integrates an advanced membrane bioreactor (AMBR) with reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet disinfection treatment. The company has designed and installed turnkey wastewater treatment and reuse facilities at food production plants. These projects were developed to cope with increasing demands for water reuse, driven by high costs for both potable water supply and disposal costs, when discharging wastewater into sewers.

AMBR is a high-performance and robust biological technology that requires a small footprint and yields treated water suitable for direct feed to an RO process to allow water reuse. The configuration includes the use of jet aeration within the bioreactor and external cross-flow type ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for biomass separation. Use of the JETOX system (jet aeration) within the bioreactor delivers high oxygen transfer rates via easily accessible and low maintenance equipment. It also allows separate control of air injection and reactor mixing uses, resulting in significantly reduced power use for processes with high fluctuations in reactor feed load, typical of industrial effluents. The use of UF membranes for biomass separation allows the operating biomass concentrations in the bioreactor to be increased to a range of 10,000-30,0000 mg/l. As such, the bioreactor tank can be 3-10 times smaller in volume than conventional AS units.

Contact: Aquabio Ltd., Worcester, United Kingdom.



Treating wastewater from the machining industry

Wastewater from machine shops processing metallic material like iron, steel and non-ferrous metals, consists of waste cutting oil, coolant and degreasing solution utilized to clean the machined parts. Wastewater from quenching, plating and painting lines also form part of this effluent stream. In Japan, Fujikasui Engineering Co. Ltd. has developed ultrafiltration (UF) membrane separation equipment for treating the aforesaid concentrated effluents. This system does not use chemicals and separates oil from water using UF membrane process. Oil content of the filtrate can be reduced down to 3-20 mg/l. Key features include:
  • Simple to operate and maintain;
  • No sludge is generated;
  • Small installation space; and
  • Membrane, best suitable to the nature of effluent, can be chosen.

The company also offers integrated wastewater treatment equipment for handling diluted oil-containing wastewater. Although coagulating floatation equipment forms the main component of this procedure, biological COD and BOD treatment and advanced treatment activated carbon adsorption and even ozone oxidation are employed as per requirements.

Contact: Fujikasui Engineering Co. Ltd., 1-4-3, Higashi-gotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3445 1711; Fax: +81 (3) 3445 6400



Treating wastewater from the semi- conductor industry

Ionics, the United States, offers an advanced wastewater solution for the semiconductor industry. EnChem is a proven solution to concurrently address environmental and financial aspects of industrial water treatment, with performance exceeding industry standards by removing over 99 per cent of the contaminating materials. Based on a proprietary polymer process, EnChem solution enables selective filtration of both dissolved and suspended pollutants for subsisting and next-generation semiconductor processes. EnChem helps boost a facilitys recycle/reuse goals, moving closer to the reality of zero liquid discharge.
ChemManager, a computer-based application, supports complete data acquisition and control of the entire EnChem treatment process, offering the following benefits:
  • Colour touch screen with intuitive graphical user interface;
  • Full automation using a reliable PLC system;
  • Automated control and process stability over a wide range of process parameters (concentration, pH, gpm, NTU);
  • PC-based ChemManager for full SCADA functionality;
  • Automatic alerting and paging to support personnel;
  • Various system communication interfaces (digital I/O, Ethernet and RS232);
  • Gateway to the companys remote support; and
  • Help-cum-training-cum-troubleshooting guide.

Contact: Ionics, Microelectronics Centre, 4101, East Wood Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85040, the United States. Tel: +1 (602) 4371 355; Fax: +1 (602) 4379 540



Treatment and valorization of winery wastewater

Researchers in France are studying a biophysical process for treating and valorizing winery wastewater. ECCF technology blends ethanol stripping with a final concentration by evaporation. An analysis of the composition of winery wastewater has shown the large, dominant part of ethanol in the organic load (75-99 per cent of the COD). According to a linear correlation between COD and ethanol concentration, by finding the concentration of ethanol it is possible to estimate the organic load of winery wastewater.

Complete treatment by stripping and concentration at a pilot plant allows separation of wastewater into highly purified water (COD elimination > 99 per cent), concentrated alcoholic solution useable as biofuel and a concentrated by-product. Stripping alone represents beneficial pretreatment of winery effluent streams. The purification efficiency reaches 78-85 per cent and ethanol is recovered. The process facilitates discharge into a sewage system in view of treatment with domestic effluents and can also improve the efficiency of overloaded or outdated purification plants. The economical approach of this method demonstrates its competitiveness in comparison with biological treatments low energy consumption and no sludge.

Contact: Mr. T. Colin, Evatex SAS, 26 rue Gay Lussac, 59147, Gondecourt, France; Or Mr. A. Bories, I.N.R.A., Unite Experimentale de Pech Rouge, 11430, Gruissan, France.



Wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation

Osaka Gas Engineering Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering OG wet catalytic oxidation process for treating highly concentrated wastewaters bearing ammonia (NH3), organics, etc. In this method, wastewater fed to a heat exchanger at high pressure, along with air from the compressor, is heated up by hot effluent from the reactor. At a certain temperature and pressure, NH3, organics and other contaminants are decomposed into carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen gas, etc., by the catalyst. Effluent quality depends on reaction temperature, pressure and the time of retention. Advanced treatment is feasible by setting an appropriate condition of reaction. Reactor effluent is cooled down and separated into exhaust and effluent after heat recovery. Key benefits of this process include:
  • Advanced treatment by a single process that is less cost intensive;
  • Nitrogen removal together with COD and BOD;
  • Simultaneous disinfection as well as decolourization of NOx, SOx and odour in the exhaust;
  • Simple and stable reaction; and
  • Compact size.

Contact: Osaka Gas Engineering Co. Limited, Japan.




Recovering lead from battery slag

In Australia, researchers at CSIRO Minerals have been working with a small secondary lead smelter, which collects and recycles spent lead-acid batteries, for characterizing its waste lead slag and design methods to recover residual lead from it. The current procedure generates about 6,000 t/y of lead slag. According to Project Leader Mr. Warren Bruckard, spent batteries are reprocessed by removing the plastic casing and smelting the contents to recover lead. However, the smelting process also produces a waste slag product that contains 5-10 per cent residual lead. The slags heavy metal content makes disposal in specialized landfill sites imperative. Also, the slag composition is complex. Lead can occur in five different forms and as such characterization of the slag is a crucial step.

The team has developed a two-fold recovery strategy that involves reclaiming coarse and fine lead separately. Coarse lead is recovered by a grinding and screening process. Leads malleability means it forms large flattened plates or discs when pulverized, making its subsequent removal by screening quite simple. Fine lead is recovered by floatation.


Lithium recovery

In Japan, a team of researchers has developed a method to recover lithium from batteries containing lithium, e.g. lithium ion secondary battery. In this new process, the battery is dissolved using an acidic liquid. An alkaline material is added to the lithium solution thus obtained to convert a transition metal, which may be dissolved in the solution, into a metal hydroxide precipitation whereby the precipitate is isolated from the solution. Lithium solution is dried to obtain a solid containing the lithium, which is then eluted from the solid utilizing a non-aqueous solvent. Retrieving lithium from the lithium eluate is accomplished by means of a cation exchanger.


Metal recovery from batteries

Varta Batterie Aktiengesellschaft, Germany, has developed a process for recovering metals from used rare earth/metal/nickel hydride storage batteries. Mechanically comminuted scrap battery is divided into a coarse fraction and a fine fraction capable of being treated separately from one another. The new process involves:
  • Digesting and dissolving the fine fraction with a mixture of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide;
  • Precipitating aluminium and iron by further raising the pH; and
  • Solvent extraction of metals to separate nickel and cobalt, which remain in the aqueous phase from other metals that are extracted into the organic phase.

Optionally, nickel and cobalt can be separated from each other and, if necessary, the mixed-metal rare earth component, which has been recovered, can be melted together with cobalt and nickel alloy for the fabrication of new batteries.


Chemical route for treating battery waste sites

EM&C Engineering Associates, the United States, provides a chemical treatment process for cleaning up battery waste sites. However, the oxidation/reduction technology is limited to wastes existing at waste battery sites contaminated by lead, battery paste, plastic and acid, or equivalent scenarios.

Generally, the soil at a site where batteries are broken and the parts separated for recycling/disposal will be contaminated mostly with acids. As such, the soil is treated in situ by neutralization using alkali (lime, ammonia, etc.). The company has wide experience in soil conditioning using gypsum, lime and ammonia at battery recycling plants. EM&Cs technology is cost-effective and does not lead to any harmful by-products. Potential components recovered by the process, lead and plastic, can be easily recycled.

Contact: EM&C Engineering Associates, # 1665, Scenic Avenue, Suite 104, Costa Mesa, CA 92626, United States of America. Tel: +1 (714) 9576 429; Fax: +1 (714) 9576 414.


Reclaiming value from lithium batteries

Citron SA, France, specializes in the recovery of metals such as zinc, cadmium and lead from cells and storage batteries. The novel process comprises treating cells/batteries in a heat-reducing atmosphere, or pyrolysis. The lithium batteries are introduced into the pyrolysis load, which mainly contains zinc-carbon and aluminium-manganese cells. The risk of these batteries violently reacting with others is prevented by sorting the large components and restricting the number of lithium batteries included in the batch at the pre-processing stage.

Contact: Citron SA, Port Sud de Havre, Route des Gabions BP 51, 76700 Rogerville, France. Tel: +33 (232) 927 200; Fax: +33 (232) 927 272




Dry selective catalytic NOx removal system

Japans Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Limited has designed several selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for industrial and utility boilers, diesel engines and gas turbines as high-performance and reliable nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal systems. These units are based on a simple principle: adding ammonia to flue gas, which passes through the catalyst layers, thereby decomposing NOx into harmless nitrogen and steam. Key features of a SCR system are listed below:
  • Easy to operate;
  • Compact design and low cost of installation;
  • The catalyst and reactor can be selected to suit individual needs;
  • Stable supply of catalysts; and
  • No risk of secondary pollution.

A SCR system could be designed with 10,000~3,000,000 m3N/h of processing capacity at a DeNOx efficiency of 30~95 per cent for gases at temperatures of 200 to 600C. Contact: Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Japan.



De-NOx technology

SeShin Electronics Co. Ltd., the Republic of Korea, offers selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process for converting nitrogen oxides (NOx) present in flue gas emanating from power facilities, municipal incinerators and boilers into nitrogen and water. Ammonia (NH3) is employed as the reduction catalyst, through a highly stable and efficient process. Key technology features include:
  • Improved removal efficiency and treatment of NOx in the flue gas Produces titanium dioxide (TiO2), an antase type that includes sulphur and increases the catalyst activity while also enhancing the NOx conversion rate; and
  • Production of highly active and durable catalysts from low-priced materials Mixed TiO2 with binder is extracted into a honeycomb and backed by vanadium pentoxide and then calcined. The strength of these honeycomb catalysts is very high.

Up to 90 per cent NOx conversion rate at 330C is feasible utilizing KEPOSE. Also, this technology is cheaper than comparable systems.

Contact: SeShin Electronics Co. Ltd., 866-1, Habook-dong, Jungup city, Jeonbook, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (63) 5315 680; Fax: +82 (63) 5315 683




Removing hazardous gases and dust

H&CN Co. Ltd., Korea, is offering ceramic filter technology to concurrently remove hazardous gases and dust. The catalyst-impregnated ceramic filter is used to treat nitrogen oxides (NOx), acid chemicals and dust by injecting absorbents into the inflow duct. Salient features and benefits of this technology include:
  • Dust removal Life span of the filter is extended by employing high wear and tear resistant material. The filter is very light and has a highly porous (80-90 per cent) structure. Filtering rate of this unit is thrice that of existing textured fabric filters;
  • Hazardous gas removal This process exhibits rapid reaction at high temperature and has the same NOx removal efficiency as existing SCR processes. Recombustion is eliminated and use of lime results in the formation of a cake;
  • Costs related with maintenance of the plant as well as the required area are reduced as a result of the possibility of using a simultaneous high-temperature treatment together with this compact equipment; and
  • Application of chemically stable materials facilitate safe operation and maintenance of this process.


Contact: H&CN Co. Limited, City Building # 303, 1138-3, Sanbon, Kunpo city, Kyunggi do, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (31) 3992 186; Fax: +82 (31) 3992 101




Removing SOx

The Korea Electric Power Research Institute is offering KEPAR De-SOx technology. KEPAR technology is based on a new type of wet limestone flue gas desulphurization that uses a unique sieve plate. This reactor integrates the features of a double-loop column and a sieve tray in a unique manner to achieve gas/liquid contact and removal of sulphur oxides (SOx). The liquid that absorbs SOx flows over an overflow weir to the bottom of the reactor. To keep the reaction level steady, the same amount of freshly absorbed liquid ascends through a pipe to the sieve plate, all of which is achieved without a recirculation pump. This process thus continues to absorb SOx from the gas stream.
KEPAR technology achieves SOx removal efficiency of 90-95 per cent, apart from dust removal efficiency exceeding 90 per cent. High-quality gypsum is obtained as by-product (over 95 per cent, 60-70 m). KEPAR unit is compact and offers a viable economic flue gas desulphurization solution to heavy industries.

Contact: The Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Water and Environment Group, 103-16, Munji dong, Yuseong gu, Daejeon city, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (42) 8655 480; Fax: +82 (42) 8655 304




Treating hot waste gas streams

Thermal Energy International Inc., Canada, offers FLU-ACE products and solutions, which provide the combined benefit of efficient heat recovery and effective air pollution control. Over two dozen FLU-ACE designs have been conceptualized and supported by rigorous computer modelling. FLU-ACE efficiently removes multiple contaminants at the same time, e.g. fine particulates (fly-ash, dust, soot and heavy metals), hydrocarbons and toxic VOCs, acid gases and greenhouse gases. This product line and technology is very flexible and versatile, as well as applicable and adaptable to any hot waste gas or industrial process vent gas streams.

The patented THERMALONOx process stands out as revolutionary and an exceptional environmental technology breakthrough, efficiently and cost-effectively removing up to 90 per cent of nitrogen oxides (NOx) as both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In the first stage of the two-step process, gas phase chemical reaction converts NO into NO2 through a compact gas reactor. The second step involves the FLU-ACE system for the removal of 98 per cent of NO2 that is absorbed and dissolved into the water as nitrates, which are non-hazardous and can be recycled as a commercial fertilizer. A unique feature of this process is that the NO-to-NO2 reactor could easily be adapted for upgrading any existing wet scrubber APC technology into an APC/THERMALONOx system. Though conventional wet scrubber technology is not as efficient as FLU-ACE for removing NO2 in the second step, other wet scrubbers can offer good solutions.

Contact: Thermal Energy Intl. Inc., 36, Bentley Ave., Ottawa, Ontario K2E 6T8, Canada. Tel: +1 (613) 72367 76; Fax: +1 (613) 7237 286.


Wet type HCl and SOx removal

Takuma Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering technology for removing hydrogen chloride (HCl) and sulphur oxides (SOx). Exhaust gas is washed by water neutralized with caustic soda, in this wet type system. The system incorporates a spray tower and a filling tower. A dehumidifying layer is essential for plume prevention. It has a high efficiency of removing HCl and SOx.

Exhaust gas from the incineration furnace passes via a dust collector where the particulate content is removed. It is then fed to the spray tower where the temperature is got down to a saturated level. Exhaust gas then goes into the filling tower. The washing water is neutralized with caustic soda at a value of pH 7 or lesser. Contact: Takuma Co. Ltd., Japan.


Eliminating NOx

Takuma Co. Limited, Japan, offers a selective catalytic reduction system for nitrogen oxides (NOx). This model reduces NOx into nitrogen gas in the catalyst tower by mixing ammonia with the exhaust at a temperature of 200C. The catalyst tower is set up after the dust collector.

In this system, dilute ammonia is mixed with air prior to injection into the exhaust gas. Ammonia can be supplied in an aqueous state or by liquefied ammonia cylinders or a liquefied ammonia reservoir. About 50-95 per cent of NOx can be removed. A honeycomb type catalyst is used.

Contact: Takuma Co. Ltd., Japan.



Regenerative thermal oxidation

In the United Kingdom, Lesni A/S Air Purification Engineering designs and furnishes turnkey packages, which include thermal and catalytic oxidizers with heat recovery. Two- and three-bed chamber regenerative thermal oxidizers and liquid waste incinerators are also provided. These systems are based on the principle of thermal oxidation to convert airborne volatile organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water vapour. Over 99 per cent purification can be achieved with very little energy use, owing to high thermal efficiency and heat recovery of the system.

Lesni system fuses very efficient regenerative heat recovery with high VOC destruction and control. Heat from the combustion of solvents in the vertical chamber is generally adequate to provide the necessary energy for the process to continue without additional fuel consumption.

Contact: Lesni A/S Air Purification Engineering, 109, Darnick Road, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands B73 6PG, United Kingdom. Tel/Fax: +44 (121) 3553 162/6287 847.



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