VATIS Update Waste Management . May-Jun 2011

Register FREE
for additional services
Download PDF
Waste Management May-Jun 2011

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

Editorial Board
Latest Issues
New and Renewable
VATIS Update Non-conventional Energy Oct-Dec 2017
VATIS Update Biotechnology Oct-Dec 2017
VATIS Update Waste Management Oct-Dec 2016
VATIS Update Food Processing Oct-Dec 2016
Ozone Layer
VATIS Update Ozone Layer Protection Sep-Oct 2016
Asia-Pacific Tech Monitor Oct-Dec 2014




India gets its e-waste management rules

India’s Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has put the onus of recycling of electronic wastes (e-waste) on the producers in its first e-waste management rules. The E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 recognises the liability of producers for reducing and recycling e-waste in the country. The Rules, which will come under the Environment Protection Act (EPA), will come into effect on 1 May 2012.

Under the new Rules, manufacturers of personal computers, mobile handsets and white goods will be required to come up with e-waste collection centres or introduce ‘take back’ schemes. Producers of electrical and electronic equipment will have a breathing period of one year to set up their collection centres. Producers will have to make consumers aware of the hazardous components present in the product and the dos and don’ts for handling the equipment after its use.

The Rules hold bulk consumers such as enterprises and government responsible for recycling the e-waste generated by them. Bulk users have to channelize their e-waste to authorized collection centres or to the producers. They also have to maintain records of e-waste generated by them and make those records available to State Pollution Control Boards or Committees.

The State Pollution Control Board will be required to prepare annual reports, based on the data received from consumers with regard to the implementation of these rules, and submit the reports to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) by 30 September every year. CPCB will have to prepare a consolidated annual review, based on state-level reports, on management of e-waste and forward it to the government, together with its recommendations, by 30 December every year.

Sri Lanka steps up e-waste collection

The Central Environment Authority (CEA) of Sri Lanka expects to collect 5,000 tonnes of e-waste by the end of 2011. Mr. Charitha Herath, the Chairman of CEA, revealed that the 14 organizations working with CEA have collected 3,000 tonnes of e-waste thus far – 1,000 tonnes more than the quantity collected in 2010. The main purpose of the exercise is to get rid of the hazardous waste that pollutes the environment and causes serious illnesses.

Mr. Herath said that to manage the upcoming disastrous situation due to improper management of electronic waste, CEA has taken steps to launch national level programmes for managing e-waste in the country. Some of the private companies involved in selling and assembling of electronic equipment in Sri Lanka – including Sri Lanka Telecom, Mobitel, Dialog, Etiselat, Hutch, Lanka Bell, Metropolitan, E-Wis, Virtusa, Geo Cycle and Green link – have all joined hands with CEA in the e-waste collection drive.

Recycling projects in China get allowance

According to the Ministry of Commerce of China, about 18 recycling projects of renewable resources in Wuhan city will get financial allowance from the local government. The projects include recycle bins, sorting and processing centres, dismantling centres, etc. The allowance is, in principle, not more than 50 per cent of the total investment of the subsidy object. A pilot project has been launched at the beginning of this year by the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Finance, aiming to construct recycling systems for renewable resources. Ten cities will get large support from the project and Wuhan is one of them. The city will receive 49 million yen (US$7.69 million) from the central government.

Enforcement of waste management law in Nepal

Nepal’s Ministry of Local Development (MoLD) is preparing to enforce the Solid Waste Management Act, 2011 in the country. A five-member committee that is already constituted will draft a regulation for the implementation of the Act, the Solid Waste Management and Technical Support Centre (SWMTSC) reports. “We are working to implement the Act with an advocacy campaign,” informed Dr. Sumitra Amatya, the Executive Director of SWMTSC, adding that the Nepal Law Commission has decided to enforce the law from 15 June 2011.

On 26 May 2011, Nepal’s Parliament approved the bill of Waste Management Act that provisions jail term of up to three months for those who disrupt waste disposal. The Act, drafted three years ago, seeks to enforce waste segregation at homes, recognition of waste management as one of the most urgent state services, public-private partnership for waste management, treatment of hazardous waste by producers themselves and environment protection, among others.

Dr. Amatya said that SWMTSC is launching a campaign for the stakeholders and the public through different media, including television and newspapers, to raise awareness on the new law.

Philippines collects tonnes of bulbs and batteries

In the Philippines, the Makati City government and private developers of Zuellig Building have collected 1.58 tonnes of light bulbs and batteries – considered hazardous waste – in the first month of their public awareness campaign to make the city mercury-free or “Hg-free”. “Hg-free Makati” is a public awareness campaign that advocates proper collection and disposal of mercury-containing used electric bulbs and batteries.

In a press briefing, Mr. Daniel Zuellig, Director of Bridgebury Realty Corporation and developer of Zuellig Building, said the campaign is their contribution to the business district that aimed to achieve an environmentally responsible and sustainable future that benefits both its citizens and the planet. “The safety of our community and betterment of the environment are top priority for the city of Makati. As Environment Month comes to a close, we intend to continually encourage the public to make eco-friendly choices on a daily basis,” said Makati City Mayor, Mr. Jejomar ‘Jun-Jun’ Binay. To encourage the households and office building operators in Makati, specially designed recycling bins are installed in the Makati City Hall and Zuellig Building. Used and unbroken light bulbs, fluorescent light tubes, small batteries used for toys and home appliances, as well as mobile phone and laptop batteries may be deposited at any of these points. Innovative Technology Environmental Solutions, a waste management facility accredited by the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources, ensures environmental compliance by using a “bulb eater” to safely contain the mercury found in each of the bulbs and tubes. Other materials such as glass and metal are then recycled.

Viet Nam gets its first hi-tech waste testing station

Viet Nam’s first automatic sewage testing station was opened recently in Binh Duong province to monitor effluent discharged from industrial zones in the province. The station cost 28 billion dong (US$1.4 million) to build. The Binh Duong Department of Natural Resources and Environment has plans to install automatic sewage testing equipment in six industrial zones. The Department has also named 15 enterprises that will have to get automatic waste testing equipment so that environmental officials are able to monitor discharges around the clock.

According to Mr. Nguyen Van Kiem, the Department’s Deputy Director, the automatic station will help reduce the number of enterprises that set up waste water treatment systems just to satisfy the demands of inspectors, and do not operate and maintain them properly. It also helps reduce inspectors’ time and effort, as they could check sewage output continuously without having to make personal visits, he said.

The Department plans to propose that the provincial People’s Committee give technical guidance to firms on how to install automatic sewage testing systems. It will ask 50 more enterprises that discharge large quantities of wastewater to install the testing equipment. With the automatic sewage testing station, the province expected to be able to closely monitor 60 per cent of all wastewater being discharged by firms, Mr. Kiem said.

Help for Pakistan’s industrial waste management

Pollution Engineering Malaysia and Cleaner Production Centre (CPC) Sialkot, Pakistan, have agreed to join hands to help the local industries in waste management. Sialkot is home to mainly export-oriented tanneries, sports and surgical tools industries. Waste management will enable these industries to control pollution and help them meet the environmental clauses of the global trade regime.

Under the agreement, Sialkot’s business community will receive technical assistance from the Malaysian company on industrial wastewater treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste management, combined effluent treatment plant, hospital waste incineration, air emissions control and green energy. Clean production techniques are very effective and there is a need to introduce and implement these across Pakistan because 90 per cent of leather industry consists of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which use conventional processing methods that involve huge amount of pollutants, observed Mr. Muhammad Younas, Chairman of Pakistan Gloves Manufacturers and Exporters Association. He added that cleaner production techniques would reduce pollution by around 40 to 50 per cent in the leather industry and improve the quality of the product besides helping to save costs.

Privatization of solid waste management in Malaysia

The privatization of solid waste management in Peninsular Malaysia will be completed on 1 September 2011 when the Solid Waste and Urban Cleansing Management Act, 2007 comes into effect. Datuk Chor Chee Heung, Housing and Local Government Minister, explained that as per the Act, all solid waste collection and urban cleaning services in Peninsular Malaysia would be under the purview of the three concessionaires overseeing three zones.

Datuk Chor said the Act would enforce four key provisions: the sorting of waste at the source; reusing and recycling of waste products; the take-back system; and the deposit repayment system. “The Act will not only mark the official privatization of solid waste management, but mandatory good household waste management practices.” The Act’s scope, he said, was limited to the provision of household solid waste collection services and public cleaning services, including road, drain and beach cleanliness and garbage heaps. The move does not include building or operation of solid waste disposal facilities. Enforcement of the Act will be supervised by the Solid Waste and Urban Cleaning Management Corporation.

Sustainability research award for Singapore universities

In Singapore, 10 students from Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and National University of Singapore (NUS) received cash awards of US$10,000 each for being their university’s top five completed doctoral theses related to the environment, sustainability and metropolis of the future. The award, given by the World Future Foundation (WFF), is the highest cash award among student prizes given out at Singapore universities.

One of the theses is on how antibiotic residues could be removed from wastewater using activated carbon granules specially covered with a biofilm of microbes that can break down the antibiotic chemicals into harmless products. The technology was developed by Ms. Sally, an NTU doctoral student. The development comes as global concerns persist over the possible negative effects of antibiotics on the aquatic ecosystem and human health.

Another Ph.D. student, Mr. Mano Kalaiarasan from NUS, studied how traffic-generated fine particles and nitrogen dioxide can have a great impact on environmental quality and health of the population. The new findings will enable town planners, policy makers and architects to bring about better planning of township and designing of naturally ventilated buildings, which in turn reduce potential health risks of the residents.

India moves to control import of used computers

In India, the Customs Department will ensure that used computers are not imported without a nod from the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF). The direction from Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC) assumes significance in the wake of reports that e-waste such as used computers, cathode ray tube (CRT), random access memory (RAM), and electrical and electronic assemblies are being dumped in a big way in the country.

“We must ensure that India does not become a destination for dumping junk electronic products,”says CBEC. Import and export of hazardous wastes in India is regulated by the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary) Rules, 2008. India allows import of electrical and electronic assemblies for direct re-use and not for recycling or final disposal. Besides, as per the rule, import of used computers requires the permission of MoEF.

China’s new rules to regulate solid waste importation

China has tightened its supervision over solid waste importation, with the recent introduction of the Regulation on Managing Import of Solid Waste. The Regulation has banned dumping as well as treatment of solid waste from overseas in China, and transferring hazardous solid waste through China. It has also prohibited imports of solid waste that cannot be used as raw materials or pose a serious risk to the environment. The regulation also stipulates that enterprises engaged in processing imported solid waste should carry out daily monitoring to prevent pollution during the processing.

The regulation was jointly issued by the Ministries of Environmental Protection and of Commerce, National Development and Reform Commission, and General Administrations of Customs and of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine. A notice posted on the website of the Ministry of Environmental Protection says that in 2010, China imported over 40 million tonnes of solid waste that could be used as raw materials.


Process turns plastic waste into fuel

A Canadian company, JBI Inc., has developed a process that utilizes waste plastics as a feedstock and turns them into fuel. JBI’s Plastic2Oil process starts with a variety of unwashed post-commercial and industrial non-recyclable plastics, which are fed through a shredder and a granulator. The system can handle up to 816.5 kg of input at a time. The waste plastic material is then heated in a process chamber, after which it proceeds into the main reactor. There, a proprietary reusable catalyst helps crack the plastic’s hydrocarbons into shorter hydrocarbon chains, which exit the reactor in a gaseous state. Those gases are captured, compressed and stored.

Gases containing petrol and diesel can be condensed and separated, and the resulting liquid fuel then temporarily stored in tanks. Methane, ethane, butane and propane “off-gas” out of those tanks, and are subsequently compressed and stored themselves. Butane and propane liquefy upon compression, allowing them to be separated and stored, while the others are used to help power the system. Emissions that escape into the atmosphere are said to be less than those that would be produced by a conventional gas furnace.

The entire process, for one full load, reportedly takes less than an hour. According to JBI, about 90 per cent of the plastic’s hydrocarbon content is captured and converted into fuel. Approximately two per cent of the feedstock is left over as waste, which can be removed while the system is operating. It can then be dumped in a landfill or burned for fuel, as it has a good heating value (24,656 kJ/kg). Contact: JBI Inc., 1783 Allanport Road, Thorold, Ontario, Canada L0S 1K0. Tel: +1 (905) 384 4383; Fax: +1 (905) 384 0076.

Innovative container recycling process

The United States Army recently completed a project that resulted in recycling more than 3 million kilograms of steel. In September 2003, Chemical Materials Agency (CMA) of the Army began operating the Container Decontamination Facility at Pine Bluff Arsenal to decontaminate containers that were stored at the arsenal. Although empty, the 725 kg steel containers once held hazardous materials and required decontamination to eliminate possible residual chemical agent prior to recycling.

Initial efforts to decontaminate the containers by rinsing them did not succeed, as the residual chemical agent proved difficult to remove, and a new approach had to be found. When faced with producing an additional 2.5 million litres of hazardous liquid waste to rinse the containers, the CMA personnel designed a magnetic induction heating process to decontaminate up to 10 containers simultaneously. This not only generated significantly less waste but also thoroughly decontaminated the containers so they could be processed through a commercial recycling plant.

The process employed an electrically energized copper coil, wrapped around the container, to generate a magnetic field that was absorbed by the iron in the container. This increased the container temperature to about 540°C, where it was held for 60 minutes. Heating to 540°C destroyed all chemical agents. The decontamination process also featured a carefully designed pollution abatement system to capture any residual material vented from the containers.

New method to recycle polystyrene

Switchable Solutions Inc. of Canada says it is attempting to change the way plastic is recycled through a pilot plant prepared to test a new process of reusing the polystyrene used to make coffee cups, packing material and food trays. The company’s industrial-scale pilot plant will begin operation in around a year’s time and should be able to recycle about 2,000 tonnes of polystyrene per year in a complex process that the firms says is considerably more environmentally friendly than the methods practised at present.

Polystyrene is much more difficult to recycle than other materials because it contains a high amount of air and is often contaminated with food waste as well as chemicals, says Mr. Philip Jessop, a chemistry professor from Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada, who is also the man behind the new technology. Mr. Jessop stresses that most current recycling methods require heat solvents in order for them to work, while his solvent, which is reusable, only needs exposure to ambient temperature conditions, in addition to carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Recycling technology for flexible laminates

Enval, an environmental technology solutions company located in the United Kingdom, is constructing its first commercial-scale plant for the recycling of plastic and aluminium-based laminates. Enval’s patented technology is said to offer a genuine recycling route for flexible laminate packaging that to date has not been recyclable. The technology separates the material into its constituent components, producing clean aluminium ready for introduction into secondary aluminium supply chain and hydrocarbons that can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock. The company says that the process is economically and environmentally feasible and offers a much more beneficial outcome for waste that would otherwise be sent to landfill or incinerated.

The technology is based on microwave-induced pyrolysis that allows the waste to be treated in the absence of oxygen. Unlike incineration, pyrolysis takes place without the combustion of the waste, avoiding the production of toxic emissions or greenhouse gases. Furthermore, since the process uses microwave energy as the source of heat, Enval says the process can be carbon-neutral. The Enval process opens the way for packaging systems such as pouches for drinks and pet food, aseptic drink cartons and laminate tubes to be completely recycled.

PET plastic decontamination recycling technology

The BePET™ system from Bepex International LLC, the United States, allows the decontamination of PET flakes to high standards, while at the same time controlling the final product intrinsic viscosity (IV) requirement, regardless of incoming feed IV level. The system allows IV to be adjusted up, down, or maintain at the input level without loss of throughput. The BePET flake-to-flake rPET decontamination system exceeds the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for categories C through H at 100 per cent recycled PET content.

The modular component design of the BePET system allows for easy integration with upstream and downstream post-consumer resin PET bottle process operations. A total control system provides full automation for seamless processing and reduced labour costs. The BePET process is claimed to be stable, efficient and reliable – with no high-cost/high-maintenance vacuum or extrusion decontamination needed. Additionally, the proprietary design is said to promote uniform plug flow and minimize the potential for short circuiting. Contact: Bepex International LLC, 333 N.E. Taft Street, Minneapolis, MN 55413, United States of America. Tel: +1 (612) 331 4370; Fax: +1 (612) 627 1444.

Turning used plastic bottles into new ones

Two Japanese companies have succeeded in developing a new system that recycles used PET bottles into high-quality material suitable for new bottles. Suntory Holdings Ltd. and Kyoei Industry Co. said that the new production process can minimize the quantity of petroleum used and also cut carbon dioxide emissions. The system for recycling used PET bottles is based on a method that removes impurities that get embedded on the inner surface of used plastic bottles but are too small to see with the naked eye.

Used PET bottles are first sorted in Kyoei’s plant before subjecting them to a total of 25 processes, including crushing them into small pieces and washing with alkaline fluids, to remove contaminants from them. Thereafter, Kyoei employs a machine that generates a “vacuum condition very close to that of the stratosphere”. As a result, chemicals and other substances are fully removed from the resin, which then gets recycled into a high-quality material that is suitable for making new bottles.

Suntory’s plant has started using the recycled resin on a test basis. The plant uses 50 per cent of Kyoei resin and 40 per cent of other recycled materials to produce two-litre PET bottles for oolong tea. Suntory test-produced about 10 tonnes of recycled plastic bottles to confirm the safety of the material, and then tested them on such points as whether the taste or fragrance of a drink remains unchanged, even after storage in bottles for several months at extremely high temperatures, and whether the bottles show cracks or dents. After the recycled bottles cleared these standard tests, the companies have put the bottles to commercial use.


Rare earth recycling from rechargeable batteries

Umicore, with its headquarters in Belgium, and Rhodia, located in France, have jointly developed a process for recycling rare earth elements from nickel metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries. The new recycling process combines the capabilities of Umicore’s proprietary Ultra High Temperature (UHT) battery recycling process with Rhodia’s rare earth refining competence. The process can service the full range of NiMH batteries, from the ones for portable applications to those for hybrid electric vehicles.

The process will help recover rare earths from NiMH batteries that will be treated at Umicore’s new battery recycling plant in Hoboken, Belgium. After the separation of nickel and iron from the rare earths, Umicore will process the rare earths into a high-grade concentrate that will be refined and then formulated into rare earth materials at Rhodia’s plant in La Rochelle, France. A typical NiMH battery contains around 7 per cent of rare earth elements such as cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium. This equates to about 1 g of rare earth for a AAA battery, 60 g for a household power tool battery and 2 kg for a hybrid electric vehicle battery.

Pre-treatment of waste PCBs for liberation of metals

Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, the Republic of Korea, has secured a United States patent on a method for liberating and recovering valuable metals contained in printed circuit boards (PCBs) from obsolete electronic equipment. The method liberates metals and plastic laminate in crushed PCBs using an organic solvent and then separates and recovers the liberated metal components employing an electrostatic separation process. The invention is claimed to minimize the pre-process steps, reduce process equipment space and recover 99.99 per cent of the metals.

Preferably, the organic solvent used is N,N-dimethylformamide, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, stripoxy or a combination of these, and more preferably N,N-dimethylformamide. To separate the metal and non-metal components, 70-120 g of crushed waste PCB pieces are put into 1 litre of the organic solvent and stirred well at a temperature of 110°-140°C and at 800-1,200 rpm for 30-120 minutes.

Oxygen torch waste reclamation system

Mr. James R. Akridge, an inventor based in United States, has filed an application for patenting a process and system for removing metals from waste, particularly e-waste. The process generally includes the steps of dissolving at least some of the metals from the waste in nitric acid (dissolution reagent) and then causing those metals to precipitate as metal oxides and/or metal nitrates. The process and system may also reclaim and reuse the nitrous oxide liberated from nitric acid dissolution of components of the waste, thus regenerating nitric acid.

The invention uses nitric acid to dissolve most metals (excluding gold and platinum, which can still be reclaimed utilizing the process of the invention) and destroys or cleans non-metallic components that are placed in the nitric acid bath. The insoluble but clean material (such as plastic and glass) not dissolved by the nitric acid can be separated by filtration or other suitable process and reused or disposed. The invention is claimed to avoid the high installation cost of the Ostwald process for producing nitric acid. Potassium/sodium permanganate may be used for the re-oxidation of the solvent decomposition products to regenerate nitric acid.

Fluorescent lighting tubes can also be recycled by this method. When the light bulb is placed in the nitric acid bath, the resulting solution contains metal phosphorus, glass and mercury. Phosphorus and mercury can be precipitated and reused and the cleaned glass can be filtered from the nitric acid bath and reused. Contact: Mr. James R. Akridge, 4435 South Paseo Melodioso, Tucson, AZ 85730, United States of America.

Printed circuit board recycling equipment

Henan Province Sanxing Machinery Co. Ltd., China, offers equipment for recycling printed circuit boards (PCBs) from discarded home appliances, computers and other electronic products to extract the reusable metals. The PCB recycling equipment employs advanced mechanical grinding and high-voltage electrostatic separation. The energy saving process (reportedly 50 per cent energy saving) is claimed to have a high metal separation rate and to yield metals of high purity. Contact: Mr. Aiqing Zhang, Henan Province Sanxing Machinery Co. Ltd., Xigang Industrial Park, Zhengshang Road, Zhengzhou City, Henan, China 450042. Tel: +86 (371) 67842763; Fax: +86 (371) 67842730.


Dialyser recycling pilot project

In the United States, DaVita Inc., a leading kidney care services provider, is leveraging the expertise of WM Healthcare Solutions Inc. and Becton, Dickinson & Company (BD) to launch a dialyser recycling pilot project in 106 DaVita dialysis clinics in Southern California. This project, with the potential to offset around 159 tonnes of dialysis waste, is expected to be the first of its kind in North America.

The dialyser recycling pilot project builds on business solutions developed by BD and WM through the BD ecoFinity™ Life Cycle Solution programme, which DaVita is also launching in the 106 pilot facilities. With the BD ecoFinity programme, single-use medical sharps devices, such as needles and syringes, are collected on site, then treated and processed by WM to recover all reusable materials. BD then uses the recycled plastic to make new BD container products. The dialyser recycling pilot follows a similar process: WM will treat and recover recyclable materials from the dialysers, and then BD plans to use the recycled plastic to make new BD products for other applications, creating a closed-loop waste recovery solution of recyclable materials.

Patented device for decontamination of hospital waste

Series 125-Ecosteryl, from AMB - Ecosteryl in Belgium, is a medium-sized equipment – average of 250 tonnes per year depending on the type of waste – designed for decontaminating hazardous waste in situ in hospitals. The process consists of grinding the waste and heating the ground material by microwaves system at 100°C. The automatic and continuous system is 100 per cent ecological system without producing any emission or effluent. Following treatment with Ecosteryl, the contaminated hazardous waste falls in the same category as household garbage and can be transported to landfill or bunt in conventional incinerator. The system is approved by Pasteur Institute, France, and recognized by the French Ministry of health.

The main features of 125-Ecosteryl are:

  • Processing capacity of up to 175 kg/h;
  • Computerized monitoring and full robotic process control;
  • Continuous control of decontamination efficiency;
  • No emissions of water, steam, odour, rejects or radiation;
  • Very fine and dry final output; and
  • No need for specially trained manpower.

Contact: AMB - Ecosteryl, Avenue Wilson 622, B - 7012 Mons, Belgium. Tel: +32 (65) 822 681; Fax: +32 (65) 824 798; E-mail:

Compositions for disinfecting biohazardous waste

BASF Corporation, based in the United States, has secured a United States patent on the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complexes in combination with gelling agents to produce disinfectants, which not only physically stabilize biohazardous and infectious liquid wastes but also kill pathogens contained in the wastes. The gelling agents include super absorbent polyacyrlates.

In one aspect of the invention, the preferable concentration of the composition in a liquid waste is in the range of 0.3 to 4 per cent by weight. The composition provides superior gelling and solidifying properties at low pH, for instance, less than or equal to 4. The composition is said to kill pathogens such as bacteria and viruses that are hazardous to humans and animals. Surprisingly, it provides a 6 log kill (microbial) in 24 hours, sometimes just in about 4-6 hours.

Waste solidifying and anti-microbial composition

Viatro Corporation from the United States is patenting a chemical composition that both solidifies a liquid medical waste, such as blood and other body fluids, and reduces the number of infectious organisms in it for subsequent disposal. Solidification of medical waste ensures its containment, makes waste handling easier, prevents cross-contamination through spills, and minimizes leakage during transportation of the waste to disposal location.

The chemical compositions that are presently available for solidifying liquid medical waste do not contain agents to reduce the number of infectious organisms in the waste. The chemical composition from Viatro reduces the number of infectious organisms during the solidification process. The composition consists of a solidifying agent, a microbicidal agent, a buffering agent and may include agents to enhance release of bioactive components. Contact: Viatro Corporation, #6779 Engle Road, Cleveland, OH 44130, United States of America.


Industrial effluent treatment technology

Orège, a French company that has developed and patented wastewater treatment technologies for process industries, has received an 8 million euro investment. Climate Change Capital Private Equity (CPE) based in the United Kingdom, a 200 million euro fund dedicated to investments in clean technology companies, has contributed 6 million euros of the investment. The patented SOFHYS and patent-pending SLG wastewater treatment technologies from Orège are said to be capable of treating complex industrial effluents as well as sludge.

SOFHYS is a patented reactor combining an oxidation process using boron-doped diamond electrodes with hydrodynamic functionalities. It is claimed to be able to treat dissolved non-biodegradable pollutants such as hydrocarbons, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), amines and organosulphur compounds. Biodegrading is through breaking down long organic chains into smaller chains.

SLG is a physico-chemical system to separate physical phases – solid, liquid and gas – at standard pressures and temperatures and can be used on different industrial sludge, sediments and colloidal wastewater. The technology de-waters sludge by breaking colloids, thereby decreasing the volume of sludge to be disposed of by a factor of two to three. It also de-pollutes toxic sludge such as those containing hydrocarbons or metals. Compared to traditional de-watering technologies, the SLG reactor has low energy consumption. The resulting water from the treatment process can be reused for industrial purposes or released back into the environment.

Copper recovery from copper-electroplating wastewater

Scientists led by Mr. C. Peng at the Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ocean University of China, have developed a laboratory-scale process that combines electrolysis and electrodialysis for treating copper-containing wastewater. They determined the feasibility of the process for copper recovery as well as water reuse, and studied and optimized the effects of three parameters – voltage, initial copper ion (Cu2+) concentration, and water flux on the recovery of copper and water.

The results showed that about 82 per cent of copper could be recovered from high-concentration wastewater (HCW, >400 mg/l) by means of electrolysis, at the optimal conditions of voltage 2.5 V/cm and water flux 4 l/h, while 50 per cent of diluted water could be recycled from low-concentration wastewater (LCW, <200 mg/l) by electrodialysis, at the optimal conditions of voltage 40 V and water flux 4 l/h. However, because of the limitation of energy consumption, LCW for electrolysis and HCW for electrodialysis were not effective, and the effluent water of electrolysis and concentrated water of electrodialysis needed further treatment before discharge. To address this, the combination process of electrolysis+electrodialysis was developed to realize the recovery of copper and water simultaneously from both HCW and LCW.

The results of the electrolysis+electrodialysis process demonstrated that almost 99.5 per cent of copper and 100 per cent of water could be recovered, with energy consumption of electrolysis ~3 kWh/kg and electrodialysis ~2 kWh/m3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses showed that the purity of recovered copper was as high as 97.9 per cent. Contact: Mr. C. Peng, The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Songling Road #238, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266100, China. E-mail:

Multi-use disposable filter for industrial wastewater treatment

AbTech Holdings Inc., the United States, has completed testing on a new product for the treating hazardous contaminated wastewater. The multi-use “Smart Sponge 55” is designed as a self-contained, disposable drum filter system (18.9 l). AbTech says that there are many advantages to the new product. As each filter system is self-contained, there is no human contact with the spent filter material. The entire treatment unit can be disposed of in an appropriate disposal site as a solid waste once all the water is drained out of the unit.

Quick couplings are provided on the unit that takes only seconds to disconnect a spent unit and connect a new unit. This feature makes it ideal for conditions where worker exposure to hazardous materials is of concern. Other major advantages are that there is no need to decontaminate used equipment at the end of the project – filter drums are simply properly disposed of. The capital cost of the AbTech treatment unit is reportedly insignificant when compared to the operating costs of large fixed systems.

Protein and fuels from wastewater

An industrial plant that turns wastewater into protein for animal feed and biofuels is opening in Gloucestershire, the United Kingdom. The pilot facility, run by Aragreen and Bath University, will use sewage provided by Welsh Water to grow algae, which will then be processed into a saleable product. The company hopes that by treating water for utility companies in the process of producing the algae – as well as using waste carbon dioxide (CO2), low-energy lighting and other technology – it will lower the costs enough to make the process commercially viable.

Besides trialling a scaled-up version of techniques used in the lab, the pilot plant will also test different types of algae to find ones that efficiently remove phosphates and nitrates from water while producing sufficient amounts of protein. “The key challenge is producing algae at a cost that makes it viable to sell,” Mr. Jerome Vaughan, Aragreen’s founder, said. The main cost centres are electricity in terms of the lighting required to substitute sunlight, the nutrients required to feed the algae and the CO2, he added.

The plant will take wastewater and feed it into photo-bioreactors with capacity for 4 m3 of liquid, where pulsing LED lights will encourage algal growth. The algae will then be concentrated by a factor of four or five employing a filtering system that copies the way some marine animals feed in coral reefs. Thereafter, a series of belts are passed through the liquid. The algae stick to the fibres of the belts and are extracted from the culture, ready to be dried out.

Fuel cell produces electricity from wastewater

Energy Technology Ventures from the United States – a joint venture of GE, ConocoPhillips and NRG Energy – is providing capital to an Israeli company, Emefcy, that has designed and developed a system based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) to directly produce electricity from wastewater. The Emefcy process transforms wastewater treatment from an energy-, cost- and carbon-intensive process into an energy-generating, carbon-reducing one. The primary application for the system is for wastewater treatment in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

Emefcy will use the investment to continue development of its technology into full-scale commercial implementation. Its MFC system enables direct production of energy in the form of electricity or hydrogen from wastewater, replacing the need for traditional electricity in the treatment of wastewater.

Sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor

Textile wastewater is difficult to treat because it usually contains considerable amounts of different pollutants, which are often recalcitrant, toxic and inhibitory. Therefore, complex treatment schemes based on the sequence of steps are usually required for an effective treatment. This drives up the cost of treatment. In Italy, a team of researchers led by Ms. Adriana Maria Lotito from the Department of Water Engineering and Chemistry, Politecnico di Bari, has developed an innovative sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR) technology exhibiting several characteristics appropriate for reducing the cost of treatment of textile wastewater.

To determine the suitability of this SBBGR technology, two lab-scale reactors were operated – one treating mixed municipal-textile wastewater and the other a pure textile effluent. Results have demonstrated that mixed wastewater can be successfully treated with very low hydraulic retention times (less than 10 hours). Furthermore, SBBGR was shown to be an effective pre-treatment for textile wastewater for discharge into sewer systems. The economic evaluation of the process showed operative costs of 0.10 euro and 0.19 euro per cubic metre of mixed wastewater and textile wastewater, respectively. Contact: Ms. Adriana Maria Lotito, Department of Water Engineering and Chemistry, Politecnico di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy.


Endophyte degrades polyurethane

Undergraduate students from Yale University, the United States, have discovered organisms that can degrade plastics. The endophytes discovered by Yale undergraduates, who participated in the Rainforest Expedition and Laboratory course, as growing within fungus on Amazon rainforest plants can degrade polyurethane – a finding that may lead to innovative ways to reduce waste in the world’s landfills.

Students taking the course search for and collect endophytes – organisms, especially fungi or bacteria, that live inside a plant in a parasitic or mutualistic relationship – found in rainforest plants and then test them for biological activity. Students analyse the endophytes that show biological activity to see whether they might have other uses. On a 2008 trip to Equador, Ms. Pria Anand of Class of 2010 decided to see if the endophytes she collected could be used in bioremediation. In a rudimentary test, she showed a chemical reaction taking place when an endophyte she found was exposed to polyurethane. Mr. Jeffrey Huang, a student of the same class, analysed endophytes collected to find those that broke down chemical bonds most efficiently.

Then, Mr. Jonathan R. Russell from Class of 2011 discovered that one family of endophytes identified by Mr. Huang showed the most promise for bioremediation. Mr. Russell went on to identify the enzyme that broke down polyurethane most efficiently. While other agents can degrade polyurethane, the enzyme identified by Yale students holds a particular promise because it also degrades plastic in the absence of oxygen – a prerequisite for bioremediation of buried trash. A new group of undergraduates are analysing the newly discovered endophytes collected during recent rainforest trips to see if they can also degrade more intractable plastics like polystyrene.

An innovative bioremediation agent

In Thailand, Higrimm Environmental & Research Co. Ltd., has launched “KEEEN”, an innovative bioremediation agent that not only removes oil spills but also undergoes a self-remediation process prior to discharge. Higrimm, an expert on Industrial Ecology Management in the industrial sector, had collaborated with Thailand’s National Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) and the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) in the development of the new bioremediation agent.

KEEEN disintegrates or oxidizes oil molecules and other contaminants in spills and heavy stains and thus renders the site clean. It can also remediate unpleasant odours generated during industrial production processes. It caters to the specific demands in wastewater treatment, oil tank degassing/cleaning, oil spill clean-up, odour removal in industrial production, on-site contamination remediation, sanitary treatment, testing and diagnostics. KEEEN is offered in 10 compositions to suit the specific requirements of different industries. Contact: Higrimm Environmental & Research Co. Ltd., 111 Thailand Science Park, Incubator Wing Building, Room No. 310, 3rd Floor, Paholyothin Road, Klong Neung, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12100, Thailand. Tel. +66 (2) 564 7200, 564 7979, 747 080; Fax: +66 (2) 564 7979, 747 2027; E-mail:

Bioremediation of petroleum sludge

In India, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL), together with four individual inventors, has applied for patenting a process and composition for bioremediation of petroleum sludge. The process invented is reported to be time-saving and cost-effective and to achieve 97 per cent degradation of oily sludge through enhanced and environmentally safe bioremediation. The composition provided, called Oil Zapper, comprises bacterial consortia, poultry manure and a nutrient mixture, immobilized with corn cob powder in the ratio of 3:1.

The biodegradation process for oily sludge consists of: providing a pit having a substantially impervious lining; adding soil having at least 10 per cent of moisture content into the pit; spreading oily sludge over the soil; and contacting the sludge with Oil Zapper. The bacterial consortia consist of the following micro-organisms Acinetobacter bauminii, Alcaligene odorans, Bukhardica cepacer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S-30 in equal proportions. Contact: Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Corporate R&D Centre, Plot 2A, Udyog Kendra, Behind Yamaha Motors, Surajpur Industrial Area, Greater Noida 6, India. PIN 201 306.

On-site anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

Anaerobic bioremediation is an effective method for degrading perchloroethylene (PCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents and contaminants in groundwater and soil. Anaerobic bioremediation processes can also be used for other contaminants such as hexavalent chromium and pesticides. While many electron donor substrate products are available today (sodium lactate, molasses, edible oils, etc.), the lack of effective application and delivery methods has often provided marginal results and/or extended remediation timeframes. Addressing these issues, Etec LLC, the United States, developed a series of automated delivery systems that speed up in situ anaerobic bioremediation rates and ensure complete degradation on a site-wide basis.

Extracted groundwater is amended with a soluble electron donor substrate and nutrients by Etec’s ISD™ equipment platform, which then injects this treatment water back into the sub-surface. This consistent recirculation of electron donor-rich, nutrient-rich treatment water satisfies several critical requirements of anaerobic bioremediation, including:

  • Constant delivery of a readily degradable electron donor substrate to reduce native terminal electron acceptor mass and promote highly reductive conditions (i.e. sulphate-reducing or methanogenic) that encourage anaerobic bioremediation across a large plume area;
  • Continuous and constant movement of the injected treatment water through the contaminated soil and groundwater for ensuring optimum contact with contaminants (PCE, TCE, DCE, etc.);
  • Hydraulic plume control and the simultaneous production of localized groundwater gradients which deliver amended treatment water to specific zones within a plume area; and
  • Explosive microbial growth within the pore space. After discontinuing groundwater circulation, this biomass will begin to “rot”, providing a long-term substrate to support ongoing anaerobic bioremediation.

Contact: Etec LLC, 6635 NE 59th Place, Portland, OR 97218, United States of America. Tel: +1 (971) 222 3580; E-mail:

Bioremediation of dissolved hydrocarbons

Essem High Tech Pvt. Ltd. of India has a joint venture with Bio Petro Clean (BPC) of Israel to utilize the latter’s unique mixture of naturally occurring bacteria and advanced technology to remove both dissolved and emulsified hydrocarbons from water, soil, oil storage and transportation tanks. BPC effectively treats produced water for safe release to the environment, offering effective on- and off-site treatment while substantially reducing costs..

The Automated Chemostate Technology (ACT) is claimed to be much simpler, more effective, significantly less costly and easy to implement than comparable technologies. All the recoverable oil is recovered in API (American Petroleum Institute) standard tanks before ACT is applied. The process functions on the principal of using specifically concocted bacterial cocktail together with an innovative chemostate technology to create a sludge-free environment. No flocculant or chemical is used in the entire process. ACT is a fully automated system with a variety of online sensors that feed the control unit with information on various parameters, such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, temperature, etc. The controller continuously maintains an optimum process balance between the bacterial growth, flow rate, additives and organic compound degradation.

As ACT does not use any chemical or flocculant, the turbidity factor is quite low but filters are used to further clarify the output water. These filters will also arrest dead bacteria that could escape with the treated water. Contact: Essem High Tech Pvt. Ltd., C-032A Supermart-I, DLF Phase-IV, Gurgaon 122 002, India. Tel: +91 (124) 426 2612; Fax: +91 (124) 426 2615; E-mail: admin@


Activated carbon process for SOx/NOx removal

Ms. Monica Zanfir and colleagues at the H2 and Energy R&D facility of Praxair Inc., the United States, have examined the efficacy of near-zero emissions technology that Praxair is developing. One key element of this technology is the removal of sulphur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) from the flue gas that result from the combustion of sulphur and nitrogen compounds contained in the coal used in coal-fired power plants. The technology developed employs activated carbon to catalytically convert the SOx and NOx to their superior oxides SO3 and NO2, which are further adsorbed on the activated carbon material and removed from the gas phase.

This process takes advantage of compression requirements of the carbon dioxide (CO2) purification process and is conducted at high pressures. High pressure enhances the oxidation and adsorption processes. Once the activated carbon becomes saturated with contaminants, it can be easily regenerated by simply washing it with water. In this stage, the adsorbed oxides react with water to form sulphuric acid, sulphurous acid, nitric acid and nitrous acid. In this manner, the SOx and NOx contaminants are captured in the liquid phase. Wastewater can be minimized by recirculating the waste acid solution. The simplicity and good performance of this technology make it attractive and easy to implement, the researchers say.

The single-bed bench unit tests with synthetic flue gas at elevated pressures and ambient temperatures showed that activated carbon is able to remove both SOx and NOx individually or together. The process showed better performance at ambient temperature (~20°C) than at temperatures above the ambient. Moisture had a beneficial effect on the retention of SOx. Higher operating pressure (220 psig vs. 50 psig) significantly improved the process performance, particularly for NOx removal. The process achieved simultaneous removal of SOx and NOx from flue gas with the removal efficiency greater than 99 per cent for SOx and greater than 96 per cent for NOx. Contact: Ms. Monica Zanfir, H2 and Energy R&D Department, Praxair Inc., 150 East Park Drive, Tonawanda, New York, NY 14150, United States of America. E-mail:

Zeolite as gas adsorbent in charcoal making

Researchers led by Mr. Yayat Iman Supriyatna at the Mineral Processing Division of Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) have examined the efficacy of utilizing zeolite from Lampung province as an adsorbent of gas emitted during the charcoal-making process. The experiment started with the preparation of 80 mesh zeolite, which was then moulded into pellets. Titanium oxide (TiO2) is incorporated into these pellets in various concentrations (0 per cent, 5 per cent, 10 per cent, 15 per cent and 20 per cent) using bentonite as the adhesive. The zeolite-TiO2 pellets were then activated by heating at 200°C and placed on an adsorber device in the kiln prepared for wood charcoal-making.

A gas analyser (Autochek Smoke Diesel Meter NFR 10-025) was used to analyse gas emissions from the charcoal-making process. Results of the experiment showed that the zeolite-TiO2 pellets adsorbed carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Zeolite with 10 per cent TiO2 showed the highest reduction in CO2 gas emission (28.17 per cent), while the highest NOx gas reduction was obtained by zeolite with 20 per cent TiO2. Contact: Mr. Yayat Iman Supriyatna, Mineral Processing Division, Indonesian Institute of Science – LIPI, Gedung Widya Sarwono, Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto No. 10, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia. E-mail: yayat_

Inexpensive condensers for carbon scrubbing

Chemists have cooked up some inexpensive compounds that capture carbon dioxide (CO2), reports a recent study. Added to smokestack scrubbers, such porous materials might limit emissions of CO2 and methane, linked to global warming. Carbon sequestration – soaking the carbon out of smokestacks before it reaches the atmosphere and stuffing it underground – is viewed by many as an option for addressing climate change, if it can be done economically and cost-effectively.

The “inexpensive and commercially available” ingredients reported by a team led by Mr. Paritosh Mohanty of Lehigh University in Bethlehem, the United States, may represent a step towards improved smokestack screens for carbon, where about 15 per cent of the exhaust from a coal-fired power plant is CO2. The team condensed two chemicals, hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and diaminobenzidine, to make a gel that when dried formed into a “porous electron-rich framework” material that absorbs CO2. A variety of sorbent materials are currently under investigation for CO2 capture, notes the study, porous materials being a promising group of such sorbents.

Under testing, the new material – hierarchically porous electron-rich covalent organonitridic framework (PECONF) – absorbs methane and CO2 almost as well as more expensive sorbents and works well at low pressures, while remaining stable at up to 400°C. The combination of chemistry, cost and stability make these materials interesting candidates for CO2 capture applications, concludes the study.

New system for diesel particulate reduction

Researchers at Hino Motors Ltd., Japan, led by Mr. Hiroshi Hirabayashi have developed and evaluated a new diesel particulate active reduction (DPR) system for medium-duty commercial vehicles. The new system is basically a deNOx catalyst combined with a conventional DPR system to achieve emission standards as per Japan Post New-Long-Term (JPNLT) emissions regulations. The system consists of a catalyst converter (called “New DPR Cleaner”), a fuel dosing injector, nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensors, as well as temperature and pressure sensors. The New DPR Cleaner was constructed from a Front Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (F-DOC), a catalyzed particulate filter (Filter) and a Rear Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (R-DOC).

A newly developed Hydrocarbon Selective Catalyst Reduction (HC-SCR) catalyst was employed for each catalyst aiming to reduce NOx emissions with diesel fuel supplied from the fuel dosing injector. While the total volume of the catalyst was increased, the compact and easy-to-install catalyst converter was realized through the optimization of the flow vector and flow distribution in it by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The emissions reduction effect of the New DPR Cleaner was demonstrated with the results from the engine experiments under steady-state and transient conditions. In addition, the catalyst durability was evaluated by the long endurance test.

Improved carbon sponges to strip CO2 from flue gas

Mr. Jeffrey Long, a chemist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the United States, is leading a diverse team of scientists whose goal is to quickly discover materials that can efficiently strip carbon dioxide (CO2) from a power plant’s exhaust, before it exits the smokestack and contributes to climate change. The scientists are betting on metal-organic frameworks, a recently discovered class of materials that has a record-shattering internal surface area. A sugar cube-sized piece, if unfolded and flattened, will have an area larger than a football field. The crystalline material can also be tweaked to absorb specific molecules. The idea is to engineer this incredibly porous compound into a voracious sponge that gobbles up CO2. Carbon capture is the first step in the climate change mitigation strategy of ‘carbon capture and storage’, which involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

Today’s carbon capture materials, such as liquid amine scrubbers, sap 30 per cent of the power generated by a power plant. To overcome this, scientists are seeking alternatives that can be used again and again with minimal energy costs. Promising materials such as metal-organic frameworks come in millions of variations, only a handful of which are conducive to capturing carbon. Mr. Long and his colleagues hope to find quickly materials that only consume 10 per cent of a power plant’s energy.

The scientists hope to discover this dream material within three years. To do this, they will create an automated system that can synthesize hundreds of metal-organic frameworks simultaneously, and screen the most promising candidates for further refinement. “Our discovery process will be up to 100 times faster than current techniques,” says Mr. Long. The team will create a state-of-the-art production line. A robot will automatically synthesize hundreds of metal-organic frameworks and X-ray diffraction will offer a first-pass evaluation in the search for pure new materials. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy will then ferret out the materials with the pore size distribution best suited for carbon capture. Then, high-throughput gas sorption analysis will tell the team whether a material can capture CO2 from flue gas.

Removal of SO2 from coal-fired power plant exhaust

Cansolv Technologies Inc., Canada, has entered into an agreement with Guodian Longyuan Environmental Engineering Co. Ltd. (GDLY), China, to license a Cansolv SO2 Scrubbing System for a new 1.2 GW coal-fired power plant to be built soon by China’s Guodian Corporation at Duyun in Guizhou province. The SO2 Scrubbing System, a proprietary technology of Cansolv, will be employed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO2) from the power plant’s flue gas. The Cansolv system is a regenerable technology that captures greater than 99.9 per cent of SO2 emissions. This patented technology employs an aqueous amine solution (Cansolv Absorbent DS) to achieve high selective absorption of SO2 from a large variety of gas streams. The by-product is water-saturated SO2 gas, which is recovered by steam stripping and can be converted to sulphuric acid.

By selecting the regenerable Cansolv system, GDLY can avoid more than one million tonnes per year of landfill produced from conventional non-regenerable systems, which utilize a once-through absorbent that cannot be reused and therefore generates effluent streams. A regenerable desulphurization technology can reuse the absorbent, such as Cansolv Absorbent DS, by recycling it through the system over and over, resulting in less waste and cost savings without the need to restock. Cansolv Absorbent DS eliminates high-cost consumable reagents and related transportation costs. The capital costs are lower owing to its high capacity and selectivity. It also ensures minimal effluent emissions from the process, besides avoiding environmental legacy obligations and costs. Contact: Cansolv Technologies Inc., 400, de Maisonneuve Ouest, Suite 200, Montreal, Québec, Canada H3A 1L4. Tel: +1 (514) 382 4411; Fax: +1 (514) 382 5363; E-mail:

Patent for greenhouse gas emissions control

An invention by the Finnish nuclear physicist Mr. Matti Nurmia for controlling the greenhouse effect has received patent. Instead of storing power plants’ greenhouse gases, mostly carbon dioxide (CO2), emissions, the new method will neutralize them. The process, developed about three years ago, works as follows: CO2 from the power stations is directed to the neutralization facility where it is washed and turned into a bubbly liquid. This is then filtered through feldspar minerals, or other silica material suitable for neutralization, which turns the CO2 in the liquid into harmless bicarbonate. This bicarbonate can be released safely as it is. In addition, the process also yields valuable metals as by-products, which can be used in the electronics industry. Aluminium compounds are also produced and these can be used to manufacture aluminium.

Dry gas scrubbing and filtration

Certain gas filtration applications, mostly related to thermal process systems (waste incineration, melting furnaces, etc.) contain also gaseous pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide, dioxins and furans, etc. that can be very dangerous for the environment. These hazardous gases have to be eliminated, together with the dust particles. The Dutch firm Ventilex B.V., with over 40 years of experience in providing industrial drying solutions, is offering dry gas scrubbing and filtration systems to eliminate gaseous pollutants and solid pollutants. The Ventilex system is based on the dry absorption of the gaseous components by a specially selected absorbing agent (dry scrubbing product), which is injected into the gas stream in a special designed reactor, followed by filtration using a jet-bag fabric filter. Typical dry scrubbing absorbents are: activated charcoal, lime, sodium bicarbonate, zeolite or a combination of some of these.

When hot gas filtration is needed, the most economic and efficient solution is to first cool down the hot gas to a temperature that is compatible with standard filter fabrics and then filter the gas using a jet-bag fabric filter. This method offers different advantages compared to straight “hot” gas filtration, such as: smaller air volume after cooling, standard and economic filter fabrics can be used, low energy consumption and eventual energy recovery on gas cooler. Ventilex designs the gas cooler considering all possible operating problems, such as dust settlement in the heat exchanger, abrasion by the dust and corrosion risk by condensation of acid gas components. Contact: Ventilex B.V., Europaweg 8, P.O. Box 158, 8180 AD Heerde, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (578) 698200; Fax: +31 (578) 698282; E-mail:


Bioremediation: Biotechnology, Engineering and Environmental Management

This book presents topical research data in the study of bioremediation from across the globe. Topics discussed include the bioremediation of nitro-toluenes and their derivatives; the interaction of copper and chromium with yeasts for potential application on polluted environmental clean-ups; advances in the bioremediation of perchlorate; biosurfactants in the bioremediation of metals; the use of S. cerevisiae cells in bioremediation; nitrogen sequestration by salt marshes; bioremediation of chromium-contaminated soils by actinomycetes; and bioremediation using marine algae.

Contact: Nova Science Publishers, 400 Oser Avenue, Suite 1600, Hauppauge, NY 11788-3619, United States of America. Tel: +1 (631) 231 7269; Fax: +1 (631) 231 8175; E-mail:

Advances in Cleaner Production: Volume 1

This volume includes contributions from researchers from various countries for the development of cleaner production (CP). Divided into three sections, the book addresses national experiences for the implementation of CP programmes, research related to the metrics used to assess the effects of CP initiatives in the production sector, and discussions that emerge before and after the implementation of the programmes.

Contact: Nova Science Publishers, 400 Oser Avenue, Suite 1600, Hauppauge, NY 11788-3619, United States of America. Tel: +1 (631) 231 7269; Fax: +1 (631) 231 8175; E-mail:

Hazardous Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

This publication, aimed at engineers and technicians from a wide range of abilities and backgrounds, provides an excellent introduction to mastering the management of hazardous waste materials as well as preventing contamination of the environment. Information is also contained on the legal and regulatory aspects of pollution, handling of hazardous waste materials within your plant, reducing the amount of hazardous waste produced, and ways to save money through preventing personal injury and preventing or limiting the effects of accidental pollution.

Contact: IDC Technologies, 2nd & 3rd Floor, No. 23 Anna Salai, Saidapet, Chennai 600 015, India. Tel: +91 (44) 3061 8525.


This website is optimized for IE 8.0 with screen resolution 1024 x 768
For queries regarding this website, contact us
Copyright © 2010 APCTT | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Feedback