VATIS Update Waste Management . Oct-Dec 2013

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Waste Management Oct-Dec 2013

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Major e-waste generator of India

India’s IT capital, Bangalore, produces nearly 37,000 tonnes of electronic waste every year, putting it in third place in e-waste generation after Mumbai (61,000) and New Delhi (43,000), says a White Paper on electronic waste management released by ASSOCHAM at a seminar on e-waste. Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad find a place far down the ladder, at 30,700, 23,000 and 16,000 tonnes per year respectively, according to a report prepared by Frost & Sullivan, based on secondary data.

However, it is household collection of e-waste that represents a “major task” for the municipality, said N. Sivasailam, Principal Secretary, Department of Forests, Ecology and Environment. While industries are now “refining” their e-waste processing mechanisms, household e-waste is neither systematically collected nor processed as collection centers are few and there is little awareness about how to dispose it off, he added. According to the report, only 4.5 per cent of e-waste is recycled by formal recyclers, while 90 per cent is handled by the informal sector. As much as 70 per cent of heavy metals (including arsenic, cadmium and chromium) found in landfills come from e-waste, it added.

The Indian Electronic Waste (management and Handling) Rules, 2011, is an important step towards e-waste management, and is applicable to all producers, dealers and collectors. E-waste can be seen as an opportunity for the generation for employment, and innovative business models can be created around the industry, said J. Crasta, co-chairman of ASSOCHAM Southern Regional Council.

Wastewater reuse in People’s Republic of China

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is helping the People’s Republic of China (PRC) improve the quality of wastewater management and reuse through a $240M private sector loan package to Beijing Enterprises Water Group Limited (BEWG), an integrated water infrastructure operator. The loan agreement was signed in Beijing.

The PRC is encountering water challenges due to rapid urbanization. More than 400 cities report water shortages, with an average daily shortfall of 16 million cubic meters, equivalent to the average annual consumption of about 160,000 people. Per capita freshwater resources are scarce and annual per capita water endowments have been declining at an alarming rate. Extensive water pollution is further reducing the availability of freshwater. In 2012, 31% of 10 major river systems and 39% of 62 primary lakes could not fulfill the water quality requirement for drinking water. The public health consequences of that are significantly affecting lives, livelihoods, and productivity.

“Improving wastewater treatment quality is the effective response to the challenges that the PRC faces. With adequate technologies, wastewater can be treated to meet specific needs and purposes, such as industry use, including machine cooling, cleansing, and boiler operation. Higher quality freshwater can be freed up for end uses such as drinking and cooking,” said Hisaka Kimura, Principal Investment Specialist at ADB’s Private Sector Operations Department. The loans will be used to treat an additional 600 million tons of wastewater annually by 2019 through upgrading wastewater treatment plants to meet the grade 1A standard, which means the water can be reused for industry cooling and watering city gardens, for example.

Electricity accounts for over half of the direct cost of wastewater treatment. Reuse of wastewater can thus be made more cost competitive if appropriate energy efficiency measures are introduced. The technical assistance to support energy audits, energy management systems, knowledge sharing of energy-saving solutions, and policy recommendations will enhance the affordability of water reuse, freeing up fresh water in cities across the country.

Garbage recycling program launched in Sri Lanka

A garbage recycling program was launched covering the schools network and government institutions in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. Chief Minister Ranjith Samarakoon has pioneered the project. The chief minister introduced the garbage recycling program at the Anuradhapura Niwaththakachethiya Maha Vidyalaya. Samarakoon said the program was meant to upgrade the provincial tourist industry, environmental security, dengue prevention and create awareness among school children the importance of effective garbage disposal. The Provincial Council buys the garbage from school children and the other participants.

Nepal tackles methane emissions through trash recycling

Nepal’s capital is recycling organic waste into compost in a bid to reduce methane emissions and provide cheap, environment-friendly organic fertilizer to local farmers. The scheme aims to tackle environmental degradation and reduce the health hazards from rotting produce. Trash is a significant nuisance in Kathmandu, and organic matter accounts for almost 70 percent of the total waste generated daily in the city. Many neighborhoods in the capital are dirty and strewn with rubbish. Some markets look scarcely different from garbage dumps and streets are littered with discarded trash. Inadequate waste management in the Kathmandu Valley and a lack of dumps and landfills make the problem worse.

To address the problem, Biocomp, Nepal, a not-for-profit social enterprise – launched a year-long pilot project to recycle organic waste into compost in March 2011 in collaboration with myclimate, a non-profit foundation based in Zurich, Switzerland. The foundation develops and supports projects around the world to reduce greenhouse gases. During the pilot, the project collected organic waste every day from the Kalimat market, Kathmandu’s largest wholesale vegetable market, and composted it at a facility in Khokna, a village on the outskirts of the capital. A total of 140 tons of fresh organic waste was collected and 15 tons of high-quality compost produced. The compost was sold to farmers who cultivate fields on the edges of Kathmandu, but local traders were pleased with the impact too.
Source: http://www.

Thailand’s first recycling store

A recycling institute opened Thailand’s first swap shop – a store where people can exchange recyclable goods they do not want for consumer goods like detergent, packaged foods, drinks and other household items. Sompong Tan-charoenpol, chairman of the Thailand Institute of Packaging and Recycling Management for Sustainable Environment (TIPMSE) and vice chairman of the Federation of Thai Industries (FTI), said the purpose of the “Zero Baht” store was to encourage people to separate out the different types of garbage and convert some of it to cash to buy other people’s unwanted household items and consumer products. The store’s aim was to help lessen the amount of garbage being dumped in each community and also reduce people’s cost of living, Mr. Sompong said

Recycling earns public transit fares in China

China, which has experienced widespread legacy pollution – recently debuted recycling-for-payment programs in busy subway stations in Beijing. The initiative saw the installation of recycling machines which accept plastic bottles as payment. Passengers receive credit ranging from 5 to 15 cents per bottle, which are then applied toward rechargeable subway cards. The first of the machines officially opened for use in Shaoyaoju station, Beijing in December 2012.

According to a report from The Guardian, more than 100 machines will be put in place in the coming years. Incom, a state-owned resources recovery company, is responsible for the implementation of the machines. Incom currently undertakes processing tens of thousands of plastic bottles every year and hopes the new machines will help reduce the amount of refuse discarded on streets and in public areas.

According to GreenGeeks, one recycled plastic bottle produces enough energy to power a 60- watt light bulb for several hours. However, dissenters of the program still wonder if the machines themselves won’t increase envi-ronmental degradation with the amount of energy necessary to operate them citing that the process to melt down and reconstitute plastics requires energy and may degrade the quality of the recycled product. Eventually, Incom would like to see the recycling-for-payment machines installed along every subway line as well as bus stops and other public means of transportation, such as parking spots in commercial and residential areas.

Research agencies join hands for oil bioremediation

Thailand’s National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) and National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) have collaborated with KEEEN, which was previously known as Hi-Grimm Environmental and Research, to develop a small-scale mobile microbial reactor for on-site bioremediation. This reactor will allow on-site production of microorganism used in the treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater. It will eliminate the cost of packaging and transportation of bioremediation agents, making it suitable for industrial sites that need to regularly manage oil-contaminated wastewater in high volume. In this project, the research team aims to develop a 100 liter reactor equipped with automatic aerator as well as a suitable culture medium to produce oil-de-grading microorganisms used for treating high-oil-content wastewater. Collaboration with an industrial partner such as KEEEN will facilitate the field test of this unit. The project is expected to take 18 months to complete, May 2013 October 2014. This project is a result of the previous BIOTEC-KEEEN collaboration to screen for local oil-degrading bacteria and develop into a commercial bioremediation product. KEEEN successfully launched bioremediation products in 2010, with products and services for various industries such as petrochemical industry, automobile industry, food industry, hotels and hospitals.

Mobile recycling programme in Malaysia

Mobile technology company Ninetology ASEAN, Malaysia and the Malaysian Nature Society (MNS), have kicked off a mobile recycling programme, Smart Ecology 2, in a bid to help reduce the damaging effects of wastage on the environment. Users looking to upgrade their current mobile phones can now trade in their old phones, which will be collected by MNS and its Recycle for Nature team. These phones will then be responsibly disposed or recycled, where parts of each device will be divided to be repaired and then re-used in new devices, Ninetology Asean said in a statement.

“Smart Ecology 2 with MNS provides the platform for people who are looking to upgrade their phones to contribute to the environment,” said chief executive officer Sean Ng. To encourage users to recycle their old phones, the Smart Ecology 2 programme offers trade-in rebates of up to RM200. All they need to do is to sign up at before the new purchase. Seven models will be part of this initiative. Three are current mod-els – the U9R1, Stealth II, and Insight – while a further four will be unveiled on Dec 2. Smart Ecology 2 runs until Jan 31, 2014.

Recycling rubber waste into flooring materials in Viet Nam

Ergofloor A/S, a Danish company has set up a business in Viet Nam, to recycle rubber from the tires of motorbikes and trucks. Ergofloor Phu Viet Rubber Ltd., a Danish- Vietnamese, joint venture, daily uses more than 3 tons of scrap tires in their production. Rubber granule from scrap tires are recycled and transformed into ergonomically floors, which are mainly used for children’s playgrounds, utilized by hospitals etc. The owner of Ergofloor A/S Michael Moric sees many future business prospects “The quality of our products produced in Viet Nam is remarkably improved and our production capacity is almost high enough for us to be able to export worldwide”. Ambassador John Nielsen highlights that “Danish companies are front runners when it comes to recycling and the creativeness of Ergofloor is a good example. Recycling will become good business in Viet Nam as the country further develops”.


Recycling process for tire scrap

Continental A.G., Germany, a leading auto and truck parts manufacturing company has developed a process to separate steel cord and uncured rubber compound, allowing the tire maker to reclaim the compound and thus make manufacturing more sustainable. The recycling process, which is carried by a “hurricane machine, was developed by Martin Theusner, a Continental veteran and former head of environmental protection at the commercial vehicle tires business unit. Since the material in question is uncured, separation the rubber from the steel cord is achieved by applying mechanical force. Once the rubber has been granulated, a series of high-powered magnets remove any remaining pieces of steel from the compound.

The steel is sold to be recycled outside the company, and Continental can reuse the rubber compound for tire production. The prototype machine is located at Puchov, Slovak Republic, where it is being used to process uncured rubber scrap from most of Continental’s European manu-facturing sites. Continental said it cooperated with an unnamed specialized manufacturer of re-cycling equipment in developing the hurricane machine and this is a world’s first in the tire industry. “This solution allows us to further improve our materials handling in terms of raw material usage and contributes to making our production processes increasingly ‘eco-friendly,’” said Thierry Wipff, Head of Manufacturing, commercial vehicle tires.

New PET recycling process

Next Generation Recycling (NGR), a technology company from Austria, in the area of reprocessing thermoplastic production wastes is working on recycling of industrial and post consumer PET materials through liquid state polycondensation (LSP) process. “Compared with the commonly used solid state polycondensation process where the PET material is maintained at an elevated temperature for several hours under vacuum in order to achieve the desired increase in IV value through polycondensation and remove contaminants, the LSP achieves a similar rise in the space of minutes,” says company CEO Josef Hochreiter. “The challenge in developing the LSP process was finding the exact point where the optimum reaction takes place.”

“We are not sure of the exact level of energy savings that will be possible with the LSP process, but we expect them to be significant,” adds Hochreiter. “The equipment also occupies 70% less space.” NGR is currently operating a pilot plant with capacity of 380 kg/hour to validate the process. Field testing of the process will start early next year, with full commercial deployment of the process expected in the first quarter of 2015. Extensive field testing of the process will start early next year, with full commercial deployment of the process expected in the first quarter of 2015. “We want to develop [the process] to a high degree before we go commercial,” says Hochreiter. The LSP process supports the processing of PET from industrial waste, including fibers, bottles, preforms, and films, as well as washed PET post-consumers flakes.

Recycled plastic gets new life

A team of scientists from University of Adelaide, Australia, have developed a process for turning waste plastic bags into a high-tech nanomaterial. The innovative nanotechnology uses non-biode-gradable plastic grocery bags to make ‘carbon nanotube membranes’ – highly sophisticated and expensive materials with a variety of potential advanced applications including filtration, sensing, energy storage and a range of biomedical innovations.

“Non-biodegradable plastic bags are a serious menace to natural ecosystems and present a prob-lem in terms of disposal”, says Professor Dusan Losic, a Research Professor of Nanotechnology. “Transforming these waste materials through ‘nanotechnological recycling’ provides a potential solution for minimizing environmental pollution at the same time as producing high-added value products”. Carbon nanotubes are tiny cylinders of carbon atoms, one nanometer in diameter (1/10,000 the diameter of a human hair).

They are already used in a variety of industries including in electronics, sports equipment, long-lasting batteries, sensing devices and wind turbines. The University of Adelaide’s Nanotech Research Group has ‘grown’ the carbon nanotubes onto nanoporous alumina membranes. They used pieces of grocery plastic bags which were vaporized in a furnace to produce carbon layers that line the pores in the membrane to make the tiny cylinders (the carbon nanotubes). The idea was conceived and carried out by PhD student Tariq Altalhi.

First comprehensive system for recycling shoes

The Innovative Manufacturing and Construction Research Centre (IMCRC) at Loughborough Uni-versity, the United Kingdom, have developed the world’s first comprehensive system for separating and recovering useful materials from old footwear. The newly developed recycling process is able to granulate and segregate leather, plastic foams and rubber so that they can be re-used in products ranging from rubber playground surfacing to new shoes, researchers said.

“Footwear is incredibly difficult to recycle as it can contain up to forty different types of material, many of which are stitched or glued together,” said Professor Shahin Rahimifard, who led the project. “In our process, the first, manual step is to pre-sort shoes into broad types, such as trainers, and to recover metals, such as eyelets. Next the shoes are automatically shredded and granulated, with the granules automatically separated into four waste streams: leather, foams, rubber and other material,” Rahimifard said.

The team has also developed a computerized tool that advises footwear designers on materials selection and helps them explore whether particular combinations of materials would make recycling harder or easier. The more similar two materials are in density, the harder it is to separate granules made of them, driving up the cost of recycling.

Plastic eating bugs may tackle waste crisis

The School of Environment of the Central University of Gujarat (CUG) and A&R Patel Institute of Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), Anand of Charotar Vidya Mandal, the two academic institutes from Gujarat, India, have found gluttonous bacteria that can degrade plastic within a few days. The first institute successfully tested their bacteria on solid waste solid waste samples from one of Ahmadabad’s ugliest sights – the Pirana dumpsite, while the second institute tested another set of bacteria on plastic pellets collected from the Umreth landfill site.

According to a study by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Ahmadabad is one of the top consumers of plastics among 64 non-metro cities in the country. Dean of school of environment at CUG, M F Fulekar, who led the research said, “My team found eight different potent bacteria that not only decomposed plastic collected from Pirana, but also hazardous, e-waste and metal waste dumped there. The effective decomposition period under lab condition was 30 days.”

The team of researchers under Devjani Banerjee at ARIBAS identified one bacteria belonging to the family of Micrococcaceae gram positive bacteria and two bacteria belonging to the Enterobacterceae family that decomposed three different types of plastics – low density polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride powder.
Source: http://www.

Innovation of the recycled-resource process

Interseroh a subsidiary of the ALBA Group, Austria, an environmental services company and raw materials provider has developed an innovative process called recycled-resource that makes it possible to manufacture customised recyclate compounds from waste plastic. Thanks to state-of-the-art sorting technology combined with the latest in process technology, the recycled plastic can be used as 100% substitute for primary material. This actively protects the environment and secures a reliable supply of raw materials. Procyclen, may among other things, be used for the production of plastic components in Cologne. The industrial use of the recycled plastics procyclen and recythen releases significantly less greenhouse gases and consumes much less primary energy than the use of new materials.

Given scarce resources and high energy prices, ever more industrial companies are looking for production methods which they can use to manufacture their products with greater resource efficiency. Interseroh has developed an innovative process called recycled-resource that makes it possible to manufacture customised recyclate compounds from waste plastic. The automotive industry or design objects such as iPad covers, vases or storage trays. In addition, plastic products for everyday use, such as glue stick tubes and washing-up brushes, are made of recycled granulate. “The recycled-resource process has brought us a big step closer to the goal of achieving a completely closed cycle”, explains Kai Bastuck, the division manager responsible at Interseroh.


A solution that uses toxic waste to clean up toxins

Pejman Hadi, a Research Associate and Gordon McKay, Emeritus Professor at Hong University of Science and Technology in Hong Kong, China, have developed an innovative chemical process that alters the surface of low-value waste material and converts it to a nanoporous material. The team tested this modified material and found it excellent at cleaning up toxic heavy metal pollutants found in wastewater. When this material is applied to solutions containing toxic heavy metal ions they are attracted to its surface, as it functions as an adsorbent. In fact this material removes such pollutants much more efficiently than the current range of expensive, industrial adsorbents/ ion exchangers commonly in use.

Economically speaking, this waste material that was once a circuit board has a very low cost, a high yield and the reaction requires only low temperatures – three major advantages this novel material has over its commercial counterparts. So it should be of great commercial interest – adding the necessary value to the recycling process that should help spur investment in keeping e-waste out of landfill. It is vital that society and the industry in particular adopt a more sustainable approach the problems of end-of-life electronics.

E-waste as a resource

Scientists at the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT) at Bhubaneswar, India, have managed a breakthrough in extracting metals such as copper, silver, nickel, palladium, and gold from the e-waste, which earned a patent on the innovation. The premiere laboratory of IMMT under the aegis of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, has developed a thermal plasma process to treat the e-waste to recover the metal values as well as treat the associated toxic gases.

“Waste generated in huge volume in urban centers is like urban mining for us. If the waste is handled with care, it would offer a lot to the society. The process of extracting valuable metals from e-waste developed by our scientists has proved this,” said B. K. Mishra, Director of IMMT. Increased use of electronic equipment in recent times has compounded the problem of piling electronic waste (e-waste). While about 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste is generated every year, only 10 per cent of this is being recycled. The IMMT process would not only extract metals from e-waste but also take care of the environmental contamination.

Recycling electronics with dimethyl sulfoxide

Ping Zhu and his colleagues at Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, China, have developed a simple and environment-friendly method to salvage the materials found in waste printed circuits boards (PCBs) using the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The team says it could be part of the solution for the 20-50 million tonnes of e-waste that’s generated globally every year, much of which ends up in developing countries, including China. They have come up with a simple separation process which they say could recover valuable materials from waste PCBs while driving down recycling costs and avoiding environmental pollution caused by other methods. PCBs are found in virtually every electronic device and are multi-layered structures composed of around 30% metal and 70% non-metal polymers. Many contain brominated epoxy resins which are used as flame retardants. Since the layers are tightly bonded together, eco-friendly ways of recycling PCB ma-terials has remained a challenge.

First, the team manually removes the electronic components on waste PCBs and cut the remaining bare boards into fragments of approximately 1-1.5 cm2 or 2-3 cm2. Then, under a nitrogen atmosphere, the fragments are heated with DMSO. The DMSO swells the brominated epoxy resin, which separates the PCB layers. The solution is then filtered and separated, and the used DMSO is regenerated by evaporation under vacuum to leave the separated polymer resin and the circuit board components.

“This is genuinely a breakthrough in waste PCB recycling processes,” says Saeed Nusri, a chemical engineer at Ecyclex, an e-waste management company in the United Arab Emirates. However, Nusri has concerns about scaling the process up. “The size [of the PCB fragments] seems to be an important factor in determining the mass transfer rate of DMSO to the brominated epoxy resins.” Nusri explains. “An increase of approximately 1 cm2 drastically affected the diffusion rate of the solvent into the pieces. This, in my opinion, could be an issue on an industrial scale.”


Wastewater technology to assist nuclear clean-up

Researchers from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia, have developed an advanced water decontamination process that turns toxic wastewater into near rainwater quality and which they believe could help Japan in its extensive clean-up of nuclear contaminated waters. Scientist Dr. Grant Douglas visited Japan in September and with as-sistance from Austrade submitted a proposal to use CSIRO’s Virtual Curtain technology for widespread remediation work in Japan, estimated to be worth hundreds of millions of dollars.

Dr. Douglas says water tanks, flooded buildings and basements in Fukushima remain highly con-taminated after the meltdown of the power plant nuclear reactors in 2011. “They need to clean those up and that’s proving difficult because they have such a wide range of contaminants,” Dr. Douglas says. “They can’t generally employ one technique – they need multiple ones, whereas our tech-nology has the advantage that it can clean up a lot of contaminants in one step.” The Virtual Curtain technology is patented by CSIRO and made commercial through the company Virtual Curtain Limited. It uses hydrotalcites; layered minerals consisting of aluminum and magnesium-rich-layers, separated by interlayers of anions (negatively charged molecules like sulphate). During the process the aluminum and magnesium can be replaced by a range of other metals like copper and lead as the hydotalcites form. The metals and anions are then trapped and easily removed from wastewater as a solid.

Dr. Douglas says lime has been used traditionally to decontaminate wastewater but among its drawbacks it requires a number of complex steps and produces enormous amounts of sludge. “The technique I have produces just 10 per cent or less of the sludge that lime does which is then far more concentrated as a result, and has potential to turn what was wastewater back into an ore; they can re-mine it.” Dr. Douglas says the first full scale application of the technology in Australia began in late September at a toxic mine site in Queensland.

Method to clean-up toxic chromium ions

Dr. Konstantin Volchek and Dr. Carl E. Brown of Environment Canada, and Dario Velicogna of Velicogna Consultants Inc. in Ottawa, Canada have carried out two successful parallel tests of efficacy on a laboratory scale. The first involved removal of chromium ions from water using reagent binding and membrane separation and the second was the stabilization of chromium ions in the soil using chemical soil flushing. Lignosulfonates can bind hexavalent chromium and allow it to be removed from contaminated water by subsequent membrane filtration. The soil tests showed that lignosulfonates can reduce the mobility of chromium so that it becomes trapped within the soil matrix; in the field this would reduce the risk of it leaching from a contaminated site into the underlying water table or waterways.

According to a research published in the International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable De-velopment – a by-product of the manufacture of pulp using the sulfite process for making paper, sodium lignosulfonate, can be used to immobilize and soak up toxic chromium compounds from soil and water. There are various technologies that might be used to extract chromium(VI) ions from contaminated soil or water. However, these usually require the addition of expensive chemicals to allow the heavy metal ions to be extracted or immobilized. A much more sustainable approach would be to use a reagent that was just as effective or more so and that was itself a waste product from industry. Sodium salts of lignosulfonates from the paper industry offer such an alternative, the re-searchers say.

Microbial electrode catalysts that turn wastewater into watts

Dr. Leonard Tender, a Microbial- Electrochemist at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the United States, believes that bacteria is a promising energy source of the future and the focus of his research – electrode reactions catalyzed by microorganisms – may one day provide cheap, clean and abundant energy by converting the carbon dioxide in seawater to fuel and the organic matter in wastewater into electrical power.

Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DRMB) are a fascinating group of microorganisms inhabiting a wide variety of environments including marine sediments and sewage. Tender says that DRMBs acquire energy by coupling oxidation and the accompanying loss of electrons by organic material, with reduction and the gain of electrons by insoluble oxidants such as mineral deposits. This ability, he explains, requires the bacteria to transport respired (lost) electrons to their outer surface where they become available for transfer to the insoluble oxidant. The process, known as extracellular electron transfer (EET), has been exploited by Tender and others to create a biological anode catalysts.

Just how electrons are transported through the biofilm to the anode surface over distances that can exceed 20 microns remains unsolved. So far, Tender reports, the data indicate yes. “Our gate measurements reveal a set of highly resolved peaks in plots of current through the biofilms vs. potentials applied to the electrode representing indicative of a electron hopping from cytochrome to cytochrome,” he says. “In fact, we believe that as long as a marine or wastewater environment can continuously supply the organic material and the oxidant to the Microbial Electrode Catalysts (MEC), it could run almost endlessly,” Tender says.

Rare earth recycling breakthrough in China

Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, have discovered a way to recycle rare earth elements from wastewater, according to their paper in the ‘ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces’ journal. Whereas previous projects in this area have failed owing to the complexity of recovery and high levels of expense, the new method is said to bring ‘considerable economic benefits’.

The researchers based their project on the fact that a nanomaterial known as nano-magnesium hydroxide is capable of removing a proportion of metals and dyes from wastewater. The team successfully analyzed the nanomaterial to produce relatively inexpensive flower-shaped nan-oparticles under a high-powered microscope.

By conducting lab tests that replicated real-world conditions, the researchers found that more than 99% of the rare earth metals were diluted in the wastewater samples – with no less than 85% of them being ‘captured’ by their unique nanoparticles. Additional analysis proved that the rare earth elements could be easily collected on the surface as metal hydroxide nanoparticles. This pilot-scale breakthrough will provide ‘a good example’ for the recycling of increasingly popular rare earth elements in practical industrial applications, according to the scientists.

Neutralizing alkaline wastewater with mineral acids

The SOLVOCARB® process developed by Linde, the United States, provides a fast and economical way for process industries to neutralize alkaline wastewater with a high degree of control using carbon dioxide (CO2). During the process, the inert gas is injected into the wastewater, and once dissolved, CO2 forms carbonic acid that can quickly reduce pH to appropriate levels for discharge, and natural buffering prevents overshooting pH levels. Alkaline wastewaters are generated in meat, food and beverage processing operations as well as many other chemical and industrial operations. Cleaning solutions with high pH levels are often used to clean equipment for processing fats, plant matter and other biological or organic compounds. If pH levels of wastewater discharges exceed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitted levels, they must be reported, subjecting plants to environmental fines and public scrutiny. Neutralizing alkaline wastewater with mineral acids has been a logical approach; however, the past few years have seen prices spike for both HCl and H2SO4. Besides pricing issues, there are also storage, safety and handling issues of highly corrosive acids. With mineral acids, a few drops too many can create pH excursions, which risk discharge fines from the treatment authority or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, they take a toll on storage and processing equipment, and worker safety and maintenance procedures are constant concerns.

The SOLVOCARB® system is a sustainable alternative and safer than hazardous and corrosive mineral acid treatments. With it, CO2 can be injected into wastewater through a variety of methods and can reduce pH to neutral levels with a high degree of control. SOLVOCARB-B is used for open treatment tanks and lagoons via diffusion mats. SOLVOCARB-D is used for direct injection into wastewater pipes via a sparger. SOLVOCARB-R is used for injection into enclosed process tanks via special reactors.

Cost-effective method to purify wastewater

Dr. Hamid Reza Pour-Etedal, a member of the Scientific Board of Malek Ashtar, University of Technology, Iran, has researched that it is possible to eliminate antibiotic medical compounds in aqueous samples through photodegradation method by using the produced nanoparticles in a short time with an efficiency of higher than 90%. Nowadays, the application of semiconductors, including zinc oxide, zinc sulfide and iron oxide, as photocatalyst in degradation process is one of the most important methods to increase the efficiency of the purification process. Among the advantages of using these photocatalysts mention can be made of high photocatalytic activity, reasonable price, non-toxicity and band gap energy. In this research, researchers tended to produce zinc sulfide nanoparticles and to use the nanoparticles as photocatalysts in increasing the degradation of antibiotics, including amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, and cloxacillin.

The presence of photocatalyst increases the rate of the production of active radicals in chemical re-actions. On the other hand, as the size of the particles is reduced and nanoparticles are formed, the effect of photocatalyst on degradation rate increases. Therefore, photodegradation of some compounds was investigated in aqueous samples in the presence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles as an inhomogeneous photocatalyst. The production of the nanocatalyst through a cost-effective method is one of the most important characteristics of the research, which is very promising for the purification of industrial pharmaceutical wastewater through an efficient and cost-effective method in a short period of time. Results of the research have been published in March 2013 in Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 51.

New technology to remove heavy metals from industrial waters

Siemens Water Technologies and Texas A&M AgriLife Research, the United States, have signed an exclusive license agreement and a research and development agreement to continue the devel-opment and commercialization of a chemical-based technology that more efficiently and cost-effec-tively removes heavy metals from water and wastewater at industrial locations. In a single process unaffected by temperature or pH-levels, the technology can remove selenium, mercury, zinc, copper, chromium, and other heavy metals as well as metalloids to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) limits at power utility, mining, refinery, and remediation sites.

The commercialized system is being designed to occupy a smaller footprint than current remediation treatment systems to reduce capital expense and to operate more efficiently in a wider range of environ-ments. The technology is based on an Activated Iron Process™ (AIP) for the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater developed by Dr. Yongheng Huang, associate professor of biological and agricultural engineering at Texas A&M University, and an AgriLife Research scientist. Siemens Water Technologies’ R&D is focused on ultrapure water and drinking water, waste reduction, energy and process efficiency, desalination, and water reuse.


Engineered bacteria turns landfill waste into bio-plastic

A team of students from Imperial College, London, the United Kingdom, have engineered harmless bacteria to turn landfill waste into a biodegradable plastic or bio-plastic. The team says the bio-plastic could be used in healthcare to make syringes and other disposable devices used in hospitals. They have also developed a method for breaking down the bio-plastic so that it can be easily disposed of when it is no longer needed. The team consists of Jemma Pilcher, Margarita Kopniczky, Iain Bower Wenqiang Chi, James Strutt, Matthew Chin and Sisi Fan. The students won a gold medal at the International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition, coming first in the manufacturing section and third overall out of total of 200 teams worldwide.

The Imperial team re-engineered the genetic code of harmless E.coli bacteria so that they can break down landfill waste and turn it into bio-plastic. Current methods for making bio-plastics rely on plants as the main ingredient, but this means valuable agricultural land has to be used to grow the plants. Imperial team member Jemma Pilcher says, “In the future, our system could provide a sustainable way to make an environment-friendly alternative to petroleum-based plastics, which would reduce our dependency on oil. Additionally, this system would divert rubbish away from landfill sites and incinerators, which have very negative effects on the environment by releasing toxins, and instead use it as a resource.” “Technologies such as ours could one day be used to deal with the global challenge of how to dispose of ever increasing levels of waste,’’ added team member Margaria Kopniczky.

A novel approach to biodegradation of biphenyl

According to a research from Hangzhou Normal University, China, biphenyl at concentration of 1500 mg/L was almost completely degraded in 24 h using SRpf at a dosage of 15% (v/v). Six strains unique to the ECT were isolated in pure cultures. “SRpf, culture supernatants from Micrococcus luteus containing the resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf), was used to enhance the biphenyl-degrading capability of potential microorganisms. The obtained results suggest that the enrichment culture produced by the addition of SRpf (enrichment culture treatment group, ECT) enhanced the biphenyl degradation efficiency, cell growth and bacterial diversity significantly.”

The study provides a new insight into bacterial degradation of biphenyl for PCBs-bioremediation, and could be developed as a novel efficient method for obtaining highly desirable pollutant-degrading microorganisms. Contact: X.M. Su, Hangzhou Normal University, Center Biomed & Health, Hangzhou-311121, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China.

An organic solution to toxic groundwater

MicroGen Biotech Limited, Ireland, an Institute of Technology (IT), Carlow, Ireland, spin-out com-pany founded by Chinese native Dr. Xeumei Germaine, has come up with a unique treatment pro-cess to clean up toxic environmental pollutants from both soils and waste streams which is applied in bead form and is highly efficient. It combines technology, natural soil degrading bacteria and site-specific microbes, which adapt quickly to the soil and facilitate a slow-release system for the intro-duction of huge numbers of highly active pollutant-degrading cells.

Dr. Xeumei Germaine, an IT Carlow PhD graduate, has worked as a research scientist with some major pharmaceutical companies in Ireland. Through her research, Germaine identified a number of bacteria strains developed both by herself as a student and by others at IT Carlow that she believed would be beneficial in China. Microgen decided to prioritise China because of the many environmen-tal issues in the vast country. China has a serious soil contamination problem from a number of sources. One pollutant is arsenic, which is released during the mining of copper, gold and other minerals.

WEEE Recycle

The WEEE Recycle project aims at improving the situation of e-waste management in India by involving producers, recyclers (informal and formal) encompassing Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs) and other stakeholders in the value chain. The project institutionalizes collection system and channelization of e-waste for recycling using environmentally sound technologies involving SMEs in the informal sector.

For more information, contact: Indo-German Environment Partnership (IGEP) Programme Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH B-5/2, Safdarjung Enclave New Delhi - 110029, India Tel: +91-11-49495353 Fax: +91-11-49495391 E-mail: Web:

Enhanced aerobic biodegradation

Regenesis, the United States, has developed enhanced aerobic bioremediation technologies such as Oxygen Release Compound (ORC®) and ORC Advanced® used to accelerate naturally occurring in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and certain fuel oxygenates such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), by indigenous microorganisms in the subsurface. The use of these convenient and easy to apply solid oxygen compounds provides a controlled-release, supplemental source of oxygen to the subsurface which is made available to aerobic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

Oxygen is considered by many to be the primary growth-limiting factor for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria; however it is normally depleted in zones that have been contaminated with hydrocarbons. The stoichiometric ratio of oxygen per hydrocarbon is 3 moles of oxygen per 1 mole of hydrocarbons. By deploying technologies such as ORC® and ORC Advanced®, remediation practitioners can increase the rates of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation at least 10 to 100 times over naturally-occurring, non-enhanced rates. Regenesis’ ORC® and ORC Advanced® offers the following benefits:
Environmentally safe and easy to handle/apply materials;
Decreased time to site closure - degradation rates accelerated 10 to 100 times faster than intrinsically slow, natural attenuation rates;
Minimal site disturbance with in situ treatment - no emplaced aboveground tanks, piping, equipment, etc. and a single product application can last up to 12 months, maintenance free;
Minimal waste generation - no significant recovered contamination, off-gases or fluid discharges;
No long-term operations and maintenance - lower costs and greater efficiency/reliability than engineered mechanical systems, oxygen emitters and bubblers; and
Easily combined as a polishing step with in situ chemical oxidation using RegenOx.

Contact: Regenesis, 1011 Calle Sombra, San Clemente, CA-92673, USA. Tel: +1-949-366-8000; Fax: +1-949-366-8090.

Aerobic bioremediation

ETEC, LLC., the United States, offers the most effective aerobic bioremediation system in the mar-ket. Their key to Dissolved Oxygen In situ Treatment (DO-IT™) system is its application as a closed loop groundwater re-circulation system. Extracted groundwater is oxygenated (with 40-ppm levels of dissolved oxygen) and amended with nutrients and secondary acceptors by Super-Ox™ equipment, which then injects this treatment water back into the subsurface. This consistent recirculation of oxygen-rich, nutrient-rich treatment water satisfies several critical requirements of all in situ bioremediation systems, including:

Constant delivery of bioremediation products, electron acceptors, and nutrients to support accelerat-ed biological degradation of target contaminants. Continuous movement of the injected treatment water through the contaminated soil and groundwater for optimum contact with dissolved and adsorbed contaminants. Hydraulic plume control and the simultaneous production of localized groundwater gradients that encouraged the flow of injected treatment water to specific zones within a plume area. Contact: ETEC, LLC, 1887 Main St., Ste 203, Washougal, WA-98671; USA. Tel: +1-971-222- 3580; E-mail:

Bacteria, iron co-operate to clean uranium from water

Scientist John Bargar from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), the United States, has led a team using synchrotron-based X-ray techniques to study bacteria that help clean uranium from groundwater in a process called bioremediation. Their initial goal was to discover how the bacteria do it and determine the best way to help, but during the course of their research the team made an even more important discovery: nature thinks bigger than that.

The researchers discovered that bacteria don’t necessarily go straight for the uranium, as was often thought to be the case. The bacteria make their own, even tinier allies – nanoparticles of a common mineral, called iron sulfide. Then, working together, the bacteria and the iron sulfide grab molecules of a highly soluble form of uranium known as U(VI), or hexavalent uranium, and transform them into U(IV), a less-soluble form that’s much less likely to spread through the water table. According to Barger, this newly discovered partnership may be the basis of a global geochemical process that forms deposits of uranium ore.

The study, published in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, was conducted at the Old Rifle site on the Colorado River, a former uranium ore processing site in the town of Rifle, Colorado. The aquifer at the site is contaminated with uranium and is the focus of bioremediation field studies conducted by a larger team of scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the United States, and funded by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research. As part of their study, the LBNL team added acetate – essentially vinegar – to the aquifer in a series of injection wells to “feed the bugs,” as Bargar puts it, allowing acetate to flow throughout the aquifer around the wells. Contact: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575, Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California, USA. Tel: +1-940-257-015.
Source: http://www.

Nature’s way of cleaning contaminated soils

Researcher Kawina Robichaud from The Yukon Research Centre, Yukon, Canada, is currently testing that mushrooms can break down contaminants, like petroleum products, in soil and how well fungi can remediate tainted soil, particularly in the North. The Cold Climate Innovation is being fund-ed from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada to study natural methods of soil remediation.

Robichaud has set up two test sites in the Whitehorse area, one of which is contaminated by diesel and another contaminated by a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and chlorinated compounds. In addition to planting mushrooms, the graduate student is also testing the efficacy of willow and compost at both of these sites. Robichaud says the idea for the experiment came from a desire to use an ecosystem-based approach to remediate land. “Nature has had four billion years to find a way to breakdown contaminants like petroleum hydrocarbons and other problematic molecules. I believe solutions are out there and we just need to observe them,” she says.

Robichaud added wood chips to the soil in order for this metabolic process to take place. Mushrooms break down hydrocarbons as a secondary metabolic process. Fungi are primarily interested in “eating” wood but will also digest hydrocarbon molecules in the process because it resembles wood molecules, says Robichaud. It’s a concept that makes sense when you consider that petroleum comes from plant matter that has been buried and pressurized underground for hundreds of thousands of years.

Mobile technology for soil decontamination

Brem Group from Belgrade, Serbia, has been focusing on developing bioremediation method that uses a bioreactor for the growth and strengthening of micro-organisms in the process of purification. Team members of the Brem Group have come up with the innovative idea to construct a mobile bioreactor. This bioreactor could multiply the consortium of microorganisms, which are capable of quick and efficient decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons, at the actual location of the pollution. Environmental pollution caused by crude oil and oil derivatives occurs during the transport, processing and the use of fuels, which often leads to accidental spillage into the environment. Bioremediation can eliminate this kind of contamination using biological mechanisms, such as plants and microorganisms, which leave no secondary waste.

Bioremediation is a process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to return the contaminated environment to its original state. This kind of treatment is particularly interesting because it provides complete degradation or transformation of hazardous organic pollutants into harmless products. Microorganisms used in the process of purification can be purchased; however, they are not as efficient as those that already exist in the polluted soil. The existing microorganisms purify the soil naturally, but at a slow pace because there are an insufficient number of them and they are not quite resistant to the environmental effects.

“The technology we have developed is actually a process that has to be prepared separately for each case of pollution. We are specialized for the purification of soil from petroleum hydrocarbons since this represents a major problem around the globe. Bioremediation methods are diverse and are still being developing, so within our innovative approach we strived to achieve a quick, cheap, efficient, simple and the most natural solution that resulted in the creation of the mobile bioreactor,” says the Brem Group team.


Recycling carbon dioxide

Researchers from Brown University, the United States, have developed have developed a catalyst that selectively converts carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO), an active carbon molecule that can be used to make alternative fuels and commodity chemicals by tuning gold nanoparticles to just the right size. “Our study shows potential of carefully designed gold nanoparticles to recycle CO2 into useful forms of carbon,” said Shouheng Sun, professor of chemistry and one of the study’s senior authors. “The work we’ve done here is preliminary, but we think there’s great potential for this technology to be scaled up for commercial applications.” The findings of their work are published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

The idea of recycling CO2 – a greenhouse gas the planet current has in excess – is enticing, but there are obstacles. CO2 is an extremely stable molecule that must be reduced to an active form like CO to make it useful. CO is used to make synthetic natural gas, methanol, and other alternative fuels. Converting CO2 to CO isn’t easy. Prior research has shown that catalysts made of gold foil are active for this conversion, but they don’t do the job efficiently. The gold tends to react both with the CO2 and with the water in which the CO2 is dissolved, creating hydrogen byproduct rather than the desired CO.

Now that they understand exactly what part of the catalyst is active, the researchers are working to further optimize the particles. “There’s still a lot of room for improvement,” Peterson said. “We’re working on new particles that maximize these active sites.” The researchers believe these findings could be an important new avenue for recycling CO2 on a commercial scale.

A cost-effective solution for acid gas control

ADVATECH, the United States, has developed, standardized, and implemented a simplified and inte-grated wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) process that requires less capital investment and a smaller footprint than traditional designs. The Simplified Double Content Flow Scrubber (Simplified DCFS) eliminates costly and, in some instances, maintenance-intensive capital equipment. Furthermore, its design is close coupled to minimize ductwork, piping, and electrical runs, as well as overall space requirements. Specific features include:

Pre-ground Limestone with Dry Limestone Feed;
Efficient Oxidation and Agitation;
Direct Feed to Primary Dewatering; and
Integrated Stack.

Contact: ADVATECH LLC, PO Box 201080, Austin, Texas, USA-78720-1080.


Modular membrane-based CO2 removal system

Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR), the United States, tested a CO2 separation and capture system designed and developed using its MTR Polaris membrane on a coal gasification slipstream run at the U.S. National Carbon Capture Center. The Polaris™ membrane system uses a CO2-selective polymeric membrane (micro-porous films which act as semi-permanent barriers to separate two different mediums) material and module to capture CO2 from a plant’s flue gas. The membrane system includes one membrane skid (containing two membrane stages: a sulfur removal unit and a dryer), one heater skid, one compressor skid, and one refrigeration skid (with a condenser to recover liquid CO2).

MTR operated the membrane demonstration system continuously during a run that ended April 21, 2013, processing 500 pounds of syngas per hour. The system successfully produced liquid CO2 at 30 bar continuously for about 500 hours. The captured CO2 stream contained 98% CO2, the balance being light gases such as nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen.
Source: http://www.

Scientists develop CO2 sequestration technique

Scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the United States, have discovered a new technique to remove and store atmospheric carbon dioxide while generating carbon-negative hydrogen and producing alkalinity, which can be used to offset ocean acidification. The team demonstrated, at a laboratory scale, a system that uses the acidity normally produced in saline water electrolysis to accelerate silicate mineral dissolution while producing hydrogen fuel and other gases. The resulting electrolyte solution was shown to be significantly elevated in hydroxide concentration that in turn proved strongly absorptive and retentive of atmospheric CO2.

Further, the researchers suggest that the carbonate and bicarbonate produced in the process could be used to mitigate ongoing ocean acidification, similar to how an Alka Seltzer neutralizes excess acid in the stomach. “We not only found a way to remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmos-phere while producing valuable H2, we also suggest that we can help save marine ecosystems with this new technique,” said Greg Rau, an LLNL visiting scientist, senior scientist at UC Santa Cruz and lead author of a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The team concluded that further research is needed to determine optimum designs and operating procedures, cost-effectiveness, and the net environmental impact/benefit of electrochemically mediated air CO2 capture and H2 production using base minerals.

Scrubbing out acid rain

Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the United States, have developed a unique reusable organic liquid that can absorb harmful combustion gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), a primary cause of acid rain. This new process could allow power plants to capture harmful gases using less energy than current treatment methods. The team has successfully demonstrated reversible capture of all four acid gases found in industrial gas streams. “Our system is completely reversible with almost every component of combustion,” said David Heldebrant, who leads the research team.

According to our research, acid-gas-binding organic liquids promise a more effective and less energy-intensive method to capture gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2. Current methods used to capture and release harmful emissions such as SO2 from power plants use a lot of energy because they pump and heat water during the process. These power plants also use large amounts of caustic waste to capture the SO2, which is then buried in the ground. The SO2 is not stripped or reused and is extremely toxic and corrosive. Heldebrant explained that with this new organic liquid, the corrosion problem is avoided because they are not using a water-based system. The SO2 that is separated can be recycled and reused in other industries that use SO2 commercially, such as the cement and wine industries. Contact: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA-99352, USA.
Source: http://www.

SO2 emissions abatement by regenerable technology

Cansolv Technologies, Inc. Quebec, Canada, offers a unique approach to the hurdle of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) in the form of a regenerable absorption technology that allows the use of high sulfur, low value fuels while still meeting the most stringent of environmental requirements and reducing the challenging legacy obligations. Once removed by Cansolv, the by-product of pure SO2 gas can be converted to a marketable commodity such as sulfuric acid or sulfur.

As the developed and developing countries alike continue to thrive and as global population increas-es, the power sector is faced with two central yet somewhat contradicting challenges:

  • Reducing their harmful emissions; and
  • Adjusting production to the rapidly increasing energy demand.
Complicating the paradox, with the dwindling supply of low sulfur content fuel, power generators will soon face the dilemma of switching to a higher sulfur content fuel in order to continue to generate electricity; while still being required to meet their strict environmental SO2 emission restrictions. Historically, non-regenerable alkali scrubbing processes (such as caustic, limestone and lime) have been applied in these FGD applications. However, in recent years, this process has subjected utility companies to several growing legacy challenges. Contact: Cansolv Technologies, Inc. 400 rue de Maisonneuve Ouest, Suite 200, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1L4, Canada. Tel: +1-514 382-4411; E-mail:


Bioremediation: Processes, Challenges and Future Prospects

This book presents state-of-the-art research on bioremediation, which is understood as a discipline that uses organisms or their products to reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants in the environment. The book compiles the most important work of distinguished scientists around the world who are at the vanguard in this discipline, covering the environments of soil and water, as well as a great variety of microorganisms and mechanism bioremediators.

Contact: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 400 Oser Ave Suite 1600, Hauppauge NY 11788-3619, USA. Tel: +1-631-231-7269; Fax: +1-631-231-8175; E-mail:

Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, 3rd Ed.

Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, the first thorough resource manual developed exclusively for water and wastewater plant operators, has been updated and expanded. An industry standard now in its 3rd edition, this book addresses management issues and security needs, contains coverage on pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and includes regulatory changes. A complete compilation of water science, treatment information, process control procedures, problem-solving techniques, safety and health information, and administrative and technological trends, this text serves as a resource for professionals working in water and wastewater operations and operators preparing for wastewater licensure exams.

Fundamentals of Wastewater Treatment and Engineering

Fundamentals of Wastewater Treatment and Engineering introduces readers to the essential concepts of wastewater treatment, as well as the engineering design of unit processes for the sustainable treatment of municipal wastewater. Comprehensive and accessible, the book addresses each design concept with the help of an underlying theory, followed by a mathematical model or formulation. Worked-out problems demonstrate how the mathematical formulations are applied in design. Throughout, the text incorporates recent advances in treatment technologies.For the above two books, contact: CRC Press, Tel: +44-123-540-0524; Fax: +44-123-540-0525; E-mail:


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