VATIS Update Waste Management . Sep-Oct 2003

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Waste Management Sep-Oct 2003

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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VATIS Update Waste Management Oct-Dec 2016
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Asia-Pacific Tech Monitor Oct-Dec 2014




Protest to express discontent against waste incineration

Over 235 groups from 62 countries staged a major protest in the United States against waste incineration. This event was organized to coincide with the opening day of the 7th Intergovernmental Committee meeting on persistent organic pollutants, or POPs, as well as the release of a new report, Waste Incineration: a dying technology, recommending the phase-out of waste incineration. Released by the Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives group, the report states that incineration is an unreliable waste treatment method that produces secondary streams more dangerous than the original.

Public opposition has resulted in the closure of incineration plants worldwide. Jurisdictions in 15 countries have partial bans on incineration, with the Philippines imposing a total ban. The Stockholm Convention on POPs identifies waste incinerators, including cement kilns combusting toxic wastes, as major sources of dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and suggests the use of substitute techniques. UNEP has also reported that incinerators account for around 69 per cent of dioxin emissions worldwide.


Efforts to improve air quality in Asia

A group of major oil companies have signed the Singapore Statement, agreeing to strive towards better air quality management in Asia mainly help lower vehicular emissions. The new statement was launched at a Dialogue for Cleaner Fuels in Asia, supported by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia), funded by the World Bank. The twelve major regional and national oil companies who pledged their commitment to the Dialogue by endorsing the Singapore Statement, which establishes the dialogue process, include Petroleum Public Co., Chevron Texaco, ExxonMobil, BP, Indian Oil Corp., Pakistan State Oil, Petron Corp., PTT Public Co. Ltd., Shell, Showa Shell Sekiyu K. K., Singapore Petroleum Co. and Thai Oil Co. Ltd. The Dialogue is the first regional effort of this scale to bring oil companies in Asia to the table to discuss how they plan to introduce cleaner fuels for transportation in the region. CAI-Asia will be facilitating the Dialogue.


Healthcare waste disposal in the Philippines

In the Philippines, the Department of Health (DOH) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), recently strengthened their partnership aimed at lowering waste generated by hospitals, clinics and other healthcare establishments. On 19 June 2003, Ms. Elisea G. Gozun, DENR Secretary, and Mr. Manuel M. Dayrit, Health Secretary, signed a joint circular to hold a stakeholders meeting, which aimed to provide updates on the implementation of the ban on incineration, including the status on DOHs Healthcare Waste Management Programme in Metro Manila as well as relevant policies on healthcare waste management and identification of final disposal facilities for treated hospital wastes. At the scheduled meeting, nearly 170 multi-sectoral representatives from medical institutions, financial institutions, NGOs, local government units, service providers and other government agencies synchronized their efforts to finalize a framework for implementing an effective healthcare waste management plan.

According to Mr. Julian D. Amador, Director of Environmental Management Bureau, three laws have been framed to tackle the management of hospital wastes Republic Acts 6969 or the Toxic and Hazardous Substances and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990, 8749 or the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 and 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. A study undertaken by WHO revealed that the distribution of hospital wastes in developing countries are 80 per cent general healthcare wastes, 15 per cent pathological and infectious waste, 1 per cent sharp wastes and 3 per cent chemical/pharmaceutical wastes. A Healthcare Waste Generation study by DOH unveiled that there are about 2,068 hospitals in the Philippines, including 71 hospitals under DOH which generate around 28.2 t/d of hospital wastes.


Ban on POPs in the European Union

The European Commission intends to prohibit in the European Union (EU) the production of specified persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are presently being controlled by two international treaties the UNECE Protocol on POPs and the Stockholm Convention. A draft regulation has been introduced to enable EU to speedily ratify the POPs convention and protocol, thus demonstrating European leadership on the issue. The protocol lists 16 priority pollutants, including eight pesticides like DDT, two industrial chemicals (PCB and hexachlorobenzene) and three groups of unintentionally produced by-products, like dioxins and furans. Altogether 150 governments and EU have signed the convention, with 30 governments having already ratified it.


Electronic waste build-up in China

Chinas 20-year consumer revolution has left behind a legacy of tens of millions of redundant electronic and electrical appliances. The government has to now dispose at least five million televisions, six million washing machines and four million fridges every year from this year onwards. At least five million computers and tens of millions of mobile phones are already obsolete. Consumers own an estimated 370 million TVs, 190 million washing machines, 150 million fridges, 20 million computers and 200 million mobile phones.

Hi-tech electronic products contain complex blends of metals, plastics and other materials, often including toxic compounds such as cadmium, lead, mercury, etc. While some of the discarded e-waste are buried in landfill sites, a few are dismantled at small-scale recycling facilities. Recyclers try to recover metals like gold, silver, copper, chromium and tin, but large quantities of chemicals employed in this process are often flushed into local rivers. The State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) intends to devise a system of fees and regulations giving responsibility for waste disposal to manufacturers of electronic goods, under the principle of polluter pays.


Chinese initiatives to mitigate electronic pollution

New measures will be implemented in China to reduce the levels of six harmful substances currently found in electronic goods mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, PBDE as well as PBB. These substances will be subsequently banned, in July 2006. While draft regulations to enforce the latest rule are still under consideration, the ban is expected to affect products such as communications equipment, meters, computers and accessories, and electronic instruments. Giving examples of products affected by the proposed ban, an official cited printed circuit boards and picture tubes that contain lead.

Mercury is present in liquid crystal displays and disk drives; cadmium can be found in batteries, semiconductors and circuit boards. It has been established that these toxic elements could seep into the soil and groundwater, and may eventually get into the food chain. On 13 February, the European Union (EU) passed two orders restricting these same compounds. Parallel to China, EU will completely ban these substances from July 2006.


Stringent controls on electronic waste in Thailand

Mr. Sopon Tatichotiphan, Director of Wastes and Hazardous Substances Management Bureau, Thailand, has stated that the country is likely to become a dump-yard for electronic wastes from Japan and the United States. Lack of controls on imported second-hand appliances facilitate developed nations to ship electronic wastes to developing countries by breaking down products into parts for sale locally or repairing them for re-export. At a seminar organized by the Thai Society of Environmental Journalists, Mr. Tatichotiphan stated that electronic wastes management schemes in Thailand are very weak. He attributed the poor management of electronic junk containing toxic substances to the absence of coordination between the departments of Customs, Pollution Control, Foreign Trade and Industrial works. He also opined that these departments must implement stricter measures to limit and screen the import of second-hand electronic goods from industrial countries to prevent environmental problems.

Additionally, a researcher with the National Metal and Materials Technology Centre has suggested that the local electronics industry should focus on reducing the use of toxic components in their products and design eco-friendly devices to avoid trade sanctions from the European Union (EU). As of December 2006, EU will require that electrical and electronic goods be free from toxic substances and that they can be reused or recycled. If these standards are not met, exporters have to pay the disposal costs or else return the waste to its point of origin.


Japan to trim waste burial

Japan has initiated a plan to halve the amount of trash it puts into landfills by 2010. The idea is to reduce the amount of waste buried from 56 million tonnes in 2002 to 28 million tonnes by 2010 through recycling and promoting conservation. Several offshore islands have been created from excess landfill material and the Ministrys most recent ideas include digging up old landfills and incinerating their contents to make room for more waste. A tax on the plastic bags handed out at supermarkets is also under consideration. Ireland successfully introduced such a levy last year.


New rules in China for medical wastes

As part of its efforts to regulate the increasing amount of toxic wastes discharged by medical institutions, a State Council Decree has been published by the Chinese government. The Provisions on the Control of Medical Wastes, incorporates seven articles and 57 clauses to deal with various matters related to the issue, such as handling of medical wastes, supervision and responsibilities of the relevant parties. The new legislation is aimed at strengthening safety issues while handling medical wastes e.g. preventing dispersal of disease-causing microbes, environment protection and ensuring human health.


India to safeguard environmental health

The Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has come out with a comprehensive Vision Statement on Environmental Health that takes into account the detrimental effects of hazardous and biomedical wastes, climate change and radiation on human health. This statement, prepared in consultation with various stakeholders, also delves into the strategies and action plans required at various levels to ensure health for all. A main feature of the MoEF statement is that it takes into consideration the unique problems relating to environmental health in various areas of the country. It has recommended focused Health Risk Studies, to understand the cause-effect relationship in clear terms for the benefit of policy-makers.

Regarding air pollution and its effect on health, the statement suggests environmental health risk assessment studies in different parts of the country to establish the correlation between manifestations of various diseases and air pollution. On water pollution, it has been recommended that toxic effluents should not be allowed to be discharged into water bodies and emphasis laid on zero-discharge by way of recycling and reuse. Dealing with the effect of biomedical and hazardous wastes, the statement opts for inventorization and guidelines for such substances. The statement expresses apprehension that climate changes may pose potential health risks. It says rise in temperature may lead to increase in vector-borne diseases, e.g. malaria, dengue, etc. The statement advocates setting up a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences with regional centres. It recognizes the need to alter the existing record and registration systems in nursing homes and hospitals by adding environmental and occupational history in the treatment of diseases.


Malaysias agenda for waste reduction 

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Malaysia, plans to reintroduce the Malaysian Agenda for Waste Reduction (MAWAR) programme, initially launched in 1996, in an effort to minimize wastes in the local industrial sector. MAWAR was originally introduced to encourage major waste producers e.g. those involved in the chemical, electronics, semiconductor, industrial gas and packaging sectors to design their own waste reduction strategies. At present, compliance is voluntary.


Philippines regulates asbestos production

In the Philippines, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), through its Environmental Management Bureau, or EMB, has clarified the guidelines for reviewing and evaluation of applications from asbestos manufacturers. Chemical Control Order for Asbestos, or DAO 2000-02, strictly implements proper importation, manufacture and use of asbestos as well as the storage, transport and disposal of the waste it generates. The Director of EMB stated that a memorandum circular proclaimed last October outlines the functions of EMB regional offices in handling Environment Compliance Certificate (ECC) applications from asbestos waste management providers. It stipulates, among others, putting-up an asbestos containment facility (ACF). For off-site disposal, a DENR-approved sanitary landfill and/or ACF is required to facilitate approval of an ECC application. On-site storage and disposal of wastes are permitted if a Memorandum of Agreement has been signed by the Provider and Generator notifying the concerned regional authority for an amendment of their ECC incorporating the sites for asbestos.


Car recycling increasing in Japan

In Japan, the Environment Ministry and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry are planning to make it mandatory for car manufacturers to recycle around 30 per cent of end-of-life vehicle residue by the year 2006. This limit will be further raised to 50 per cent by 2010 and around 70 per cent by 2015. The targets will formally be enshrined in a car recycling law to be put in place by the end of next year. The nations car industry has voluntarily set a target of recycling over 95 per cent of end-of-life vehicles by 2015. At present, 80 per cent of scrapped vehicles, by weight, are recycled while the remaining mixture of materials, such as resins and textiles, is crushed. A large portion of this waste is sent to landfills.



Granulator for recycling films

Hosokawa Alpine AG & Co. OHG, Germany, offers specially optimized ROTOPLEX film granulators as an economical solution for competent recycling of plastic films, including edge trims, cast film, film blends, reject reels, film webs, film heaps or finished films. The granulator comprises a Relief Box for conveying air, thereby ensuring tension/problem-free suction and transport of edge trims. 

Contact: Impetus Inc., K 56/4, Annanagar (E), Chennai 600 102, Tamil Nadu, India. Tel: +91 (44) 6260 946 


Popular Plastics and Packaging, June 2003

Size reduction of thermoplastics

In Germany, under a project aided by the German Federal Foundation Environment, WEIMA Maschinenbau and its partners have together developed size reduction systems for thermoplastics reinforced by long and continuous filaments. Utilization of thermoplastic materials reinforced by long and continuous filaments to produce high-value, long filament reinforced extrusion parts needs a gentle size-reduction of the materials to be used into lumps of grinding stock in order to achieve a large as possible length of the filament. The properties of the components to be produced from this grinding stock are determined to a large extent by the filament length.

Conventional WEIMA single-shaft size reduction machines, of WLK series, yielded the most promising results. These systems were further developed and tested with different knives, knife arrangements, screen hole geometries, etc. Results from these trials led to the development of a new rotor with special knives and bed knives, and a special screening technique. Another main criterion when designing the machine was the fact that the unit would be set up within the production environment. Therefore, a cyclone has been incorporated to eliminate the release of any fine portions, that are sucked off by vacuum within the machine body. As such, the machines may be fully integrated into production methods with minimal staff. In case of a certain filling level they start operating automatically and switch off as soon as the funnel is empty. 

Contact: WEIMA Maschinenbau GmbH, Gewerbegebiet Bustadt, D 74360 - IIsfeld, Germany. Tel: +49 (070) 6295 700; Fax: +49 (070) 6295 7092


Website: or 

Plastics can enhance durability of roads

In India, K.K Plastic Waste Management Pvt. Ltd. and researchers from Bangalore University have developed a new method to use plastic wastes for road reconstruction. In this novel technique, bitumen is mixed with melted plastics in a specific ratio. Plastic serves as a strong binding agent for tar, making the asphalt last longer. A stretch of road made with the plastic waste mix is reported to be three times better than conventional roads. On a pilot basis, the company has already laid more than 35 km of roads and experts from the Centre for Transportation Engineering, Bangalore University, evaluated the strength and durability of these roads. Key benefits of this approach include prevention of rainwater seepage and, as each kilometre of road with an average width requires over two tonnes of polyblend, the use of waste plastics will lower the quantum non-biodegradable wastes.


Fuel from plastic wastes

A novel technique to convert waste plastics into fuel has been developed by Prof. Alka Umesh Zadgaonkar at GH Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India. In this process, 1 kg of plastic waste is converted into mixed fuel over a period of 3 h. Fractional distillation of the mixed fuel yields 800 ml of petrol.

Bio Energy News, March 2003 

PET recycling

Recycling Technology Industries, 
India, is offering a new system for recycling waste PET bottles. Post-consumer PET fed into the grinder machine is reduced into flakes that are then manually fed into a drier, for drying and removal of moisture from PET flakes. In the next step, a screw feeder conveys the flakes efficiently and continuously into a single screw extruder for plasticization and homogenization. After passing through a screen changer, filter, die-hole, water ank and pelletizer, PET flakes are obtained as granules. 

Contact: Recycling Technology Industries Ltd., Shed No. C1B-1601, GIDC, Umbergaon 396171, Valsad, Gujarat, India. Tel: +91 (260) 2563 391/392; Fax: +91 (260) 2562 892



New tertiary recycling process

Two companies based in the United States, Titan Technologies Inc. and Adherent Technologies, are testing a proprietary method for tertiary recycling of a wide range of plastics, including commodity plastics, aircraft transparencies, auto shredder residue, used oil filters, composite materials and scrap electronics. The new method breaks down polymeric materials into a mix of low molecular weight hydrocarbons that could be refined and reused as chemicals or fuels. Since a majority of electronic wastes contain complex mixtures of plastics, adhesives, metals, fillers and reinforcing fibres, the individual material types cannot be reclaimed for reuse. However, tertiary recycling separates organic components from the non-organics as a gas, which is subsequently condensed into liquid form. In the absence of organics, metals and fibres can be retrieved using various separation techniques. Thus, tertiary recycling is essential for recycling complex mixtures found in electronic scrap.

Results have demonstrated that the catalytic conversion process used by Titan is applicable to a wide variety of polymer-based material, yielding valuable hydrocarbon fractions from waste. The non-polluting closed-loop process operates at a temperature of 200C. Hydrocarbons obtained by this method can be reused as fuels, chemicals or monomers. Metals, 
fibres and fillers segregated during the breakdown process may be reclaimed and reused. Carbon fibres recovered from the composite may be used in moulding compounds.

Adherent Technologies has designed an economic model that includes cost of obtaining scrap, collection, transport and size reduction of the scrap, catalytic conversion, capital and operating costs, product separation, packaging and transportation to market costs. Projections from this model indicate that the catalytic conversion recycling process would be highly profitable provided adequate volumes of scrap are obtained for recycling. Implementation on a large scale could greatly lower the amount of scrap electronics entering landfills. 

Contact: Mr. Ronald L. Wilder, Titan Technologies Inc., 3206, Candelaria NE, Albuquerque, NM 87107, United States of America. Tel: +1 (505) 8840 272; Fax: +1 (505) 8817 113



Dibenzyl terephthalate synthesis from PET

In the United States, researchers at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, have developed a lab-scale process for recycling PET bottles. A transesterification reaction is employed to depolymerize PET. At atmospheric pressure, in refluxing benzyl alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, PET is converted into dibenzyl terephthalate in moderate yields. In another process aimed at producing dibenzyl terephthalate, terephthaloyl chloride is used as the starting material. The diester from these two approaches is characterized using TLC, melting points, and IR/NMR spectroscopy. Contact: Mr. Craig J. Donahue/Ms. Cynthia Warner/Ms. Jennifer Exline, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan, MI 48128 1491, United States of America.


Plastic solution for energy crisis

Scientists at the Shriram Institute of Industrial Research, India, have developed indigenous technology to convert non-biodegradable plastic wastes into an eco-friendly fuel. In this technique, waste plastics are heated to 110C, mixed with non-plastic wastes, compacted and then cut into blocks. With low moisture levels and ash content, the shelf-stable blocks have a calorific value higher than coal. Moreover, unlike plastics, the green fuel burns easily without any sooty flames and could be stored for ages. This fuel composite can be used as a coal substitute in industrial and domestic sectors. It would be especially useful in rural areas, where women can blend agricultural wastes with plastic waste into blocks of fuel.


Reusing plastics

Sharp Corp., Japan, has developed a new process to recycle and reuse plastics recovered from four home appliances air-conditioners, television sets, refrigerators and washing machines. The recycled material can be reused to manufacture new products without compromising the quality and strength of the material. Sharp has succeeded in prolonging the life of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) by adding an antioxidant and other agents. PP and PS obtained from the new process exhibit properties akin to that of the virgin material. Sharp has started using the recycled plastics for new products.



Novel disposal unit gains international recognition

A low-cost medical waste disposal system designed by students at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras has won an international award. The Innovative Technologies for Treatment of Medical Waste competition was conducted by the Healthcare Without Harm (HCWH), 
a NGO with 350 members from 38 nations. IITs integrated medical waste treatment system consists of an autoclave, a shredder, collection and segregation plant, and a treatment and disposal unit. Biomedical waste is first separated into metal, glass and similar fractions. The waste volume is then reduced and disinfected in a vessel, akin to a household washing device. Steam is directed to a pressurized chamber in which the reduced waste is treated. A cutter is employed to shred metallic wastes, like syringes or needles. For other kinds of waste, a two-way rotating blade is used. After sterilization, the liquid content is drained into the municipal waste system while the solids part is dehydrated and disposed as dry solid.


Sterilization plant

In New Zealand, Crusader Engineering Ltd. is offering next-generation rotary autoclave (RAC) steam sterilization plants for safe, efficient and documented destruction of medical, quarantine and veterinarian wastes. The patented system complies with the highest international standard in all categories of medical waste, including sharps and red bag waste, as well as all classes of quarantine and veterinary wastes. A few benefits of employing Crusaders RAC plant include:
  • Breaks open sealed bags and containers to sterilize contents
  • Can easily dispose human body parts, veterinarian and quarantine wastes
  • Higher pressure and temperature for maximum sterilization
  • Drier wastes result in reduced disposal costs if sent to landfill
  • Massive volume reduction and
  • Proven in heavy industrial application.

The RAC models can treat from 49 to 1,000 kg of wastes in a single charge. 

Contact: Crusader Engineering Limited, 17, Lorien Place, East Tamaki, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: +64 (9) 2740 811; Fax: +64 (9) 2749 898.


System to sterilize medical wastes

Waste Processing Solutions Co., the United States, is offering SSM technology to render medical wastes sterile, thus enabling easy disposal. SSM is a hardware/software system designed to safely, efficiently and effectively dispose infectious wastes at the point of generation. It has a dimension of approximately 2.89 2.10 1.22 m (length height width) and weighs around 1,588 kg. A 159 kg filter-separator for dewatering processed solids measures 1 1.52 m. By exposing red bag waste to superheated water and steam, together with a proprietary cutting system, the SSM renders infectious medical waste non-infectious, non-toxic and non-recognizable. Benefits of SSM technology include:
  • Lower disposal costs and control of future costs
  • Reduced liability less handling, transport and reliance on third party disposal
  • Eliminates the need for tracking wastes and
  • Waste reduction by dissolving degradables, sterilizing infectious materials and liquids, and reducing the volume of solid waste by 80 per cent or more.

Contact: Waste Processing Solutions Co., 3051, Washington Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21230, United States of America. Tel: +1 (443) 5244 245; Fax: +1 (443) 5244 250 

E-mail: info@wasteprocessingsolutions 


Treatment system for hospital wastes

BMEI Co. Ltd., China, offers equipment suitable for treating hospital wastes on a large scale. Waste is burned at a high temperature, thus achieving complete disinfection and deodorization. A heat exchanger can be employed to reutilize waste heat. Advanced automatic control ensures safe and reliable operation at a low cost. 

Contact: BMEI Co. Ltd., No. 4, GongTiBeiLu, ChaoYang, Beijing, China. Tel: +86 (010) 6594 5638; Fax: +86 (010) 6502 3278



New incinerator

Biomedical incinerators offered by Alfa-Therm Ltd., India, can treat a wide variety of wastes generated in medical institutions like hospitals and nursing homes. In the incineration process, waste is thermally decomposed in the primary chamber at about 80050C. Gaseous products are totally oxidized in the secondary chamber due to adequate residence time, a temperature of 1,05050C, high turbulence and 100 per cent excess air. The flame port through which gases pass from the primary to the secondary chamber is sized to achieve high velocity required for excellent mixing of combustion air and gases. Both chambers are fitted with burners to fire support fuel for initial heating up of the chamber to the required temperatures as well as to maintain these temperatures.

The incinerator has a twin-chamber design, where the refractory lined chambers are mounted one atop the other. Volatization is achieved in the primary chamber by supplying air through various nozzles on all sides of the chamber. Heat is generated by a fuel oil burner with auto-operation system. After waste is manually fed into the primary chamber, volatilized/gasified matter enters the secondary chamber whose heat source is an auto-controlled fuel oil secondary burner. Gases exiting the secondary chamber flow into a Venturi scrubber where they are treated with caustic and scrubbed. The gas stream finally enters the droplet separator wherein moisture is removed, thus lowering flue gas temperature to permissible levels before it is vented through a 30 m high stack.

A control panel supplied along with the incinerator houses the primary and secondary burner controls and temperature controllers, starters, re-circulating pump controls, isolator switches, overload relays for burners and fans, flue gas temperature indicator and audio visual alarms for abnormal workings. 

Contact: Alfa-Therm Ltd., 6, Community Centre, Mayapuri Industrial Area Phase - I, New Delhi 110 064, India. Tel/Fax: +91 (11) 2811 5222/5396



Electron beam to destroy pathogens

ScanTech Sciences LLC, the United States, offers an extremely versatile and effective electron beam system for pasteurizing food and pathogen destruction. The 10 MeV electrons produced by STS 10/X guarantee optimal penetration in all the above mentioned applications. An electron beam system is a very effective and flexible source of ionizing radiation, which when interacting with a living cell damages the DNA and leads to cell death. High-energy electrons from an electron beam destroy all types of pathogens including fungi, viruses, bacteria, parasites, spores and other organisms effectively. Key features of STS 10/X include:
  • The systems installation meets international and local safety needs;
  • The control system integrates all aspects of the process, including the conveyor and radiation equipment. A computer monitors the dose sensors and the process to ensure the quality of the product treatment; and
  • An automated control system 
    monitors key operating parameters through a self-diagnostic process, while an automatic safe shutdown mode turns off the system when any parameter exceeds operating limits.

Contact: ScanTech Sciences LLC, 430, 10th Street, N.W Atlanta, GA 30313, United States of America. Tel: +1 (404) 5266 220



Waste process centre

A solid waste management centre has been set up in India, under a joint initiative by Thane Municipal Corp. and the Enviro-Vigil Committee, an NGO. This pilot project facilitates both treatment and disposal of biomedical wastes. The biogas plant, manufactured by Thermax, sustains a capacity of 50 kg/h (1,000 kg/d). This unit incorporates primary and secondary chambers, a 30 m long chimney, Venturi scrubber, shredder and autoclave. The plant complies with pollution control requirements.



PCB recycling

In the United Kingdom, C-Tech Innovation, the University of Birmingham and Alchema have jointly developed a novel cost-effective technology to dissolve metals from waste circuit boards with previously unattainable selectivity. In this process, solder is first removed, followed by copper and finally the precious metals. C-Tech had previously developed the patented selective leaching technology, which forms the heart of the process, with Cambridge University and Alpha-Fry.

Under the BETSCRAP project, C-Tech is developing two approaches to recover metals fully and efficiently. One process sequentially strips off solder tin and lead, using a patented fluoroboric acid-based leach, and copper with cupric chloride. Metals are reclaimed via electrochemical recovery, regenerating the leachants for reuse. The alternative route employs the ability of microwave energy to assist the leaching process, thus achieving faster and less aggressive leachant conditions than traditional processes. In each case, precious metals are recovered through a bio-electrochemical reactor.


Advanced recycling facility

In Japan, Matsushita Electric has set up a US$43 million advanced recycling plant for processing waste household appliances. In the first year of operation, Matsushita Eco-Technology Centre (Metec) handled over 500,000 TVs, air-conditioners, washing machines and refrigerators. Each unit is taken apart, either by hand, as in the case of TVs, or by brute force, as done with washing machines, and the parts are then separated. Glass in TVs is carefully dissected using Matsushitas own breed of cutter to keep toxic leaded glass in the rear portion away from the safer glass in the screen. The result is two kinds of glass that end up in new TV sets. Separating the different parts of a washing machine requires a complex arrangement of magnets and wind blowers to produce cleanly divided waste. Different colours of polypropylene plastics tend to end up together in a muddy-coloured mix, which the company uses in non-aesthetic parts that remain out of sight in new machines. Similar meticulous techniques are used on fridges and air-conditioners.


New recycling system

Shred-Tech, Canada, is offering a recycling system as a cost-effective solution to reduce and recycle post-consumer electronic products. The automated ESR-6000 requires five operators to introduce equipment into the system and for removing the finished product. This unit recovers dust and fines, which may contain 84 g or more of precious metal per tonne of material. Fines and dust thus recovered must be processed at a smelter for complete recovery.

ESR-6000 combines electrical and mechanical technology into two key stages. In the first stage, electronic waste products enter the automatic feed system and are reduced using primary and secondary shredders. A tertiary shredder further reduces the material, allowing for free-flowing materials, without encapsulating the various metals present in electronic scrap. In the second stage, the parts are separated using electromagnetic separators, rare earth magnets and vibration separators. At each separation stage, the recovered material is transported to its own collection area. The isolated constituents are shipped off-site for refining/recycling.
Computers and cameras are used to control and monitor the operation. The electrical controls include touch screens for operator-machine interface. In addition, the system incorporates software driven self-diagnostics and links to engineers and technicians via a direct phone modem. The ESR-6000 occupies about 17,000 ft2 of floor space and 33,000 ft2 of space is required for receiving and storage. 

Contact: Shred-Tech, 295, Pinebush Road, Cambridge, Ontario N1T 1B2, Canada. Tel: +1 (519) 6213 560; Fax: +1 (519) 6210 688



Recycling CDs

The United Kingdom-based Polymer Reprocessors Ltd. offers a unique and patented non-chemical process for recycling CDs and CD-ROMs. In this process, cased CD material is sent to a decollation centre where the integral parts (CD/jewel case/paper inserts) are segregated. While the paper fraction is pulped and used to manufacture cardboard, the jewel case is granulated and fed into an extrusion system fitted with a laser filter for contaminant removal. The resulting high-quality crystal polystyrene pellet is reused in various applications like CD jewel cases, artificial wood and insulating foam.

Discs are processed in proprietary and patented CD recyclers where the paint, aluminium and data are removed from the disc surface. The disc is then granulated, blended and compounded into high-quality injection moulding grade polycarbonate, for use in applications like burglar alarm boxes, street lighting, lenses, etc. 

Contact: Polymer Reprocessors Ltd., Reeds Lane, Moreton, Wirral CH46 1DW, United Kingdom. Tel/Fax: +44 (0151) 6060 456/427.



Activated carbon adsorption systems

CSM Worldwide, the United States, is offering ADSOLV solvent recovery system based on the highly proven combination of activated carbon adsorption and direct steam desorption. This unit routes solvent laden air (SLA) through a cooler and filter before it is directed to one of several activated carbon vessels, where the solvent is adsorbed on to the carbon bed while clean exhaust is released. Once a vessel gets saturated, SLA is directed to another vessel while the adsorber is regenerated using low-pressure steam for desorption. The desorbed solvent is then condensed and decanted before returning to the manufacturing process. Key benefits of ADSOLV are:
  • Recovery efficiency greater than 99 per cent;
  • Guaranteed quality and performance in more than 100 installations worldwide;
  • Quick payback periods establish good return on investments;
  • Low operating cost;
  • PLC-based, automated control systems; and
  • Broad range of applications.

RAYSORB recovery units employ activated carbon adsorption along with a dry regeneration technique. Heated nitrogen is used to desorb and recover solvents. Designed for energy efficiency, RAYSORB uses a heat accumulator, heat pump and heat storage between regeneration cycles. Key benefits of RAYSORB:

  • Recovery exceeds 99 per cent;
  • No wastewater is produced; and
  • Long operating life and low operating cost.

The company also offers RaySolv skid-mounted modular distillation systems. The packaged distillation system methods include steam and air stripping, azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, evaporation, binary fractionation, liquid-liquid extraction and liquid phase adsorption.

Contact: CSM Worldwide Inc., 269, Sheffield Street, Mountainside, NJ 07092, United States of America. Tel: +1 (908) 2332 882; Fax: +1 (908) 2331 064.


Solvent and solute recovery system

Sakura Seisakusho Ltd., Japan, is offering a continuously fully closed solvent and solute recovery system to separate the solid part in powdery form from the liquid part of a waste liquid stream. This is achieved by transforming the waste liquid into thin film by employing centrifugal force and vaporizing it instantly with single-pass heating. This system is especially effective for disposing washing wastes produced in automobile painting and demonstrates efficacy in preventing bad odour, improved solvent recovery, reduction in the volume of liquid waste, etc.
The vertical system comprises, from the top, drive motor, upper bearing, shaft seal part, evaporation and separating chamber, cylindrical heating chamber with jacket (cylinder unit having wall face), exhaust chamber (powder receiving tank or exhaust valve) and rotational shaft. The latter is provided with a dispersing rotor, mobile rotor and mobile blade. Liquid waste injected under pressure by a pump hits against the dispersing rotor and drops while being distributed uniformly in the shape of a thin film on the jacket with the centrifugal force of the dispersing rotor, turning simultaneously with the rotational shaft. The dropping waste liquid is pushed against the heating face by the centrifugal action of the mobile blade and while the solvent instantly evaporates, the solute is condensed into powder. Key features include:
  • Little influence of heat thanks to a short treating time;
  • High solvent recovery ratio and possibility of reduction of volume of residues to a high concentration;
  • Requires little floor space;
  • Double functions of concentrator and drier;
  • Most suitable for recovering high added value matter; and
  • Eliminates the use of chemicals, labour saving, safe and hygienic.

Contact: Sakura Seisakusho Ltd., 2-7-12, Nonakaminami, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532 0022, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 6302 5321; Fax: +81 (6) 6302 5320

Website: or 

TPSA-based recovery system

ACTOCRYSTA-D solvent recovery system developed by Kobe Steel Ltd., Japan, is based on temperature and pressure swing adsorption, or TPSA, method where the solvent is desorbed from activated charcoal by heating under reduced pressure. The system basically includes several adsorption columns with honeycomb activated charcoal, along with sheet heater, blowers, a vacuum pump and condenser. In each adsorption tower, adsorption, desorption and cooling processes are repeated to remove solvent from intake air, as well as for concentration and recovery of the solvent. Most (over 95 per cent) of the solvent material is recovered. 

Contact: Kobe Steel Limited, High Functional Materials Dept., Welding Division, 100-1, Miyamae Fujisawa 251, Japan. Tel: +81 (466) 203 281; Fax: +81 (466) 203 215; 



Advanced solvent recovery systems

DSC Environmental, based in the United States, is offering advanced solvent recovery units that are safe, efficient and completely automated. DSCs patented technique quickly and easily fractionates, separates and recycles the solvent component from the spent wastes. The vacuum-aided systems virtually recover 100 per cent of the solvents and refine them into a clean and pure state. A VOC detector incorporated permits for a dry residual to be obtained that can be landfilled. A smart and active feedback control system headed by a powerful, fully enhanced PLC with a host of transducers, sensors and switches makes the operation safe and effortless with the simple touch of a button.
DSC units can process practically all solvents from thinners to aromatics, and from halogenated solvents to water. They are designed to process solvent waste streams that contain solids like paint waste, heavy metals, pigments and even most polymers, e.g. polyesters and some thermosetting resins. The output capacities vary from unit to unit the smallest system can easily process 32-90 l/h depending on the solvent/solid blend and the largest can be tailored for any stipulated volume. Key benefits of the DSC system are:
  • Eliminate or reduce expenses on solvent disposal;
  • Landfill the dry residue results in additional savings on disposal costs and waste reduc-
    tion, depending on the composition of waste residual;
  • Solvents are recycled to a purity level of 0.3 micron;
  • Eliminates or reduces expenses on new solvent purchases by recycling virtually 100 per cent of solvents from the waste stream;
  • Complete automation practically eliminates labour costs; and
  • Raises production capacity.

Contact: DSC Environmental, 1109, N. Armando Street, Anaheim, California, CA 92806, United States of America. Tel: +1 (714) 2389 251; Fax: +1 (714) 2381 256



Bacterium detoxifies chlorinated pollutants

Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology, the United States, have isolated a novel microbe that thrives on chlorinated compounds, leaving behind environmentally benign end products. This naturally occurring bacterium, designated Dehalococcoides strain BAV1, is the result of five years of field and lab studies, with funds provided by the National Science Foundation and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Programme. According to lead researcher Prof. Frank Loeffler, Isolation of this bacterium enables in-depth studies on the organism and dechlorination process. Data thus obtained could be used to engineer systems in the environment so that the degradation of common solvents like tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) would not stop at the toxic intermediate stage, but would rather continue to be dechlorinated to a non-toxic end product, such as ethene.

Researchers recently used BAV1 in a successful pilot demonstration of in-place bioremediation. At the contaminated site, PCE penetrated the water table and contaminated potable water wells in the area. The contaminants also migrated through the groundwater into a nearby lake, which attracts swimmers and sunbathers to its beaches and water. In 14 16 20 ft (length width depth) test plots, researchers compared a non-treated control section to two bioremediation approaches using BAV1, which already occurs at this site in low numbers. The first strategy, known as biostimulation, added lactate and nutrients to the plot. In another section, the team injected a mixed culture containing high numbers of BAV1 along with nutrients, a process called bioaugmentation. This technique resulted in complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene within six weeks. On the other hand, biostimulation worked but took more time to accomplish detoxification. 

Contact: Ms. Jane M. Sanders, Georgia Institute of Technology, United States of America. Tel: +1 (404) 8942 214




High-quality composting process

Bedminster AB, Sweden, offers a new patented composting method to transform household wastes, park wastes and other organic wastes like sewage sludge into a profitable product. Equipment such as eddy current separator, gravity separator, magnets and destoner are employed in the Bedminster technique. Waste material is loaded into a rotary composting drum after separating non-organic parts such as metals and plastics. Over the span of 2-3 days, micro-organisms degrade organic matter into raw compost inside the compartments of the composting drum. Controlled temperatures and time ensure that the waste material is sanitized. Neither chemicals nor heat is applied. After the process, the remaining inorganic components are segregated from raw compost and the microbes continue to break down raw compost for another 3-7 weeks.

A quality assurance programme is used to guarantee that consistent high-quality compost is obtained. 

Contact: Bedminster AB, Torpangsvagen 2, Stora Vika 14860, Sweden. Tel: +46 (085) 2035 919; Fax: +46 (085) 2035 901


Website:  or 

Patented method yields compost  from organic wastes

The United States-based American Bio Tech offers patented AirLance process to quickly, efficiently and reliably convert organic wastes into high-quality marketable compost. The unique and highly effective AirLance aeration and material handling process allows composting to be achieved at very high metabolic rates with minimal energy input. The fully enclosed design and patented closed loop aeration system lowers the total volume of spent process air leaving the facility, and collects and processes all spent process air. Air is collected hot and saturated deep within the biomass and is not diluted by any building ventilation. This allows for effective mechanical and thermodynamic removal of the largest quantities of odour-causing constituents, even before polishing with a biofilter. The modular design of the AirLance process allows it to be scaled up or down. This in-vessel composting technology has been proved to be more cost-effective and energy-efficient than any competitive recycling technology in the world and has a small footprint.

In operation, pre-sized organic waste (reduced to 0.5 inch or less) and biosolids are proportionally fed into a mixer, blended and loaded into cells. The ability to use finer organic waste reduces consumption and simplifies processing. It eliminates many additional costly sorting and screening steps required with static piles. The compost layers in the cell stack like a deck of cards with the bottom card removed daily and a new card placed on top to maintain the deck height. Gravity moves and mixes compost in the cells as a void is made daily at the bottom of the cell by the transversing auger. Only a single auger is required for multiple compost cells set in a row. Finished compost is removed once a day with a single pass removing a layer off the bottom. The efficient unloading/loading operation requires about 0.5 h per cell, with the auger parking at the end in an open accessible area for easy inspection and maintenance. 

Contact: Mr. John Laurenson, President, American Bio Tech, 280, Business Park Circle, St. Augustine, Florida 32095, United States of America. Tel: +1 (904) 9405 140



Compost-fortified hydroseeding mulch

Hamiliton Manufacturing, the United States, offers hydroseeding mulch produced from a variety of organic residuals including post-consumer recycled paper and compost. The hydroseeding mulch products are sold in various regions. Some recent projects include revegetation of an earthquake mud-slide area in Taiwan and erosion control in the Mongolian desert. A recent development is a hydroseeding mulch product that includes compost. This hydrocompost is utilized for problem sites, especially where the soil is infertile.



Removing mercury from flue gas

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the United States, have developed a process to remove mercury from flue gases emitted by coal-fired power plants. Trials have shown that a high level of elemental mercury removal, as mercurous sulphate and mercuric oxide, is feasible by irradiation with 253.7 nm ultraviolet light. Dubbed the GP 254 process, the system uses equipment similar to those used in water treatment plants to eradicate microbes. Initial analysis suggests that annual operating costs for the GP 254 process would be lower than activated carbon injection systems.


Scrubbing systems

Belco Technologies Corporation, the United States, offers LABSORB regenerative wet scrubbing system for removal and recovery of SO2 from flue gas and process gas flows at petroleum refineries, metallurgical plants, power generation facilities and industrial plants. In this system, the scrubbing reagent is regenerated for reuse while simultaneously recovering a high concentration stream of SO2 as by-product. This process is highly flexible and complies with the most stringent emission legislation. LABSORB is most economical while cleaning flue gases with high SO2 concentrations: the higher the SO2 level, the more the savings.

EDV wet scrubbing technologies offer proven refinery performance for every application. These systems operate without any outage requirements or emission excursions. They are in use worldwide for controlling flue gas particulate as well as SO2 emissions from incinerators, fired heaters, FCCUs, boilers and other industrial applications. No Pressure Drop (NPD) design, the system that can achieve very high efficiency even at a zero pressure drop, is available.

A fully semi-dry scrubbing system to remove particulate matter and acid gases from combustion flue gas is also provided by the company. The advanced semi-dry scrubbing unit can capture mercury, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. At the heart of this unit is a spray drier-absorber. Dried reaction products and fly-ash are swept out of the reactor, into a particulate collector, where they are removed from the flue gas.

ND wet electrostatic precipitators are extremely effective in removing acid mists, particulates, metals, 
dust and condensables present in process gas streams. The systems are based on well-proven technological innovations that overcome the deficiencies of conventional tube-type designs and precipitators that extensively use non-conductive plastics or lead. These systems utilize parallel up-flow gas passages, rigid mast emitting electrodes and conductive fibreglass reinforced plastic collecting plates within a rectangular fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) shell. 

Contact: Belco Technologies Corp., 7, Entin Road, Parsippany, New Jersey 07054, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (973) 8844 700/775


Biofiltration of gaseous effluents

AirScience Technologies, Canada, offers a gaseous effluent biofiltration process to treat halogenated and volatile organic compounds (HOCs or VOCs), monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain alcohols. Biological purification of gases involves conveying the gas through a filter medium, which incorporates non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Gases are treated by biodegradation, sorption and filtration. This process normally needs a pre-humidification stage to saturate the air with water. Biofiltration offers a high potential of use in sewage treatment facilities, soil treatment sites, composting centres and the agri-food, chemical, pharmaceutical and pulp/paper industries. While the purchase cost of a biofiltration unit varies from US$300 to US$600 per m3 of air to be treated per minute, the main operating cost is for an energy input of 4 kW for every 10,000 m3/h of air treatment, equivalent to about US$0.03 for every 1,000 m3 of gas treated. 

Contact: Mr. Gerard Magnin, President, AirScience Technologies, No. 1751, Richardson Street, Suite 3525, Quebec H3K 1G6, Canada. Tel: +1 (514) 9374 614/820; 



Dry electrostatic precipitators

McGill AirClean Corp., the United States, is offering dry electrostatic precipitator systems that generate a corona to electrostatically charge particulate and remove it from flue gas streams. Each unit is designed to provide effective control of particulate emission, while saving money by minimizing operating costs. A proprietary needle/plate collection electrode design uses energy very efficiently, thus enabling economical operation at low voltage and current levels. Typical applications include glass furnaces, cement kilns, coal-fired boilers, wood-fired boilers and solid waste incinerators.

Contact: McGill AirClean Corporation, 1779, Refugee Road, Columbus, Ohio 43207, United States of America. Tel: +1 (614) 4430 192; Fax: +1 (614) 4458 759



Bacteria eliminate noxious odours

At the University of California, the United States, a team of researchers have tested and found that biological filters can safely and efficiently remove foul odours associated with sewage treatment plants. Mr. David Gabriel and Mr. Marc Deshusses have successfully transformed an existing chemical scrubber unit at a wastewater treatment facility into a bio-trickling filter. The team packed polyurethane foam cubes inoculated with hydrogen sulphide-degrading bacteria into the scrubber and modified the pump and chemical supply systems. The filter proved to be as efficient as chemical scrubbers, converting nearly 100 per cent of the hydrogen sulphide into innocuous sulphate, and also removed other pollutants like ammonia and VOCs. 

Contact: Mr. Marc A. Deshusses, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Tel: +64 (3) 3642 865; Fax: +64 (3) 3642 063



Cleaning up diesel exhaust

A novel low-temperature oxidation catalyst (LTOC) developed by NASA, the United States, may help overcome the drawbacks of conventional catalysts, referred to as the cold-start deficiency. Traditional catalytic converters used on cars are normally designed to perform at high temperatures, making them unsuitable for the relatively cool exhaust from heavy-duty diesel engines. LTOC reduces light-off temperature the temperature range at which the catalytic converter destroys 50 per cent of pollutants from 300C to 150-200C. This makes the catalyst suitable for diesel exhaust, which typically runs around 200-300C. In recent tests, together with two NOx absorbers and a particulate trap, the LTOC reduced diesel emissions by 90 per cent emitting 0.16 g/bhp-h NOx and less than 0.01 g/bhp-h particulate matter.

The traditional catalytic converters are a ceramic honeycomb coated with aluminium oxide to boost the number of reaction sites. A final coat of precious metals, like platinum, provides active sites to bind pollutants and co-reactants, decreasing the energy of activation needed to oxidize smog-forming hydrocarbons to relatively harmless CO2 and H2O. The LTOC is somewhat similar, but replaces aluminium oxide with tin oxide. Tin oxide binds and releases oxygen needed for the oxidation reaction. However, EPA stipulates that catalytic converters must operate at 900C. At this temperature, tin oxide is reduced to tin metal. NASA overcame this obstacle by stabilizing the tin oxide with a unique combination of transition metals that also improve the surface area architecture.


New process lowers NOx emissions

Engelhard Corp., the United States, has developed new technology to cost-effectively meet or even exceed EPA regulations regarding control of emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The CleaNOx and OxyClean environmental compliance additives enable petroleum refineries in eliminating most NOx emissions from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, without compromising the units operational performance. Traditional additives may have an adverse impact on the FCC units operating performance, resulting in increased costs, lower yields of petroleum and other fuel products, and high yields of undesirable by-products such as hydrogen and coke.

CleaNOx combines active materials with NOx adsorption and reduction properties and highly stable surfaces to reduce NOx emissions. This additive has been proven under harsh regenerator environments, including those utilizing oxygen enrichment, platinum-based carbon monoxide (CO) combustion promoters and with initial NOx concentrations below 50 ppm. It substantially reduces NOx emissions at low additive concentrations without any change in product selectivity.

A CO combustion promoter, OxyClean has been shown to reduce NOx emissions by up to 45 per cent and still maintain afterburn control. It can be used at only 1.5-2 times the baseline level of CO promoter to achieve the desired NOx reduction and CO combustion. OxyClean may either be used alone or in combination with CleaNOx.

Chemical Weekly, 6 May 2003

Acid gas purification techniques for CO2

Benfield process offered by Kobe Steel Ltd., Japan, is applicable for the removal of H2S and CO2 from gas streams such as reformed gas, oil refinery off-gas, natural gas, etc. This process could be more effectively adapted to the conditions required for treating a gas by a combination of typical flow types provided for the removal of CO2 only, or CO2 and H2S, and for reducing heat consumption. Some notable features of the new technique include:
  • The use of an effective activator lowers equilibrium partial pressure of acid gases and accelerates the absorption rate
  • Heat consumption for regeneration of the absorbing liquid is reduced by the use of a steam ejector
  • The HiPure process is a good choice for high purification where H2S must be removed to 1 ppm or less, and CO2 to only a few ppm
  • No specific anti-corrosive product is required for the equipment and
  • The non-toxic absorbing liquid is not degraded and a reclaimer is not necessary.

Contact: Kobe Steel Ltd., Marketing and Sales Chemical Plant, Engineering Division, 2-3-2, Toyo Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8381, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 5634 5174; Fax: +81 (3) 5634 5512


Wet toxic gas removal system

Kawasaki Heavy Industries Limited, Japan, offers a wet type system for removing acid gases and mercury present in combustion exhaust gas streams. Toxic gases are removed by alkaline reaction while dehumidification of absorbed gases is realized by direct cooling using packed tower and cooling tower. The treated gas is re-heated to prevent white smoke through humidity control. 

Contact: Kawasaki Heavy Industries Limited, Environmental Control Plant Dept. 1, 1-3, Higashikawasaki-cho, 1-chome Chuo-ku, Kobe 65091, Japan. Tel: +81 (78) 3608 652; Fax: +81 (78) 3663 403


Wet electrostatic precipitator system

Bionomic Industries of the United States offers HEI wet electrostatic precipitator system (WEPS), which represents a major breakthrough in the advancement of state-of-the-art fine particulate control. The system incorporates an exclusive discharge electrode technology that can be sized to specific applications. The units electrode geometry concentrates a high intensity ionizing corona in strategic areas within the collecting tubes instead of distributing it along the entire length of the tubes treatment area. This high intensity corona facilitates particle charging fields that are 2 to 3 times stronger than traditional precipitators, resulting in higher particulate charges and migration velocities, and smaller precipitator size.

HEI WEPS offers the user maximum flexibility through a choice of two innovative, adaptable designs that can meet any application or system layout requirement. Depending on the particular contaminant properties and gas stream constituents, this system can be configured in either a gas upflow or downflow configuration. Rigid mast-supported EZ Align Charging Electrodes append to the simple yet robust construction and low maintenance. Available Unagon Extended Area Collecting Electrode Tubes extend system capabilities with increased efficiency and elimination of tube sheets that need to be cleaned owing to sticky or scale-forming particulates. Other notable features of HEI WEPS are the available processes for collection tube cleaning, gas pre-cleaning and conditioning.

HEI WEPS is the only design that can incorporate the Ultimix Conditioning system for gas saturation and collection tube cleaning, and the patented non-fouling RotaBed pre-scrubber for acid gas removal and particulate load reduction. 

Contact: Bionomic Industries, 777, Corporate Drive, Mahwah, NJ 07430, United States of America. Tel: +1 (201) 5291 094; Fax: +1 (201) 5290 252



Organic halogen gas purification system

Nippon Shokubai Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering a treatment system that ensures effective purification of organic exhaust gas containing halogenated organic compounds (HOCs). This system decomposes HOCs by employing proprietary catalysts i.e. HOCs are converted into CO2, H2O and hydrogen halogenide, which is then neutralized by alkalied solution in the scrubber. Key features of the HALOCAT catalytic incineration exhaust gas treatment apparatus are:

  • Low running costs;
  • Purification of various kinds of HOCs at low temperature;
  • Pressure drop is low since the catalyst is of honeycomb design;
  • No hazardous wastewater or by-products like CO and halogen gas are generated; and
  • Easy operation (automatic control eliminates the need for supervision) and maintenance.
Contact: Nippon Shokubai Co. Ltd., Environmental Business Div., Kogin Building, 4-1-1 Koraibashi, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 2239 201; Fax: +81 (6) 2012 857



Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment VII

This guidebook provides authoritative coverage of key developments in the chemical treatment of water and wastewater, in theory and practice, as well as related problems such as sludge production and properties, and the reuse of chemicals and chemically treated waters and sludges. For the tenth in the series, the contributions document developments, both in terms of new technological as well as public and administrative acceptance and approval of the solutions offered. Topics covered include coagulation/flocculation mechanisms, flocculation and floc separation, oxidation processes, chemical dosing control, NOM-removal in potable water treatment, wastewater treatment, sludge treatment, Cryptosporidium removal, etc.

Membrane Bioreactors for  Municipal Wastewater Treatment

This handbook describes the results of a comparative research programme involving four leading membrane suppliers Kubota and Mitsubishi from Japan, X-Flow of the Netherlands and Canadas Zenon. Among other factors, the study focused on membrane functionality, biological treatment, the achieved effluent quality and system operability. In a number of side studies, the required prior treatment, membrane fouling/cleaning, energy usage, effluent quality and sludge processing were also addressed. The comparative pilot research was undertaken by DHV Water in the Netherlands.

For the above publications, Contact: IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12, Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (020) 7654 5517; Fax: +44 (020) 7654 5555.

Biowaste and Biological Waste Treatment

This book examines the present, and likely future, state of biological waste treatment. While part I of this book delves into the nature of biowaste, waste treatment in general and the regulatory framework that governs it, the second part discusses available technologies and approaches. The final part examines the various policy questions and local, social and economic factors that affect implementation of biowaste initiatives.

Contact: James and James, 8-12, Camden High Street, London NW1 0JH, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (20) 7387 8558; Fax: +44 (20) 7387 8998



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