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VATIS Update Waste Management . Sep-Oct 2004

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Waste Management Sep-Oct 2004

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Contents

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IN THE NEWS

GEF helps Viet Nam reduce POPs

At a workshop organized in Hanoi, Viet Nam, government officials and environmental experts discussed the task of implementing the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This workshop is part of a project funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to assist Viet Nam in establishing an efficient national POPs control agency. Other tasks included under the programme are gathering nationwide statistics on POPs and formulating technical instructions with regard to collection, processing, elimination and storage of POPs. In addition, steps will be taken to completely eliminate POPs from the country. Viet Nam has to submit its plan of action against POPs before 17 May 2006.


Website: www.vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn

China imposes levy to curtail e-wastes

China plans to charge an electronic trash disposal tax on foreign products from 1 July 2005, when the electronic product pollution management regulations come into effect. While such measures are essential to boost proper disposal of electronic devices, a disturbing trend observed in some countries, especially in the so-called developed world, towards cutting corners is shipping electronic waste directly to other nations. China, which is one of the victims of such pollution transfer, needs to strengthen legislation to ward off the hidden menace.


According to reports given out by two international organizations, Basel Action Network (BAT) and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC), 50 to 80 per cent of electronic wastes collected in the United States for recycling are immediately placed on container ships charting a course for destinations like China. The United States has been accused of not facing its electronic waste problem squarely and making use of hidden escape valves to export the crisis to developing nations in Asia. It is estimated that the United States alone exported over US$1 billion worth of electronic wastes to China last year while receiving virtually none from China.


Website: www.en.ce.cn

Korea to ratify POPs convention

The Republic of Korea is gearing up to ratify the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) by this year-end. The efforts include a ban on the production and usage of seven varieties of organic chlorinated pesticides and an industrial chemical, establishing stringent emission standards for dioxin discharge and exploring Best Available Technology (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) applicable to national conditions. In addition, the government is carrying out a base work to develop national plans for implementing the Convention. Upon ratification, Korea will seek a start to action against POPs by joining the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention (COP 1) in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in the first week of May next year.


Website: www.eng.me.go.kr

Efforts to promote waste recycling

The Ministry of Environment, Japan, has taken a decision to establish a network with other Asian nations to promote waste recycling and prevent pollution through exchange of information. The network will comprise about ten East Asian nations, including China, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea. A database containing systems and regulations for waste recycling would be compiled. Free access would be allowed to facilitate the process of screening for exports and imports.


Working-level meetings will be held to discuss institutional issues when conducting cross-border recycling, measures to prevent illegal dumping and other such affairs. This initiative follows an agreement by the Group of Eight, at a summit organized in the United States in June, to boost recycling and reuse of waste.


Website: www.vnagency.com.vn

Sino-German pact on recycling

Experts from China and Germany are working towards a framework for creating a recycling economy in Guiyang, the capital city of south-west Chinas Guizhou province. The team plans to build a refuse treatment facility that will enable Guiyang to address environmental and ecological issues. This pilot project covers infrastructure construction, development of power and gas resources, farming and other sectors concerning renewable and sustainable energy. German specialists will provide training and enterprise management support as well as help with the formation of regulations for the recycling industry.


Website: www.jxj.com

Nanotechnology-based products: good or bad?

A new report prepared jointly by the United Kingdoms Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering has strongly cautioned that manufactured specks, which form the core of nanotechnology, behave in unpredictable ways and in some cases appear surprisingly toxic. The main concern is that free-roaming nanoparticles could be easily inhaled, absorbed through the skin or may build up in the environment. Preliminary trials in animals have found nanoparticles capable of moving into and damaging the lungs, brain and other organs.


The report has recommended that nanoparticle-laden cosmetics, which are gaining in popularity, should be kept off the shelves until proven safe for use on the skin. It further suggests that consumers would be best served by labelling products that incorporate nanomaterials and by being educated about the advantages of nanotechnology, to avoid the same fate of negative public perception that has hobbled nuclear power and genetically engineered food. The report also echoes the enthusiasm of those who predict that the technology will power the next industrial revolution.


Website: www.hindustantimes.com

Indian embargo on imports/exports of hazardous wastes

Import into or export from India of toxic wastes has been prohibited by the Director General of Foreign Trade through its notification dated 19 March 2004. Notification No. 35/2004-Customs (N.T.) stipulates that In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 11 of the Customs Act 1962, the Central Government, being satisfied that it is essential to do so for the purpose of the protection of human, animal, plant life and health, hereby bans, save otherwise provided under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and rules made thereunder, toxic wastes as specified in Schedule 8 of the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989, circulated under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, from import thereof into India and from export thereof out of India. In an earlier notification, No. 35/(RE-2003)/2002-2007 dated 16.02.2004, the central government amended the ITC (HS) Classification of Export and Import Items 2002-07.


Website: www.ieport.com

Hospital wastes disposal in Pakistan

A recent notification issued by the Environmental Protection Agency in Pakistan provides guidelines for managing hospital wastes procedures for establishment of waste management systems, techniques for segregation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal in a safe manner. The procedures have been cited as expedient to protect and improve the environment, prevent and control pollution and safeguard against potential accidents caused by improper handling and disposal of hospital wastes.


The terminology of hospital waste, as per the definition in the guidelines, includes pathological waste, geno-toxic waste, pharmaceutical waste, chemical waste, radioactive waste and infectious waste. Pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. are also elaborated and cited as part of the wastes deduced from cultures performed at laboratories, wastes from surgeries and autopsies, disposable material and equipment applied on patients suffering from infections, besides corpses and parts of the same and even live infected animals tested at labs. The guidelines are applicable to all hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, dental clinics, blood banks, maternity centres, nursing homes, pathological labs, research institutes, veterinary institutions and other healthcare facilities, including temporary medical camps, which may have a detrimental impact on human health and environment by unplanned waste disposal. The last two sections of the guidelines ban the sale or purchase and reuse of disposable wastes like syringes and other used devices.


Website: www.dawn.com

China to develop recycling industry

The State Development and Reform Commission, China, has decided to promote the recycling industry with a four-pronged solution ranging from energy savings and clean production to integrated utilization of resources and development of the environmental protection industry. Eight steps have been proposed to overcome the bottleneck of shortfall in resources and reduce pressure on the environment. The commission will work together with the concerned departments to issue guidelines to accelerate development of the recycling economy.


Formulation of regulations on the use and management of resources, scrap home appliances, electronic wastes, old/used tyres, and scrap packing material is the most crucial task at present. A threshold will be set up for those sectors with heavy consumption of energy and water. The criteria for efficiency of energy consuming equipment would be improved and water quota for sectors relying on water will also be revised. Assessment systems for clean production in major sectors will be in place. Additionally, policies will be drafted and mechanisms drawn up to promote development of the recycling economy. The commission will involve industries by launching pilot projects in areas such as coal, metallurgy, non-ferrous metal, power, chemical and construction.


Website: www1.cei.gov.cn

PLASTIC WASTES

Recycling technology for HDPE/PP

Envirotec B.V., the Netherlands, is offering a process to recycle various types of contaminated hard (PE or PP) plastics. Based on mechanical recycling principles, the HDPE/PP recycling technology can handle car bumpers, flower pots, crates, jerrycans, battery scrap, bottle caps and HDPE bottles. Key components in this system include a sorting and friction washer, spinner, granulator, air shaking table and metal detector. Shredded PP or PE is conveyed to the sorting washer with extraction screw. Next, the sorted material is granulated before passing on to the friction washer where it is washed with friction. A dewatering screw conveyor and Envirotecs T/3000 centrifugal spinner enable the plastics to be washed and dried. An air shaking table is utilized to remove contaminants like wood, dust and fibres. This arrangement incorporates a return system to help minimize wastes. A closed water circuit, along with a closed air and dust system, facilitates little water deposit costs.


The company can also deliver turnkey processes that seek a balance between specific requirements of the customer, investment and low operating costs.


Contact: Envirotec B.V., Duikerweg 32, 5145 NV Waalwijk, the Netherlands. Tel: +31 (416) 697 445; Fax: +31 (416) 697 311


E-mail: info@envirotec-rec.com


Website: www.envirotec.rec.com


Electrostatic plastics separator

A new technology offered by Hitachi Zosen Corp., Japan, for segregation of plastics by their type into high-purity materials makes use of the variation in static electric charges between the different plastics. The electrostatic separator can sort a mixed load of materials into plastics of 99 per cent or higher purity and recover them. As such, this system facilitates the reuse of plastic components reclaimed from discarded household appliances, office automation equipment and scrap automobiles. Furthermore, since a high percentage of polyvinyl chloride (or PVC), which poses problems when used as a fuel, can also be removed, recycling container packaging and production of clean refuse-derived fuel/refuse plastics fuel are feasible.


In this system, different materials are electrostatically charged through agitation friction in a container. Using rotating drum electrodes, positively and negatively charged fractions are sent to an electrostatic field formed by counter electrodes. This enables induction of positively charged parts to the negative electrode side and vice versa. As a result, high-purity separation of the differently charged plastics is achieved. In a case of separation of crushed PVC pieces (5 mm in size) and polyethylene (PE) pieces (2 mm), a PVC purity of 99.6 per cent (recovery rate of 85 per cent) and a PE purity of 99.7 per cent (58 per cent recovery) were observed. The commercially available evaporator is of batch/continuous type consisting of two or more frictional charging units, which process the material in succession.


Contact: Hitachi Zosen Corp., 7-89, Nanko Kita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559 0034, Japan. Tel/Fax: +81 (6) 6569 0061/0079


Website: www.hitachizosen.co.jp


Website: www.nett21.gec.jp

New plastic recycling technology

The United States-based Innovative Polymer Technologies LLC offers a new method to improve the value of recycled plastics. The novel polymer processing technology transforms post-consumer and post-industrial plastics, or their combinations, into chemically homogeneous plastics. Furthermore, up to 50 per cent of this recycled material could be incorporated into virgin resins.


The patented one-step mechanical-chemical process converts unsorted plastics into value-added polymeric materials. Post-consumer, multi-coloured flakes/chips are processed into pastel powders suitable for rotational and compression moulding. These powders can be pelletized for extrusion and injection moulding. Even compact discs (CDs) can be recycled without segregating the metallized and print coating layers. Another feature of this technology is its ability to create engineered blends utilizing incompatible virgin resins, without having to make additives compatible, unlike with conventional processes.


Contact: Mr. Donald B. Jones, President, Innovative Polymer Technologies LLC, P.O. Box 163, Wildwood, PA 15091, United States of America. Tel: +1 (724) 4446 657; Fax: +1 (724) 4446 658


E-mail: ipt@no.address


Website: www.greenyes.grrn.org


Sequential pyrolysis to reclaim chemicals from plastics

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States, have developed technology to recover valuable chemicals from waste plastics. The team has successfully employed selective pyrolysis technology to recover base chemicals from used plastics. Chemicals can be recovered from mixed polymer wastes such as industrial scrap, nylon carpeting, engineering blends or consumer trash even if the resource material is a mixture of assorted plastics.


Pyrolysis process transfers large amounts of heat in the absence of oxygen to break down plastics into simpler compounds. The selective pyrolysis method carefully monitors temperature, catalysts and other parameters so that at a time only one plastic pyrolyses into monomers or related compounds in the gaseous phase. Following recovery of this vapour stream, conditions are changed to pyrolyse the next plastic.


NREL also offers a fast pyrolysis process to produce phenolic blends from mixed plastic wastes or biomass. By using controlled pyrolysis and secondary upgrading, phenolic compounds are recovered in a form that allows for their inclusion into phenol formaldehyde resins. Purified phenol, bisphenol A, cresols, xylenols and other phenolic compounds are recoverable from waste plastics.


Contact: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617, Cole Blvd., Mailstop 1635, Golden CO 80401, United States of America. Tel: +1 (303) 2753 028; Fax: +1 (303) 2753 040


E-mail: technology_transfer@nrel.gov


Website: www.nrel.gov

Plastic wastes used to lay roads

A new technology for utilizing waste plastics, developed by researchers at Thiagarajar College of Engineering (TCE), India, has attracted the attention of neighbouring Pakistan. Green Technology Environmental Corp., engaged in setting up of the first waste composting facility in Lahore is interested in using the Indian technology for laying roads. In India itself, the state government of Tamil Nadu is scheduled to lay about 1,000 km of rural roads using plastic waste-bitumen blend. The Mumbai Corporation is also preparing to lay a 2 km stretch. Dr. R. Vasudevan, Head of the Department of Chemistry, TCE, states that besides providing a longer life to roads the polymer-coated bitumen is also waterproof and each kilometre of plastic road would save nearly a tonne of bitumen.


Website: www.hinduonnet.com


Zeolites used to recover plastics

At the Centre of Excellence for Research on Microporous Materials, the United Kingdom, researchers are engineering zeolites, which can be used as catalysts in the distillation of fuel from wastes, including mixed plastic waste. Zeolites, crystalline aluminium silicates, are utilized as catalysts in various industrial applications. The team has succeeded in distilling plastic wastes, comprising a single type of plastic, to produce a mixture of oils suitable for use as fuel. Plastic waste is heated in the absence of oxygen, distilling off the hydrocarbons as vapours, cooled and collected. A problem faced in extending this procedure to mixed plastic wastes was the presence of polyvinyl chloride plastic that forms hydrochloric acid when it is heated. This hurdle has been overcome by adding a zeolite catalyst during distillation.


Contact: Centre of Excellence for Research on Microporous Materials, UMIST, Manchester M60 1QD, the United Kingdom. Tel/Fax: +44 (161) 2004 512/2367 677


E-mail: Colin.Cundy@umist.ac.uk


Website: www.britannia.com

BIOMEDICAL/HEALTHCARE WASTES

New sterilization and disposal technology

MedClean series from Aduromed, the United States, is a full disposal life cycle solution. Its advantages include single collection point, complete sterilization and single unit, dual-stage shredding to unrecognizable levels. The system has been designed around fail-proof safety features and includes a multi-stage safety interlocking system. Salient features and process steps of the MedClean system are given below.
 
  • Collection carts, fabricated using rugged aluminium and suitable for placement in centralized collection depositories, are conveniently sized to roll directly into the system without complex mechanisms.
     
  • Before waste is sent for sterilization, an integrated computer calibrated scale is used to measure the quantity of waste being placed into the MedClean system. This calibration is done to ensure proper operation and is stored electronically for compliance record retrieval.
     
  • A patented AutoTouch control system allows operators to select various pre-programmed cycle times to achieve maximum volume per day. All the relevant system variables are analysed for adherence to specifications ensuring maximum effectiveness and safety.
     
  • Sterilization occurring within the MedClean vessel surpasses EPA standards and fellow competitors by 1,000 times by satisfying 10 log 8 standards. All traces of Bacillus stearothermophilus are completely eliminated.
     
  • Removal of the waste following cool down occurs and transfer to an uncoupled shredder is carried out.
     
  • Waste is mechanically emptied from the carts into an anti-bridging, wide-throat infeed chamber. Next, unsorted waste is prepared through an integrated dual-stage shredder, thus rendering it unrecognizable on completion.
     
  • Shredded waste is ready for disposal at municipal waste dumps.
     

Contact: Aduromed, Corporate Headquarters, 8, School St., Suite 11-13, Bethel, Connecticut 06801, United States of America. Tel: +1 (203) 7981 080; Fax: +1 (203) 7980 147


Website: www.aduromed.com


Low-cost and eco-friendly disposal

NCE Corp. of the United States is offering a solution for the economical and environmentally safe treatment/disposal of medical wastes. TurboClean/Hydrop technology can easily accommodate wide fluctuations in waste forms and types solids in red biohazard bags, sharps, glass waste (contaminated), liquid waste, outdated pharmaceuticals, pathological waste, etc. The process entails low maintenance and operating costs while lowering waste volumes by up to 90 per cent. Environmental performance of the new system is engineered for maximum available control technology standards. The TurboClean thermal oxidizers utilize patented and innovative FlashBurn technology and Hydrop gas cleaning process to achieve minimized waste handling as well as overall processing costs, accommodate differing physical settings and facility limits, assure environmental compliance/performance and cope with varying operational demands of the healthcare delivery services.


In the FlashBurn process, shredded waste is exposed to 1,000-1,230C, thereby enabling destruction and volume reduction. Solids remain as ash residue while gaseous organic constituents are passed along to a secondary chamber where they are again FlashBurned to extinction. Hydrop, a wet gas scrubbing process that follows waste destruction and volume reduction, assures total removal of particulates and trace metals otherwise present in the incoming gas stream. This procedure removes more than 99.5 per cent of entrained particles. It operates with about 50 per cent less power and 75 per cent lower water consumption than competing venturi jet scrubbers. FlashBurn and Hydrop come in two distinct configurations:
 
  • A single front-end FlashBurn unit followed by a Hydrop system for hospitals, institutions, etc.; and
     
  • Multiple FlashBurn units operating in parallel and serviced by a single and common Hydrop unit.
     

Contact: NCE Corp., 15 E, Uwchlan Ave., Suite 404, Exton, PA 19341, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (484) 8754 110/141.


Website: www.nce-turboclean.com


Automated treatment

Medical waste treatment systems from Condor Healthcare Services LLC, the United States, make use of advanced technology to combine highly effective chemical treatment with patented multiple shredding to render all types of medical wastes unrecognizable and non-infectious. The process begins by eliminating the need to separate wastes into sharps, receptacles, red bag and other containment products for infectious waste at the hospital. Next, an automatic cart loading system weighs and scans the waste for any radioactive constituents earlier to processing. The collected waste is then shredded by powerful grinders and disinfected. Fresh chemicals are infused automatically into the treatment solution.


The whole process is monitored for temperature, chemical concentration and time using state-of-the-art computer-controlled electronics. Should any operating parameters deviate from the normal, treatment halts automatically and the control panel alerts an operator. Reduced in volume by up to 80 per cent, treated waste is compressed and the fluid part recycled in the machine. None of the solution goes down the drain in normal operation and the confetti-like mulch output is free of bacteria and odour, ready for disposal in local landfills.


Contact: Condor Healthcare Services LLC, 1532 E. Katella Ave., Anaheim, CA 92805, United States of America. Tel: +1 (714) 4560 790; Fax: +1 (714) 4560 064

E-mail: info@condortechnology.com


Website: www.condortechnology.com


New models to treat biomedical waste

MedWaste Tec, the United States, is offering three new systems for the safe disposal of biomedical wastes J-model, SF-model and K-model based on the LFB 12-5 system. LFB 12-5 reduces waste volume by 90 per cent and can process about 680 kg/h of waste. It operates on the following principles:
 
  • Delivery of waste to the maceration device;
     
  • Accountability of the weight of waste and chemicals;
     
  • Maceration, size reduction and disfigurement;
     
  • Conveyance, chemical injection and mixing;
     
  • Safe containment and mixing in the kill tank;
     
  • Enhanced pressurization and disinfection;
     
  • HEPA filtered negative air unit;
     
  • PLC automated control; and
     
  • Durable and easy to maintain.
     

The J-model hospital unit is the most economical system. Though it lacks some of the hi-tech components of other LFB 12-5 models, the basic structural components are of the same high quality and durable construction. This is a more hands-on system requiring the operator to monitor chemical and water proportions as well as batch control by bag count or pre-weighing. The rest of the system runs itself. SF-model is a fixed base system that can be installed in the customers facility or a custom designed container or enclosure fulfilling the environmental needs of the region. LFB SF and J model processes are ideal for on-demand waste treatment.


K-model is a mobile unit which, like its larger counterpart, can process 136-453 kg/h of medical wastes. The fully automated system requires a single person to operate. Designed specifically for on the go treatment, it is ideal for low volume load pick-ups like small hospitals, clinics, etc. While the system uses the same technology as LFB 12-5, in actual operation it resembles a garbage truck.


To see specification summary metrics click here. Brochure is available on request.


Contact: MedWaste TEC, United States of America.


E-mail: Sales@medwastetec.com


Website: www.medwastetec.com


Liquid medical waste disposal powder

Omni/ajax Inc., the United States, offers a safe and effective method to neutralize and solidify hazardous medical wastes. The Omni-Kap Sharps Solidification kit is based on patented proprietary solidification technology. The kit comprises four plastic containers of special Omni-Kap powder which, when mixed with water, sets rapidly to encapsulate any waste that has been added. Each container makes about 4.456 l of rock-like solid when set.


Omni-Kap surpasses the latest DOT medical waste disposal needs under HM-226, Hazardous Materials: Revision to Standards for Infectious Substances. The dry powder, single pack absorbent/solidifier cementatiously solidifies medical wastes like sharps, needles, broken glass, etc. All the free water is chemically bound and not just gelled as is the case in many competitive products.


Contact: Omni/ajax Inc., 49, Pocono Forest, Gouldsboro, PA 18424, the United States. Tel: +1 (570) 8484 186; Fax: +1 (570) 8484 187


E-mail: info@omni-ajax.com


Website: www.omni-ajax.com

Plasma treatment

In Taiwan, officials with the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) and Atomic Energy Council (AEC) are promoting a novel high-temperature plasma melting process for treating hazardous wastes. Researchers at AECs Institute of Nuclear Energy Research report to have fully completed pilot testing of the technology. Both AEC and EPA signed a contract that endorsed the project as home-grown technology and environmentally friendly.


AECs process utilizes the intense heat of a plasma torch, at 1,400-1,650C, to degrade toxic organic and inorganic compounds, while reducing volume by up to 80 per cent. The high temperatures break down the molecular bonds of toxic substances and reduces them to simple elemental compounds and gases, while heavy metals are encapsulated in a compacted and dense black matrix that appears like fast-cooled volcanic lava glass. Waste is converted into insoluble, hardened and chemically inert substances, which are suitable for use in construction. Biomedical wastes from hospitals, hazardous wastes from municipal incinerators and industrial sources can be treated by the process.


Website: www.etaiwannews.com

ELECTRONIC WASTES

Electronic scrap transformed into valuable resource

The United States-based Northeast Surplus and Materials LLC. offers a new system for recycling printed circuit boards (PCBs). Development of this system was supported by the New York State Energy Resource Development Authority as part of its Environmental Products Development Programme, which assists in the development of products and systems designed to treat, process or reuse waste products through lower energy usage.


The patent-pending depopulator system efficiently and safely recovers reusable parts and valuable materials from discarded PCBs. It can reclaim over 300,000 parts a week in a normal 40 h work schedule by a single operator. All the salvaged raw metals can be smelted and used to make electronics, jewellery, etc.


Website: www.recyclingtoday.com

Process to recycle optical media

Australian Plastics Reprocessing Pty. Ltd., Australia, offers technology for recycling CDs and DVDs. The new compact system separates various plastic components in the optical media using a granulation technique as a first step. Paper and plastic coverings and metal staples are isolated in the next stage. Metal layers on CDs/DVDs are removed through friction washing. Finally, a patented process reclaims primary materials such as polystyrene, polycarbonate and polypropylene.


This method has also been adapted to recycle rigid poly-olefin plastic containers. Up to 1 t/h of wastes can be processed. A small footprint, reduced water consumption and improved energy efficiency, together with the need for lower workers, help minimize operating costs. Presently, efforts are ongoing to adapt this process to handle plastic films and other complex plastic materials.


Contact: Australian Plastics Reprocessing Pty. Ltd., 13, Dunheved Circuit, Saint Marys NSW 2760, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 9687 1342; Fax: +61 (2) 9635 9204


E-mail: briansaur@bigpond.com


Website: www.techshowcase.nsw.gov.au

Fluorinated resin recycling technology

In Japan, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. and Nittetsu Chemical Engineering Ltd. have successfully pioneered the first practical application technology to degrade and recycle used fluorinated resin, thus enabling it to be reused. Fluorinated resin is used as an insulation material for heat-resistant electric cables/wires, as well as in the manufacture of semiconductors and electronic parts. However, difficulty faced in handling the gas generated during thermal decomposition has made fluorinated resin extremely hard to recycle. In the new process, fluorinated resin is broken down into calcium fluoride, extracted and then recompounded to produce fluorinated resin.

Contact: Mr. Kenichi Oda. Tel: +81 (3) 3218 5408

 

E-mail: info-pr@agc.co.jp


Website: www.agc.co.jp


Eliminating pollution at the source

A chemical technology developed by Solucorp Industries in the United States can nip pollution in the bud by neutralizing toxic metals as they start to leach into soils and water from wastes like junked batteries, electronics or lamps. The sulphide-based solution, called molecular bonding system (MBS), chemically binds to heavy metals, rendering them insoluble and non-hazardous. This process is approved by the Environmental Protection Agencys Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Programme as a novel treatment process for remediating heavy metals in soils, industrial slag, sludge and ash. Toxic metals like mercury, chromium, cadmium and lead can be easily handled.


Researchers from Solucorp and an Italian environmental rehabilitation and waste treatment firm, Ambiente, have incorporated the chemicals into degradable plastics and surface coatings. The processes are called integrated fixation systems and can be combined with metal-bearing products known to pollute the environment, e.g. bullets and batteries. When batteries start to break down, so do the coatings, thereby neutralizing toxic metals that leach out.


Website: www.upi.com

Laser cuts TV trash

Proventia Automation Oy, Finland, offers an automated laser process to recycle cathode ray tubes (CRTs) efficiently. In this process, CRTs are cut and the materials segregated within 25-45 seconds. This solution can recycle PC monitors, TVs and CRTs. At the heart of this system is a 1.5 kW CO2 laser, supplied by Rofin-Sinar of Germany. Sensors measure the incoming CRT tube to determine the laser cutting parameters and beam path. The totally dry process is the result of an R&D project between Proventia, Lappeenranta University of Technology, the Polytechnic of Oulu and the Finnish technology funding agency TEKES.


Contact: Proventia Automation Oy, Lentokatu 2, Fin 90460, Oulunsalo, Finland. Tel: +358 (0207) 439 600; Fax: +358 (0207) 439 601


E-mail: info@proventia.fi


Website: www.proventia.fi

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

Low-cost equipment removes dioxins from incineration exhausts

In Japan, researchers at Sumikin Kansai Industries Ltd. and Osaka University have developed a simple dioxin removal system to eliminate dioxins, poisonous substances present in exhaust fumes generated during the process of waste incineration. The team found that airborne carbon particles in exhaust gases were a major factor in the formation of dioxins and thought of using water to remove these particles. During trials, exhaust fumes were blown into water to achieve over 95 per cent reduction in the level of dioxins. Researchers have also established a simple method to remove more than 95 per cent of the dioxins in water. The new system is simpler than conventional equipment.


Website: www.japanfs.org

High-performance dioxin removal unit

Furukawa Co. Ltd., Japan, offers a device to remove dioxins contained in exhaust gas streams from waste incinerators. In this system, dioxin-laden gas is passed through two floors of activated carbon in a vertical tower, so that dioxin density can be lowered in a stable condition even in case there is any fluctuation in the quantity of dioxin production. Particle activated carbon is uniformly put in layers on each floor, which comprises several pieces, is reversible and ventilated. A safety system is included to prevent activated carbon from igniting. It monitors temperature in the suction tower inlet gas and in the activated carbon layers. Key features of the novel dioxin removal system are the following:
 
  • As fixed layer type is employed, dust, which is generated by breaking the activated carbon while gas is being blown, is reduced;
     
  • Installation area can be reduced as the gas flow is vertical;
     
  • Stable removal efficiency can be achieved even if the dioxin density at the inlet varies;
     
  • Can be installed easily after an existing dust collector;
     
  • There is no operating unit while gas is being blown, thereby reducing mechanical trouble; and
     
  • An emergency fire extinguishing system, that supplies nitrogen gas, is provided against ignition troubles of activated carbon.
     

The system can lower dioxin density within 0.1 ng-TEQ/m3N levels, at a removal efficiency of 95+ per cent.


Contact: Furukawa Co. Limited, 6-1, Marunouchi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 8370, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3212 8929; Fax: +81 (3) 3287 0279


Website: www.furukawakk.co.jp


Website: www.nett21.gec.jp


New dioxin destruction process

Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., Japan, offers a system comprising a high-active catalyst and a special type of reactor, lateral flow reactor (LFR), to eliminate dioxins. LFR incorporates a system of gas channels and catalysis slabs. Flue gas entering the reactor through a gas channel, open on one side, passes through a thin catalyst slab to enter another channel, open on the opposite side, and exists the system. Key features of the destruction process include:
 
  • The catalyst enables destruction efficiencies exceeding 99 per cent;
     
  • High destruction rate is achieved within the range of 160-380C. As such, extra facilities for cooling, heating, etc. of the exhaust gas are not essential;
     
  • Long catalyst life; and
     
  • Space-saving design.
     

Simultaneous destruction of dioxins and NOx is also possible.


Contact: Tsukishima Kikai Co. Ltd., 17-15, Tsukuda 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104 0051, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 5560 6555; Fax: +81 (3) 5560 6595.


Website: www.nett21.gec.jp


New low-temperature process for PCBs

Kinectrics Inc., Canada, offers a safe and effective mobile unit to eliminate PCB askarels at low temperatures. The process is based on the removal of chlorobenzenes from the askarel mixtures using distillation, followed by a chemical reaction to destroy the PCB residue utilizing metallic sodium dispersion. It can also be used to treat all types of liquid PCB wastes. Destruction of PCBs from matrices such as soil and electrical equipment is also feasible by combining Kinectrics procedure with commercially available decontamination technologies. Both low and high level PCB waste streams can be simultaneously treated. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, which may be present in some askarels, can also be degraded.


The on-site procedure yields chlorobenzenes and oil suitable for reuse. Other by-products of the process include sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide as well as petroleum by-products, which are all potentially reusable or can be disposed through conventional means. The mobile system, mounted on a 15 m trailer, can treat up to 3 t/d of askarel.


Contact: Kinectrics Inc., 800, Kipling Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M8Z 6C4, Canada. Tel: +1 (416) 2076 815; Fax: +1 (416) 2076 565


E-mail: dave.young@kinectrics.com


Website: www.kinectrics.com


Website: www.oceta.on.ca

INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

Adsorbent treatment for dyeing effluents

Researchers at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), the United Kingdom, have developed a process that makes use of a novel carbon-based material as an adsorbent to treat dyehouse effluents. Nyex100s low porosity and high electrical conductivity allow the adsorbent to be electrochemically regenerated. The adsorbent can be cycled through the process of adsorption and regeneration several times, with a marginal drop in adsorptive capacity. However, regeneration appears to modify the preference for organic species adsorption. Electrochemical regeneration can be rapidly achieved using low current densities (<20mA/cm2).


Contact: Mr. N.W. Brown, Department of Chemical Engineering, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom.


E-mail: n.brown@mist.ac.uk


Website: www.iwaponline.com

Recycling chromic wastes

Chromic acid is employed widely in electroplating and other applications though it is a major polluter of the environment and highly hazardous to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a part of WHO, groups hexavalent chromium compounds as carcinogenic. The Recy-Chrom project of EU aims to recover chromium by an innovative waste purification technology.


The electrodialysis process developed by Recy-Chrom recovers, purifies and then recycles chromic acid in a single step through a series of membranes. The rinse water contains chromic acid, besides metallic impurities such as copper, iron, aluminium, zinc, nickel and chromium dragged from the plating baths. This solution is fed into a central compartment. The metallic cations migrate towards the cathode through the cationic exchange membrane to form sulphates with sulphuric acid. Hexavalent chromium oxo-anions migrate towards the anode through the anion exchange membrane and combine with protons generated at the anode to form pure chromic acid.


Website: www.europa.eu.int

Treatment for textile colourants

At the National University of Mexico, researchers have developed an anaerobic/aerobic process to degrade colourants in textile wastewaters, thus yielding reusable water. Biodegradation is achieved in a single tank operated as sequencing batch reactor. It was found that the colourant disperse blue 79 (DB79) in the effluent stream is bio-transformed into amines in the anaerobic stage, thus decolourizing the wastewater. Subsequently, amines are mineralized in the aerobic phase. Though toxicity was increased in the anaerobic stage due to the formation of amines, the wastewater is detoxified after aerobic treatment. Removal efficiencies of up to 92 per cent of DB79 have been reported.


Contact: Mr. A. Cruz, Environmental Bioprocesses Department, Institute of Engineering, National University of Mexico, C.U., Ap. Postal 70-472, 04510, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.


Website: www.iwaponline.com

Recycling dyehouse effluents

A team of researchers at the Technical University of Braunschweig in Germany has combined biological and chemical procedures for the purification and recycling of residual dyehouse effluents. A 330,000 m3/year coloured wastewater treatment facility has already been installed. In this method, effluent is divided into two streams and subjected to anaerobic dye-cleavage, aerobic mineralization of cleavage products and biomass separation. One of the streams is also membrane filtered and treated with ozone, which enables recycling of 60 per cent of the total discharge. Thus, it is possible to raise the quality of the treated streams for recycling purposes, as well as dye capacity of the textile mill, and minimize operating costs.


Contact: Mr. R. Krull, Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Braunschweig, Gaustrae 17, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.


E-mail: r.krull@tu-bs.de


Website: www.iwaponline.com

Oxidation of paper mill wastewater

An advanced oxidation treatment process for wastewater from paper mills has been invented in Germany. This integrated chemical and biochemical oxidation process involves ozonation followed by biodegradation in a biofilm reactor. The combination makes use of the effect of partial oxidation in which, with reduced use of persistent chemical oxidants, persistent COD becomes biodegradable. A far-reaching elimination of AOX, colour and other disturbing substances like complexing agents is achieved simultaneously.


Using single-stage systems, COD elimination rates of up to 60 per cent are feasible with 0.4-1 g ozone per gram COD eliminated in the consolidated process. With a two-stage system, COD elimination of 85 per cent with 0.65 g/g has been shown in pilot tests.


Contact: Mr. A. Helble, CM Consult Dr. Christian H. Mobius & Partner, Lehenstr. 48, DE 70180, Stuttgart, Germany.


E-mail: ah@cm-consult.de 


Website: www.iwaponline.com


BATTERY WASTES

Recycling dry cell batteries

CT Umwelttechnik AG, Switzerland, offers a process to recycle unsorted batteries, especially dry batteries. Waste batteries are conveyed, from a feeding bunker, through a shredder directly into a rotary furnace where the shredded material is oxidatively burned at 400-900C. The resulting combustion gases are led through a gas cleansing set-up comprising a dust filter, wet washing filter and active charcoal filter. The resulting oxidized product of combustion is fed into a metal winning process. The product of combustion may be once again burned in a further or later step by the rotary furnace after mixing a reducing substance (coal). The resulting reductive product of combustion may be fed again to the metal winning process.


Website: www.min-eng.com

Process to recycle lithium ion batteries

Umicore Group, Belgium, is offering VALEAS technology for recycling rechargeable lithium ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries and battery packs. This patented and sustainable method is a closed loop solution that fuses environmentally sound management of end-of-life batteries with high recycling and/or recovery rates. The lithium ion batteries are recycled, refined and transformed into lithium cobalt dioxide, which is used in the production of new lithium ion batteries. Salient features and benefits of the VALEAS process are:
 
  • Rechargeable batteries, battery packs and other input materials are injected into a furnace without any pre-processing, thus minimizing all hazardous risks;
     
  • A preferment gas cleansing of installation equipped with plasma technology eliminates formation of dioxins and furans;
     
  • Well-controlled melting conditions enable a clean slag to be produced and reused in construction and/or as aggregate for concrete;
     
  • A new cobalt and nickel refining installation facilitates treatment of cobalt and nickel containing alloys to obtain pure nickel and cobalt;
     
  • Plastics are fully vapourized;
     
  • No toxic wastes or gases are formed; and
     
  • High recycling rates.
     

Contact: Umicore Group, n.v. Umicore s.a., Broekstraat 31, Rue du Marais, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. Tel: +32 (2) 2277 111; Fax: +32 (2) 2277 900


E-mail: info@umicore.com


Website: www.umicore.com


Website: www.batteryrecycling.umicore.com


Smelting lead-containing wastes

In the United States, researchers at the Centre for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR) and Exide Corp. have exhibited the use of secondary lead smelting to recover usable lead from lead-acid battery waste sites. Wastes excavated from waste sites or collected from other sources are pre-processed to decrease particle size and remove contaminants like rocks, soil, etc.


Cleaned waste is then transported to the smelter and fed into reverberatory or blast furnaces, depending on particle size or lead content. Two reverberatory furnaces normally treat lead from waste lead-acid batteries and even other lead-containing substances. The furnaces are periodically tapped to remove slag, which contains 60-70 per cent lead and a soft pure lead product. Two blast furnaces treat slag from the reverberatory furnaces, as well as larger sized lead-containing wastes. These furnaces are tapped continuously for lead and tapped intermittently to remove slag, which is conveyed off-site for disposal. The combination of reverberatory and blast furnaces retrieves lead from batteries and wastes with greater than 99 per cent efficiency.


Contact: Mr. Stephen Paff, Centre for Hazardous Materials Research, 320, William Pitt Way, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15238, United States of America. Tel: +1 (412) 8265 321, ext. 233; Fax: +1 (412) 8265 552


Website: www.clu-in.org

Smelting scrap battery

Varta Automotive, Germany, offers technology for recovering lead from used lead-acid batteries. Basically there are two processes to reclaim lead from the waste accumulators. Batteries are either treated prior to the smelting process and separated by material category or processed directly as such, after separation of the acid. Varta employs the second method using a newly developed shaft furnace. Whole batteries fed into the shaft furnace, after simply draining out the acid, are smelted in a mixture containing additives like coke, limestone and iron. These additives provide additional impetus to smelting and transformation processes and help recover the lead step-by-step, apart from impurity removal to yield crude or raw lead.


Off-gases from this process include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, dust particles with high lead content and residues from plastics pyrolysis. This gaseous mixture is cleaned by burning off the organic content, from an initial temperature of 200C to up to 1,100C. After cooling, the gas passes through a filter system where nearly 100 per cent of the dust is separated. Since he dust fraction contains about 65 per cent lead, it is re-routed to the smelting process after pretreatment.


Contact: Varta Automotive, Johnson Controls Batteries European Headquarters, 30417 Hannover, Germany. Tel: +49 (511) 97501; Fax: +49 (511) 9751 010


Website: www.varta-automotive.com

Cleaning up spent batteries

An initiative funded by the European Union (EU) aims to develop cleaner and sustainable recovery processes to recycle spent lead-acid batteries. The Cleanlead project involves 12 collaborators from across seven European nations. As used batteries are broken down into three components for recovery, Cleanlead is developing and integrating new processes for each:
 
  • Sulphuric acid from the casing: The new approach is to convert the acid recovered to commercial grade gypsum for construction of plasterboards. While associates based in the Netherlands developed diffusion dialysis, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis techniques for acid reclamation, a Czech partner furnished a biological solution to completely remove heavy metals and a Spanish team-mate proposed a chemical purification route.
     
  • Battery pastes containing lead and sulphur: A hydrometallurgical treatment was developed that fully desulphurizes the pastes prior to smelting, thus reducing emissions of sulphur dioxide. This treatment uses low-cost reagents and yields gypsum, a useful by-product. As an alternative to smelting, a novel lead-alkaline electrolysis process was developed. The process integrates new anode/cathode and membrane technology to directly produce low-cost, pure, electrolytic lead. Additionally, a new process to obtain pure lead oxide by crystallization has been developed.
     
  • Lead-rich grids as well as metallic components: Three secondary lead producers in the consortium have developed optimized smelting cycles which reduce emissions of dust and gas, use less energy through lower temperatures and shorter smelting times, and increase lead recovery yield. Slag is reduced by 75 per cent and the stable silica material can be utilized in concrete aggregates and road construction.
     

Website: www.europa.eu.int


Environment friendly recycling of used batteries

Gravita Exim Ltd., India, is offering environmentally benign technologies for recycling used lead-acid batteries. The pyrometallurgical procedures have been shown to be better than some complex and technologically advanced methods in terms of low capital and life cycle costs, requirement of highly skilled workforce, economic feasibility of a range of capacities and relatively low core electricity needs, among others.


In pyrometallurgical secondary lead smelting, lead-bearing materials are charged into a furnace along with appropriate fluxes and reductants, drosses, returning slags and process dusts for smelting. Reduction of lead bearing material into crude soft/antimonial lead occurs together with the formation of lead-bearing slag, which may be collected and smelted in a separate slag campaign in the same or another furnace. Generally, blast/tilting rotary furnaces are used, either singly or in combinations for single/multi-stage smelting. The procedures used, furnace combination, fluxes, reductants, etc. are finalized taking into account the required plant capacity, product mixture, pollution control system and environmental obligations, desired level of flexibility in plant operation, and the composition of available battery scrap. Kettle furnaces are used for refining and alloying operations.


The company has developed a new blast furnace for secondary lead smelting that combines the features of low set-up and operating costs, low maintenance requirements due to no moving parts, high process efficiency and user-friendly settings. The patent-pending GBF furnace can achieve production levels of up to 12 t/d. Rotary furnaces are also available with a variety of fitment features and optional tilting mechanisms. Based on a simple, reliable and robust design, the furnaces display good operating/efficiency characteristics. Advanced designs and configurations to control pollution have been developed to suit different needs. The companys integrated turnkey plant installations cater to the needs of medium-sized used battery recycling facilities as well as manufacturing plants with assured design performance.


Contact: Gravita Exim Limited, 501, Rajputana Tower, A-27B, Shanti Path, Tilak Nagar, Jaipur 302004, Rajasthan, India. Tel: +91 (141) 2623 266/2622 697/2621 037; Fax: +91 (141) 2621 491


E-mail: gravita@sancharnet.in


Website: www.gravitaexim.com

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

New oxidizers

Anguil Environmental Systems Inc., the United States, offers a range of oxidizers to treat gas streams containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other contaminants. The thermal recuperative oxidizers destroy VOCs through combustion. A proper combination of temperature, residence time and turbulence within the reaction chamber ensures that all hydrocarbons are oxidized into water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO2). The system design is based on the volume of airflow, organic vapour concentrations and desired destruction efficiency. VOC-laden air entering the oxidizer is preheated through the tube side of the units heat exchanger. This heated stream then passes on to a burner where it is thermally oxidized around 650-1,000C, with a residence time of 0.5-2 s. Hot, purified air is passed on the shell side of the heat exchanger where energy released by the exothermic reaction is used to preheat the incoming gaseous flow.


Regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) destroys air toxins and VOCs by the process of high-temperature thermal oxidation, converting VOCs into CO2 and water vapour, while recycling released energy to reduce operating expenses. Process gas containing VOCs enters the twin-bed RTO through an inlet manifold. A flow control valve directs this gas into an energy recovery chamber, which preheats the process stream. The process gas and contaminants are heated in the stoneware bed as they move towards the combustion chamber. Oxidized VOCs release energy in the second stoneware bed, thereby reducing any auxiliary fuel need. The stoneware bed is heated and the gas cooled so that the outlet gas temperature is only slightly higher than the inlet temperature. The flow control valve switches and alternates the stoneware beds such that each is in inlet and outlet mode. PLC-based electronics automatically control all functional aspects of the RTO, right from start-up to shutdown, thus ensuring minimum need for operator supervision.


The regenerative catalytic oxidizer (RCO) also works just like an RTO system. However, in this system, toxins and VOCs are destroyed by catalytic oxidation, converting VOCs into CO2 and water vapour, recycling released energy to lower operating expenses.


Contact: Anguil Environmental Systems Inc., 8855 N. 55th Street, Milwaukee, WI 53223, United States of America. Tel: +1 (414) 3656 400; Fax: +1 (414) 3656 410


E-mail: info@anguil.com


Website: www.anguil.com

Exhaust treatment system for diesel and petrol engines

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the United States, has devised an exhaust after-treatment system for all lean-burn diesel and petrol engines. The system, based on non-thermal plasma (NTP) assisted catalysis, converts harmful NOx and particulate matter (PM) into clean air components. Field trials have demonstrated efficiencies in excess of 75 per cent for NOx reduction, and up to 50 per cent for PM removal, over a range of operating conditions. An optional particulate filter raises PM reduction efficiency to nearly 90 per cent.


The system integrates an electrically energized gas, or plasma, with specialized catalyst materials that selectively bring about chemical reactions to lower NOx. It performs well in the lean-burn conditions of energy-efficient diesel machines, where traditional three-way catalytic converters fall short, and can be easily incorporated into existing tailpipe designs with minimal alteration as a retrofit option for vehicles.


Website: www.federallabs.org

Systems for reclaiming sand

GMD Environmental Technologies Ltd., the United States, is offering patented Thermo-Scrubber thermal sand reclaimer for foundries desirous of recovering chemical bonded or lost foam sand for reuse in the core room and moulds sand. The close-coupled multiple fluid beds provide continuous calcining and pre-cooling by means of hot air scrubbing and gravity transfer. In combination with the GMD PNU Cooler, this unit yields consistent reclaimed sand with characteristics on par with or better than those associated with new sand. The system can even reclaim clay-bonded sands and, along with the GMD PNU cooler-scrubber, it produces a consistent reclaimed sand comparable with that of new sand. The GMD Thermo-Minder Graphics Monitor Display Control system provides finite control with means to monitor the reclamation system from the GMD Monitoring Station far away from the physical location of the equipment.


In the GMD PNU cooler-scrubber, as sand passes through the cooling section of the combination cooling and scrubbing system, it is cooled directly utilizing fluidizing air and indirectly through finned water coils in the fluidized bed. In the scrubber section, sand grains are withdrawn from the fluidized bed, forced up the blast tube and impacted against layers of sand grains being held against a target by the blast air. This sand-to-sand contact causes the organics (binder), clay and metallic oxides to dislodge from the sand grains. Recirculation of the sand continues until it is passed over the final weir, discharging from the GMD PNU scrubber ready for reuse. GMD PNU sand coolers and GMD PNU scrubbers are also available separately.


Contact: GMD Environmental Technologies Inc., P.O. Box 11375, 305, West Arlington Avenue, Fort Worth, Texas 76110, United States of America. Tel: +1 (817) 9269 294; Fax: +1 (817) 9230 035


E-mail: sales@gmdenv.com


Website: www.gmdenv.com

Systems to clean polluted gas streams

Ducon Technologies Inc., the United States, offers various systems for treating tainted exhaust streams. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system features state-of-the-art catalysis technology and controls engineering for easy erection and quick tie-in to new or existing process systems. This system employs ceramic honeycombed shapes or plate-type catalysts consisting of titanium dioxide as a base material with active coatings of vanadium pentoxide and tungsten trioxide that have been arranged at various levels. Designed for heat recovery in the range of 65-75 per cent, SCR units can easily achieve over 90 per cent NOx and CO, and high VOC removal efficiencies. For NOx units, Ducon offers ammonia injection systems, complete with vapourizers, storage tanks and injection grids.


The wet approach venturi scrubbers feature a wetted wall inlet, which eliminates wet-dry line build-up and allows direct recycling of high-solids liquid. Scrubbing liquid is distributed over a weir or shelf, no spray nozzles are used. This unit includes a mist eliminator for efficient entrainment separation. Key advantages and features of the non-clogging system include:
 

  • Over 99.9 per cent collection efficiency into sub-micron range;
     
  • Adjustable venturi throat (manual or automatic);
     
  • Water level control not required;
     
  • Can accommodate high inlet gas temperatures;
     
  • Optional packed tower section for gas absorption; and
     
  • Fabricated using various construction materials such as Inconel, Hastelloy and 317L.
     

The company also provides both wet and dry flue gas desulphurization (FGD) equipment. These custom designed systems remove sulphur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases using various reagents like caustic, lime, limestone, ammonia, magnesium oxide, fly-ash, soda ash, sea water or double alkali. Ducon can provide systems that can recover sulphur, sulphuric acid or make dry gypsum from wastes. FGD systems have demonstrated more than 99 per cent SO2 removal efficiency and nearly 90 per cent recovery of oxidized mercury from flue gases. Depending on the reagent, one can select a packed tower, a spray tower or a Venturi-Rod Spray Absorber for the wet FGD application. The dry FGD units incorporate proprietary two-fluid nozzle DRX-25 to atomize feed slurry in the spray reactor.


Contact: Ducon Technologies Inc., New York, United States of America. Tel: +1 (631) 6941 700; Fax: +1 (631) 4204 985.


Website: www.ducon.com


Selective absorption scrubbing system

Cansolv Technologies Inc., Canada, offers a leading regenerable sulphur dioxide (SO2) scrubbing technology. The patented Cansolv process employs an aqueous amine solution to provide high-efficiency selective absorption of SO2 from a variety of gas streams. Pure, water-saturated SO2 gas is recovered through steam stripping. A regenerable absorbent lowers the high cost of consumable absorbents, while its high capacity and selectivity reduce capital costs. Potential application areas include acid plants, smelters, pulp mills, refineries, etc. Notable benefits of the Cansolv process are:
 

  • Lowest emissions;
     
  • Ability to provide Best Available Commercial Technology or Maximum Available Control Technology solutions;
     
  • Reduced capital investment and operating costs;
     
  • Simple and safe to operate;
     
  • Zero amine volatility;
     
  • Low risk of adverse effects on operability of the plant; and
     
  • Some of the by-products have high-value uses, e.g. SO2.
     

Contact: Cansolv Technologies Inc., 8475, Avenue Christophe-Colomb, Suite 2000, Montreal, Quebec H2M 2N9, Canada. Tel: +1 (514) 3824 411; Fax: +1 (514) 3825 363


E-mail: mail@cansolv.com


Website: www.cansolv.com


Oxidizers for VOC removal

Glenro Inc., the United States, offers oxidizers for controlling emissions of VOCs, odour and smoke. The thermal and catalytic systems are designed for optimum performance and energy efficiency. Each unit is custom-sized to operate for different exhaust volumes, types and concentration of VOCs present as well as heat recovery needs. Fabricated using high-quality materials and stainless steel, the oxidizers heat exchangers are fully insulated and steel clad to minimize heat loss. Burner chambers are completely insulated and accessible. The pre-assembled units, skid-mounted and ready for installation, include safety gas trains, control programming and wired electrical controls.


The systems eliminate smoke and odours from textile heatsetters and exhaust streams. VOCs generated from the following manufacturing operations can be treated:
 
  • Drying solvent-based coatings, adhesives, inks, finishes and saturants on paper, non-woven, fabric, film, carpet, foil and steel webs;
     
  • Textile dyeing, printing and finishing lines;
     
  • Exhaust air streams from hot air and infrared driers;
     
  • Drying solvent-based coatings on fibre optics, yarns, wire and cable;
     
  • Drying printing inks on webs and sheets;
     
  • Drying solvent-based primers and adhesives on polyester cords;
     
  • Laminating applications; and
     
  • Solvent-based transdermal delivery systems coating line.
     

Contact: Glenro Inc., 39, McBride Avenue, Paterson, NJ 07501 1799, United States of America. Tel: +1 (973) 2795 900; Fax: +1 (973) 2799 103

E-mail: info@glenro.com


Website: www.glenro.com


Recovery of SO2

Canada-based TurboSonic Technologies Inc. offers TurboSOx system for recovering sulphur dioxide (SO2) from industrial exhaust streams. TurboSOx uses TurboSOx Amine, a proprietary solvent produced by Dow Chemical Co. The patented process enables 25 per cent savings over the capital costs of conventional mineral-based flue-gas desulphurization systems. Recovered SO2 is processed into a useable by-product. Benefits offered by TurboSOx are:
 
  • Demonstrated 99.9999 per cent SO2 removal;
     
  • Small equipment footprint;
     
  • Pretreatment to remove gaseous and particulate contaminants (HCl, SO3, etc.) available;
     
  • The amine stream is treated to remove impurities, including heat-stable salts;
     
  • Can handle high-sulphur fuels, providing faster payback; and
     
  • Pilot plant available for on-site process demonstration.
     

Some of the application areas are metallurgical smelters, pulp mills, petroleum refineries, gas processing plants, etc.


Contact: TurboSonic Technologies Inc., 550, Parkside Drive, Suite A-14, Waterloo, ON N2L 5V4, Canada. Tel: +1 (519) 8855 513; Fax: +1 (519) 8856 992


E-mail: info@turbosonic.com


Website: www.turbosonic.com


Wet scrubbing technology

Accentus plc., the United Kingdom, offers a unique wet scrubbing technology for treating waste streams. V-tex is applicable across a wide range of applications, which includes management of vent gases, odour removal, emergency scrubbing, acid and alkali gas scrubbing, particulate removal and groundwater treatment. For gas cleaning, the gas enters the scrubber tangentially and increases in velocity as it spins towards the centre. At the centre of the chamber are two nozzles, through which the scrub liquor will be sprayed, located opposite to each other. Where this liquor impacts, it disintegrates into millions of tiny droplets which are thrown outwards, towards the edge of the chamber. This deluge of droplets absorbs the contaminant from the gas as they travel through it, eventually hitting the outer wall of the chamber where they fall into a sump at the base of the system. The cleaned gas exits the V-tex system through a hole in the ceiling of the chamber. Benefits provided by V-tex over conventional scrubbing technology are:
 
  • It can perform multi-duty tasks in a single stage gas quenching and particulate and acid gas removal;
     
  • Deals with both chemical and noxious odours;
     
  • It is about 1/3-1/5 the size of a packed column for the same performance;
     
  • Eliminates the need for quench tower, to apply a high pressure drop on to the gas stream, unlike venturi systems;
     
  • Compact, quiet operation, simple in construction and far more cost-effective than bag houses;
     
  • Resistant to fouling and, as it does not have any packing, requires virtually no maintenance;
     
  • Available in a range of materials suitable for different applications and nature of the off-gas to be treated;
     
  • Can handle gas flow rates ranging from 10 m3/h to 15,000 m3/h in a single stage. However, further stages could be appended for higher gas flow rates; and
     
  • Variations in gas flow rates can be handled.
    Where a liquor has contaminants that require removal, V-tex works in reverse to the way detailed for gas cleaning. V-tex helps in the management of vent gases from chemical storage tanks. It captures alkalis, acids, VOCs and odours, eliminates loss of product from dynamic ventilation and reduces energy costs. The lightweight and compact system can be mounted either at ground level or at tank roof height.

Contact: Accentus plc., Harwell International Business Centre, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QJ, the United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (870) 1902 921; Fax: +44 (870) 1902 920


E-mail: enquiry@accentus.co.uk


Website: www.accentus.co.uk



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