VATIS Update Waste Management . Sep-Oct 2005

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Waste Management Sep-Oct 2007

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Master plan for solid waste management

Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) in Bangladesh reports to have drawn up a master plan for effective solid waste management over the next 10 years. The plan would focus on implementing 66 short, mid- and long-term programmes to ensure a clean city. This master plan is a result of 16 months of diligent efforts by a 42-member team comprising representatives from DCC and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Resident representative of JICA, Mr. Akio Arai, formally handed over a copy of the road map to Mayor Sadeque Hossain Khoka, pledging that Japan will extend cooperation to Bangladesh in managing urban garbage, including hospital wastes.

DCC sources said the corporation has to clean 3,200 t of waste round-the-clock in the city by relying on an inadequate workforce and logistic supports. The master plan includes sanitary land-filling and treatment of waste liquids, and is expected to make the city cleaner than ever before through community waste management system.


Making good use of scrap

Advanced Pyrotech Sdn Bhd, a joint venture between K.K. Incinerator Engineering and Construction Co. (M) Sdn Bhd and Octagon Consolidated Bhd, plans to set up a facility for recycling scrap tyres. The plant will employ technology, developed by a company from the Republic of Korea, that uses heat to degrade tyres into their original elements. Commercially viable by-products such as carbon black, recovered diesel-quality oil, non-condensable inflammable gases and steel wires will be produced.

Advanced Pyrotech recently built a prototype plant at Sunway Damansara Technology Park in Petaling Jaya. It plans to start the first full-fledged plant by the end of this year and add four more over the next five years. The company had previously submitted a proposal to privatize the collection, management as well as disposal of scrap tyres to the Entrepreneur and Cooperative Development Ministry. Advanced Pyrotech will provide training, guidance and financing to entrepreneurs and groom them. Octagon, a specialist in customized industrial plants and inks used for finishing touches in consumer items, such as electronic goods and motor vehicles, has been investing in the green technology since last year.


PET recycling project

In India, beverages major Coca-Cola India has launched a series of eco-friendly measures, which includes the launch of a mega PET recycling project in Chennai. As per these initiatives, the company will install 50 bins at key locations in Chennai to collect PET bottles, apart from planting 1,000 saplings near the companys plant at Nemam.

According to Mr. Sunil Gupta, vice-president (external affairs), Coca-Cola India, We have undertaken a series of successful initiatives in partnership with local communities and government bodies to set up a range of environment conservation projects like rainwater harvesting, tree plantation, solid waste management and recycling PET and paper.


Waste-to-energy plant in China

A new waste-to-energy facility set up in Fujian province of China can process around 600 t/d of wastes while generating 90,000 MWh/y of electricity. Residues like ash and granulates are used in cement and cement bricks. The US$22.5 million plant is the first such facility in the province to be built under the build-operate-transfer financing model. At present, three of the four production lines have been set up. With the completion of the fourth processing line, the plant will be able to process 1,000 t/d of waste. The plant spread over an area of 20,000 m2 will operate automatically, controlled by a central computerized system.

Waste Management World,March-April 2005

China curtails imports of scrap

The State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), China, plans to further cut back on scrap iron and steel imports for environmental reasons. Only steel producers who meet pollution control requirements and industrial production standards are presently granted scrap iron and steel import rights. In future, steel companies applying for qualification to import scrap iron and steel will be required to submit certification issued by the local SEPA branches for pollution control. An evaluation of the ecological impact of production facilities must be reported to SEPA when a steel company applies for scrap iron and steel imports for the first time.

Specific scrap hardware or scrap electrical appliance processing firms granted with licenses by SEPA are allowed to import scrap iron and steel at a small volume (< 10 per cent of their processing capacity), only when they are offered contracts from steel producers who comply with pollution control requirements. Additionally, steel companies are permitted to only import scrap iron and steel products that are listed in the countrys automatic import license system.


Waste collection efficiency improved in Viet Nam

At a meeting of Viet Nams Ministry of Construction, it was reported that up to 71 per cent of solid wastes in urban areas and industrial zones nationwide were being collected and dumped at designated sites, compared with 40 per cent five years ago. It was also revealed that the collection rate of recyclable garbage, including plastic and glass, is 25 per cent. However, to date only 13 of the countrys 64 provinces and cities have rubbish-dumping grounds meeting hygienic standards. In fact, most of the waste is not sorted before they are dumped. In addition, hospital waste is a serious problem as a major portion of this category of waste is not treated properly. A plan of action and various steps were suggested for the 2005-10 period.

Viet Nam Infoterra Newsletter, January-March 2005

Chinese efforts to boost tyre recycling

A new administrative ordinance on recycling and utilization of waste tyres drafted by Chinas State Development and Reform Commission (SDRC) has been hailed as a solid measure towards implementing the recyclable economy strategy. Apart from the regulation, SDRC is also investigating support for technological and economic policies and preferential taxation treatment in favour of recovering retired tyres.

The measures may include the use of proceeds realized from treasury bonds to encourage technological advancement in reclaiming used tyres and the creation of a related industry. Thus far, treasury bond proceeds have been earmarked for three retired tyre recycling projects and a related demonstrative project. The efforts of SDRC in this regard have also been echoed by other ministries, such as the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Construction and Ministry of Communications.

The Ministry of Education plans to list reclaiming resources from used tyres as a research subject under its state-class recyclable economy innovation bases, which proposes to disseminate theoretical as well as technological guidance for recycling used tyres. The Communications Ministry will focus on new fields in recovering and using waste tyres. It has even built test roads for the application of recycled tyres throughout the nation. Similar tests in urban road construction are being carried out by the Ministry of Construction.


E-waste treatment and recovery centre

An electronic waste treatment and recovery centre, the first of its kind in north China, is scheduled to begin operations in the Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA) during September. With the operation of this centre, all electronic wastes in north China will be converted into useful materials.

TEDAs electronics industry focuses on core products such as mobile phones, auto electronics and displays manufactured by Motorola, Samsung and Toyota, among other companies. However, for a long time, electronic junk generated by the production procedures were only stored and not treated. In order to reutilize these wastes, the TEDA administration decided to introduce the latest technologies for electronic waste disposal from a Taiwan-based firm and build a treatment centre. Involving a total investment of about US$12 million, this treatment and recovery centre would recycle the electronic wastes and extract rare metals such as palladium, silver and gold, and other metals, including iron, zinc and copper. Following extraction, waste residues will be reclaimed and used in construction materials.


Indian PC makers to draft law on e-wastes

Amid concerns over rising e-wastes in India, top personal computer (PC) manufacturers are coming together to find a workable solution, including proposing a draft legislation on e-waste management. As a first step in this endeavour, the industry held a video conference recently where it has been resolved that MNCs here would seek the views of their parent organizations, which are working on e-waste initiatives in Europe and the United States. At the meeting it was also decided to collect and compile the processes, success stories and best practices on e-waste management by leading PC and hardware manufacturers and put it on hardware association MAITs website for creating awareness.

The meeting also formed an industry taskforce under Mr. Sanjay Handu, Chairman - Southern Region, MAIT (Tyco Electronics Corp.), to take the initiative forward. Mr. Arun Bhagat (Acer India), Mr. Rajeev Mathur (IBM India) and Mr. Sai Chandrasekhar (HP India) are the other members of this taskforce. Keeping in view that any legislation that is passed would have far reaching outcomes on the business, the players also decided to come out with a draft legislation prepared by the industry. In fact, regulations of other industries would be referred for this purpose. E-waste or Waste from Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) refers to products having a battery or an electrical cord, which have become obsolete either because of technological advancements or for other reasons.


Recycled copper: A key resource

Nearly one-third of Chinas copper consumption is met by recycled waste and mixed coppers! Mr. Wang Jiwei, an official with the Society of Non-ferrous Metals Industry, said that China has geared up for reusing and recycling used coppers, in a bid to diffuse the tension of copper resource shortage, which has led to a positive impact on both domestic and international copper markets. Statistics provided by the society reveal that China recycled and reused 1.16 million tonnes of waste and mixed coppers in 2004, i.e. 28 per cent of the nations total annual consumption, up 14 per cent from that of the previous year. The figures do not include copper reused directly by copper processing enterprises, totalling 1,000,000 tonnes.

Last year recorded a 25 per cent rise in waste copper imports while that of electrolytic copper dropped by 12 per cent. China, ranked as the No. 1 copper consumer in the world, is facing a shortage of copper mine resources. A significant gap between copper demand and production has spurred more enterprises to resort to recycled coppers. A system for reusing waste coppers has already been formed, with many import and distribution centres established in port cities and other areas.


Rise in hazardous chemical emissions

The Ministry of Environment in the Republic of Korea has reported that emissions of noxious chemicals increased by 11 per cent in 2003 from a year ago. A total of 96,392 t of chemicals were treated in 2003 and 38,041 t of it was emitted into the atmosphere. The new analysis is based on a survey of 1,384 workplaces across the nation, treating more than 50 t/y of chemicals.

The toxic chemical methyl alcohol accounted for 19 per cent of leaked chemicals, followed by xylene (15.8 per cent), toluene (13.7 per cent), methyl ethyl ketone (9.3 per cent), isopropanol (5.3 per cent) and 3.5 per cent of normal hexane. Xylene vapours may cause irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, while inhaling normal hexane causes nerve damage and paralysis of the arms and legs. About 1,042 t of seven cancer-causing chemicals including vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide (ETO) and benzene were also released. This amounted to about 2.7 per cent of the total chemical emissions. By industry, 23.4 per cent of chemicals were leaked from chemical firms while 18.1 per cent was emitted from conveyance equipment, 14.5 per cent from paper product firms and 11.5 per cent from plastic and rubber manufacturers.


Malaysia imposes stringent rules to control toxic wastes

In a bid to control and manage the disposal of toxic wastes (totalling 460,000 tonnes in 2003) Malaysia has ruled that factories would be allowed to store such wastes on their premises for a period not longer than six months. The Department of Environment (DOE) is amending the Scheduled Waste Regulation, 1989, to provide for this measure.

Effective from 1 July 2005, industries generating wastes like sludge, oily waste, paint sludge, toxic materials and heavy metals will come under the purview of this new rule. Also, factories will not be allowed to store more than 20 t of hazardous wastes. Additionally, each factory owner will be given a list of approved waste disposal contractors and waste recovery operators. According to the Director-General of DOE Ms. Datuk Rosnani Ibarahim, Factory owners have to acknowledge receipt of the list and the onus would be on them to prove that they have taken the essential steps to properly dispose of their industrial wastes. Under the Environmental Quality Act, 1974, offenders can either be fined, jailed or both penalties imposed.



Technology to blend plant-based plastic with waste plastic

Sharp Corp., Japan, has developed technology to blend plant-based plastic with plastic reclaimed from used consumer electronics. Using the resultant material in consumer electronics can significantly mitigate environmental impact, as compared with the use of plastics derived from petroleum-based feedstocks. Sharp intends to undertake tests for assessing the commercial potential of the blended plastic, with the goal of utilizing the blend in its products within fiscal 2006.

While blending corn-derived plastic (polylactic acid or PLA) and waste plastic (polypropylene or PP), the two materials tend not to be mutually compatible, causing a gap to form at the boundary surfaces of the PLA and PP, leading to a significant loss of physical properties (e.g. impact resistance and thermal resistance). A newly developed compatibilizer mixed with optimal portions of PLA and PP enables ultra-fine dispersion of PLA, facilitating compatibility. As such, physical properties of the blended material are dramatically enhanced.


Breakthrough in recycling car plastics

Scientists in the United Kingdom have come up with a viable solution to problems raised by hard-to-recycle plastics used in the production of automobiles. A two-year research programme, supported by the motor manufacturers trade association SMMT, has uncovered a way to use a special plastic that is ultra-strong and yet 100 per cent recyclable.

Researchers with the RECYCLE project have been looking into self-reinforced polypropylene (SrPP) a kind of lightweight polypropylene that does not require non-recyclable additives to be strong enough for use in making car parts. However, it was difficult to shape, joint and paint for use in mass production. Engineers within the RECYCLE group have now perfected a technique to get over this limitation. They have already tested the process by making trial parts, for the Lotus Elise, which are 57 per cent lighter than conventional parts.

Contact: Foresight Vehicle Secretariat, c/o. SMMT, 2410, Regents Court, Birmingham Business Park, Birmingham, B37 7YE, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (845) 0093 838; Fax: +44 (845) 0093 939



Fuel gas production from waste plastics

In Japan, the Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology has developed direct gasification technology to obtain fuel gas from waste plastics. The Polymer Decomposition Laboratory Co., Ltd. (PDL) also participated in this project. Although several oil production processes were devised over the past three decades, there are still technical and economic obstacles for a process recycling waste plastics. The recent breakthrough offers an innovative method to promote a more economical way of feedstock recycling.

Based on the process design by PDL, an experimental module with a horizontally placed moving-bed reactor for plastics decomposition was assembled and operated to determine optimum conditions for the effective formation of gaseous hydrocarbons. A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane and isobutane were obtained from polyethylene and polypropylene with 70-94 wt%. Effective gasification was achieved through steady heat transfer using a screw conveyor and sand mixing with plastics, crucial features of the gasification module. Mixed gas thus obtained has higher economical value than heavy oil substitutes, a major product of the conventional process of feedstock recycling. Researchers plan to build a demonstration plant and other reactors for precise control of the gas compositions.


Recycling PET

Montello S.p.A., a PET recycling facility in Italy, has installed a 3,000 kg/h recycling system from Amut S.p.A. Feedstock for the facility pressed bales of dirty, frequently contaminated, post-consumer PET bottles comes from urban and industrial collection sites and is, in principle, pre-sorted, but still comprises other non-PET containers, like PVC, HDPE and PP bottles. The bales are automatically separated in the conveyor, which feeds the pre-wash unit. After impurities have been removed, with the help of hot water spray and a screen rotary drum, the externally washed bottles are then transported by an air drive system through a metal separator and on to a conveyor for visual control to remove any leftover foreign constituents. The pneumatic transport system removes excess water and loose labels. The bottles are then stored in a buffer, which guarantees a correct and constant flow to the automatic NIR detection systems, where any remaining non-PET or PVC bottles are ejected. All rejected bottles are redirected to a manual sorting belt for reclamation of any good PET bottles that might have been ejected along with non-PET containers.

Next, the washed, inspected and sorted bottles are reduced to flakes of about 20 mm2 in a wet grinder, which incorporates a special trap system to separate particles denser than the PET flakes. The flakes are conveyed to the flake pre-wash and a sink/float system to separate and remove the majority of polyolefin particles, residual paper labels and floating pollutants, before transferring them to the patented friction washer where they are thoroughly cleaned.

Another flotation tank segregates impurities less dense than water, such as PE caps and labels. The flakes then pass through a final fresh water centrifugal rinsing system. This water is the only fresh water fed to the whole washing system. Only 3,500 l/h are needed or about 1.1 l/kg of clean R-PET flake. A final hot air drying system removes most of the humidity in the clean flake to a level of 0.7 per cent. The dry flakes are then conveyed to a final sieve that sorts the material to the required size, while any oversized flakes (approximately 10 per cent) are transported to the final grinder to be brought within spec. A de-dusting system removes fine PET particles and barrier materials, while the final downstream metal detector identifies and removes any metal traces. The flakes are then stored in silos to await final packing.


Plastic oil improves fuel economy in cars

Researchers at Chevron and the University of Kentucky, the United States, report to have transformed waste plastic into lubricating oil in lab trials. The polyethylene-derived oils could help improve fuel economy and decrease the frequency of oil changes. Of the plastics used in the pilot study, about 60 per cent was converted into a wax with the right molecular properties for further processing to obtain lubricating oil for use as motor oil or transmission fluid. The high-quality oils can assist auto manufacturers in meeting mandated fuel economy specifications.


Magnetic separators and metal detectors

Eriez Magnetics Europe Ltd., the United Kingdom, is offering a unique technique for easy separation and handling of plastic process scrap or mixed re-grind material. PolyMag process can dramatically lower the cost of recycling plastics. It renders the plastic resin magnetic with an additive (high-concentration pellets) in a process similar to adding colour concentrate. The magnetic additive quantity is extremely small (typically 0.5 per cent or less) and does not affect the physical properties of the plastic. A high-intensity permanent magnetic separator is then applied to sort and recover various types and/or colours of plastics. In fact, PolyMag process can be used to separate more than two components by using a different amount of the magnetic additive for each. Potential applications for this method include separation of ABS-PE, PUR-PP and TPE from any base material.

A lab-scale SR Model Eddy current separator is also available. This non-ferrous metal separator works by creating high-intensity eddy current fields, thus rendering the non-ferrous metal particle conductive and amenable to magnetic separation. Other products in the companys stable include Grate/Hoppagrid magnets, plate magnets and tube magnets incorporating either ferrite or rare earth magnetic material for use in quality control. E-Z Tec 9000 metal detector, based on balanced coil technology, is used either for the protection of granulators or for final quality checks on products prior to packing. The E-Z Tec 9000 tunnel-type unit can be supplied with or without a chute or conveyor.

Contact: Eriez Magnetics Europe Limited, United Kingdom. Tel +44 (29) 2086 8501; Fax: +44 (29) 2085 1314



Scientists use waste plastic to make steel

Australian scientists report to have developed a technique to use waste plastic in steel making. Prof. Veena Sahajwalla at the University of New South Wales won the prestigious Australian science award for the hottest research in town, which she hopes will convert an environmental headache into a valuable resource.

In the new process, waste plastics are fed into electric steel-making furnaces as an alternative source of carbon and heated to super-hot temperatures of 1,600C. According to Prof. Sahajwalla, a wide range of waste plastics, from shopping bags to dishwashing liquid containers and beverage bottles, contain high enough levels of carbon to be useful in steel making. Carbon is used to add strength to steel. Higher the carbon content, stronger but less ductile it is. The carbon component in plastic is what we are after and, at those high temperatures, we are able to react it in such a manner so as to utilize carbon that is locked in the plastics. Typically, you would add coal and coke, Prof. Sahajwalla said. The process does not replace all of the coal and coke, a mix of plastic and coal is necessary. Also, PVC is one of the few plastics not suitable for the process, because of potential carcinogenic emissions when burned.



Treating clinical wastes

Medivac Ltd., Australia, is offering a single-step automated processor for on-site treatment of clinical and sharp wastes. MetaMizer series II equipment integrates steam and a proprietary materials cutting device located within the pressure vessel to yield a granulated product quickly, more silently and finer than feasible with conventional  cutting methods. This rapid increase in waste surface area allows the steam process to sterilize viruses and bacteria in remarkably shorter times than feasible by traditional treatment processes. MetaMizer Series II converts wastes into a sterile granular output with the following characteristics:
  • Approximately 20 per cent of its original volume and 80 per cent of its original weight;
  • Is not recognisable as clinical waste; and
  • Is inert and can be disposed of as healthcare facility waste or co-mingled with general waste.

Contact: Medivac Ltd., Unit 29, 10 Gladstone Road, Castle Hill NSW 1765, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 9894 7129; Fax: +61 (2) 9894 7558



Sterilization plants

Crusader Engineering Limited, New Zealand, is offering next-generation rotary autoclave (RAC) steam sterilization equipment for safe, efficient and documented disposal of medical (including body parts), quarantine and veterinary wastes. The patented Crusader plant can sterilize to the highest of international standards all categories of medical wastes, including sharps and red bag waste, as well as all classes of quarantine and veterinary wastes. The sterilizer can even completely dry out the treated waste material, should this be required, thus saving money on disposal costs. Other advantages of this system are:
  • Breaks open sealed bags and containers to sterilize contents;
  • High pressures and temperatures for maximum sterilization;
  • Huge volume reduction (typically reduces waste volume by 80 per cent); and
  • Proven in industrial application.

Contact: Crusader Engineering Ltd., #17, Lorien Place, East Tamaki, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: +64 (9) 2740 811; Fax: +64 (9) 2749 898.


New standard in medical waste treatment systems

Cutting-edge technology developed by Bioservices Group Inc., Canada, has made the process of treating medical wastes easier and more eco-friendly. The External Steam Agitation (ESA) utilizes simple steam properties to sterilize medical wastes to an allowable level. ESA has been designed with an internal rotating arm that macerates the waste contents. Application of a jacketed pressure vessel with an internal arm assembly decreases steam consumption.

ESA integrates the most advanced control systems available to date in the industry. A few of the system advances that help the ESA raise the bar on regulatory criteria in treating medical wastes are: text printouts, load weight printouts, pass-coded multiple parameter changes, programmed maintenance schedules, operator-programmed biological indicator testing routines, and operator programmed drying as well as additional drying cycles. Each unit is manufactured under ASME pressure vessel requirements and is sanctioned under the Canadian Standards Association International.

Contact: Bioservices Group Inc., 10, Romeo Court, North Bay P1B 9R5, Canada. Tel: +1 (705) 8405 358; Fax: +1 (705) 4947 880



Sterilizing, volume reduction and feed systems

Komar Industries, the United States, is offering equipment for sterilizing and volume reduction of biomedical wastes. The 2-shaft shear shredder is a high-quality, low-cost solution for primary reduction of wastes. The 4-shaft shredder assures versatile processing of wastes by utilizing a removable sizing screen. This unit can handle bagged waste, sharps containers or batches from autoclave carts. The screen can be left in place for processing the entire waste stream (typically 1.5-2 inch sizing screen) or can be set up to remove the screen for higher processing rate of general and red bag waste, and the screen inserted for processing of sharps containers. Sizing screens are available from 0.5-3 inch. Addition of an infeed ram assist allows the shredder to more efficiently process the waste by eliminating the bridging of material above the cutters.
Standard features common to the 2-shaft and 4-shaft shear shredders include:
  • Heavy plate construction;
  • Precision line bored frame;
  • Thru-hardened wide face gears;
  • Isolated bearings with labyrinth seals and isolation walls;
  • Automating reversing and dejamming control;
  • Allen Bradley PLC controls;
  • A progressive stack tightener assembly; and
  • ESP extreme shock protection friction clutch.
    An autoclave sterilizer is also available. Key features of this system are listed below:
  • An integrated PLC monitors and controls the sterilizer cycle, ensuring 100 per cent kill rate of all bacteria in the waste batch;
  • ASME pressure rated vessel with integral waste tracks assure easier loading;
  • Manual safety door lock bar interlinked to sterilizer controls ensures door mechanism is locked prior to pressurization of vessel;
  • Pneumatically actuated breech lockdoor and inflatable door seal;
  • A pneumatic safety lock pin energized by sterilizer control prevents the door from opening while the unit is pressurized; and
  • A novel single channel circular temperature chart recorder provides permanent documentation of each batch cycle.

Komar supplies the following feed systems:

  • A continuous feed system, with throughputs of 90-4,535 kg/h, that provides optimum feed control for plasma, gasification and incineration systems. A variable speed compression auger provides metered feed while controlling the amount of oxygen entering the process; and
  • Shred feed system, with throughputs of 90-907 kg/h.

Contact: Komar Industries, 4425 Marketing Place, Groveport, OH 43125, United States of America. Tel: +1 (614) 8362 366; Fax: +1 (614) 8369 870.


Decontamination unit for biohazardous wastes

Researchers in the United States have developed a tandem microwave unit consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for controlled combustion of materials. In the second chamber, off-gases from the primary chamber are treated by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to more hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off-gases.

The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing material, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste produced by small volume institutions. Contact: Mr. Dale Haas, Licensing Specialist, Westinghouse Savannah River Co., United States of America. Tel: +1 (803) 7254 185



Chemical inactivation of medical wastes

UniMed system from Unitrade Ltd., the United States, consists of a hopper, shredding/grinding chamber and a waste trap. Waste introduced into the hopper is first sprayed with a solution of sodium hypochlorite, followed by shredding and grinding of the waste, with final exit through a waste trap. Once the waste trap is filled with ground waste, additional sodium hypochlorite is added to accomplish an acceptable working concentration of the free available chlorine. A pump connected to the waste trap recirculates the sodium hypochlorite for about 30 minutes.

Contact: Unitrade Limited, 300 East 56th Street, New York, NY 10022, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (212) 7592 771/7513 820.


New treatment system

WPS Co., the United States, offers SSM-150 (maceration/steam heat) system for treating medical wastes. After waste is loaded into the processing chamber, steam is passed into the tank, followed by superheated water. After a 60 minutes soak, a pump grinder is activated and the material is drawn through an external cutter. Waste is cycled constantly through the steam and hot water bath and grinder for about 35 minutes. Following drainage into a filter separator system, the solids, now of confetti consistency, are sep- arated from the liquids, which are drained into the sewer.

Contact: Mr. William D. Norton, President and CEO, WPS Co., 3051 Washington Boulevard, Suite B, Baltimore, MD 21230, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (443) 5244 245/5244 250




Electronic wastes as building blocks

In Malaysia, Dr. P. Angamuthu at the Universiti Malaya has converted electronic wastes into construction material. This environment friendly breakthrough helps factories dispose of their wastes without generating pollution. Dr. Angamuthu was awarded a gold medal for his product at a recent invention exhibition held in Geneva.

Wastes from electronic factories contain chemicals that release toxic gas during conventional disposal technologies. In Dr. Angamuthus process, bricks are made by mixing powdered electronic wastes with cement and pouring this mixture into brick moulds.


Reclaiming precious metal from electronic wastes

CDS Environmental Services, based in Canada, recovers gold from circuit boards and cyanide solutions that have gold and silver. The company handles cyanide baths, rinses, drag outs and stripping solutions. CDS also refines other precious metals, which include filters, resins, sweeps, metallics and platinum group metals.

The companys proprietary precious metal recovery process for cyanide solutions and gold plated scrap helps process electronic circuit boards on-site and accomplishes 100 per cent recovery levels. Cyanide stripping assures faster returns and a more accurate assay. From high-volume silver baths to small stripping lots, CDS offers capabilities to process and recover precious metal assets. CDS even provides total destruction of all hazardous by-product cyanide residues through its on-site thermal hydrolysis systems, manufactured exclusively by Cyanide Destruct Systems.

Contact: Mr. A. Harvey, CDS Environmental Services (Div. of Cyanide Destruct Systems Inc.), 293, Saunders Road, Barrie, Ontario L4N 9A3, Canada. Tel: +1 (705) 7256 262; Fax: +1 (705) 7250 036



Sharp develops recycling technology for AQUOS LCD TVs

Sharp Corp., Japan, has developed material recycling technology to recover non-halogen resins in the cabinets of AQUOS LCD TVs and recycle them into a raw material for new cabinets. The cabinet material of AQUOS LCD TV sets include a non-halogen resin PC + ABS + phosphorus-based flame retardant which does not generate dioxins when incinerated. ABS is a mixed resin made from a blend of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.However, material recycling technology has not yet been established to recycle it as a material for new components. Sharp had recently developed a property improvement technology based on a cabinet that was intentionally degraded to a state equivalent to 20 years of use. This new technology allows plastic material that make up the cabinet to be easily recycled.

The company also plans to establish technologies for recycling LCD TVs; in anticipation of the directive in the European Union to recycle waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and revisions to Japans Household Appliance Recycling law. The WEEE regulation is effective from 13 August 2005. By the end of fiscal 2006, Sharp will aim to develop new LCD TV cabinet material having excellent recyclability, based on its material recycling technology for non-halogen resins. Additionally, to encourage recycling of used LCD TVs in an efficient way, Sharp has independently formulated Guidelines for LCD Panel Recycling (English and Japanese versions) and Guidelines for Manual Disassembly of LCD TV Fluorescent Tubes (Japanese). These documents would be widely distributed in the future in an effort to promote designs that allow ready dismantling of LCD TVs.

Contact: Sharp Corporation, Public Relations Division, Osaka, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 6621 1272.


Electronics recycling

HMR Group, based in the United States, is an international company that turns hi-tech junk into marketable commodities, extending the life of electronics and keeping them from posing problems in landfills. The CRT recycling process begins on a disassembly line. Recyclable plastic or wooden case, PC board, metal chassis, yoke, wire and metal strap are manually separated from the CRT. These materials are then screened for individual commodity sales. The resulting CRT is a whole glass tube (impregnated with lead) with an internal metal frame.

In the next step, CRTs are loaded on to a conveyor system that leads into the CRT crusher, which is set up in a mobile shipping container. This self-contained unit facilitates easy transportation, total weather protection, dust containment and complete air filtration. The crusher can process 100-150 CRTs/h, or over 15 t/d. Once CRTs enter the crusher, they drop into a rotating hammer mill and are fragmented. A magnet pulls metal from the mix while a screen is used to sift the glass to obtain the desired size. Metals and crushed glass are separately discharged from the bottom of the system and into commodity containers for shipment.

Lead-contaminated glass is then shipped to a primary lead smelter, which uses the glass as a fluxing agent in the processing of raw lead ore. Lead from the glass becomes part of their end product, which is sold for use in the manufacture of products such as new CRTs, X-ray shields, bullets, batteries and other items.

Contact: HMR Group, Sacramento Central Processing Facility, # 8301 Belvedere Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95826, United States of America. Tel: +1 (916) 3815 504



Complete CRT de-manufacturing

Newtech Recycling Inc., based in the United States, is offering an innovative recycling method, right from complete unit disassembly of electronic equipment to full monitor destruction. The patented and state-of-the-art Negative Pressure CRT Separation Unit features:
  • Each monitor is disassembled manually, during which all plastics, circuitry and boards are removed and sorted for recycling. Next, CRTs are sent to the preparation chamber;
  • In the preparation chamber, the external steel-mounting ring around the CRT is removed. A high-powered filtering system traps all the lead-contaminated dust particles that may be emitted during this process. Guns from the CRTs are carefully removed prior to entering the separation unit; and
  • The hydraulically operated unit reduces lead-contaminated glass into recyclable particles. This occurs in a Hepa Vac-filtered environment, eliminating the release of emissions. The crushed glass is then sent to a glass recycler as feedstock.

Contact: Newtech Recycling Inc., 111, Chimney Rock Road, Bridgewater, NJ 08807, United States of America. Tel: +1 (732) 4699 774; Fax: +1 (732) 4698 943.


Metal reclamation from electronic waste

In the United States, a researcher has developed a method to recover metals from wastes and vitrify the leftover portion for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a temperature in the range of 300-800C to combust organic materials in the waste. The temperature is then further raised to 1,000-1,550C to melt and vitrify glass formers present in the waste.

Low melting point metals such as tin and aluminium can be recovered after the combustion of organics is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or even separated from the waste at their respective melting points.

Contact: Mr. Dale Haas, Licensing Specialist,Westinghouse Savannah River Co., United States of America. Tel: +1 (803) 7254 185



Lasers recycle CRT funnel glass

Citiraya Recycling Technology, the United Kingdom, employs a laser cutting process for recycling CRTs from television sets and computer monitors at its Mid-Glamorgan plant. Plant Manager Mr. Robert Noakes states that During laser cutting, the tube sits face down on a turntable and the laser cuts part-way through its thickness just below the frit seal glass, which joins the two parts, and contains up to 65 per cent lead.

The process needs about 30-90 s, depending on the tube size. The plant can handle 450,000-500,000 CRTs per year, which is reported to be about 5-8 per cent of the nations annual CRT waste output. Around half the weight of a TV is the CRT and WEEE legislation stipulates producers to prove 65 per cent of the weight of discarded TVs and monitors is recycled, which makes effective glass recycling essential.

Contact: Website:



Regulating off-gas contaminants

Diox-Blok, Alka/Sorb process from Beco Engineering Co., the United States, has been refined over the years to provide maximum control efficiency over all typical off-gas contaminants, including acid gases, fly-ash, heavy metals (inclusive of mercury and cadmium) and dioxins/furans. The Alka/Sorb (2 stage dry/wet process) gas cleaning system comprises a dry scrubber section and wet scrubber modules. Additionally, several patented process alterations have been incorporated to guarantee a high degree of emission control, especially for dioxins/furans and mercury/cadmium based on investigation of the fundamental reaction and removal chemistry of these compounds.

Contact: Beco Engineering Co., 800 Third Street, P. O. Box 443, Oakmont, PA 15139, United States of America. Tel/Fax: +1 (412) 8286 080/144.


Modular equipment for PCB management

Spill Management Inc.s (SMI) new recovery system is a custom-built BreMar trailer that is made of non-sparking heavy-duty aluminium. It accommodates response equipment and portable open top tanks that facilitate pre-treatment of wastewater by removing contamination. This is accomplished by the use of vacuum, flocculation of suspended solids through physical treatment and filtration of contaminated water.

In-Viro-Drum vacuum and Mycelx HRM Cartridge filtration units are mounted on a TanTum electric truck to provide water treatment, training and emergency response abilities. Both the systems can be detached from the electric truck and air-lifted to sites that are difficult to access or remote. They can also be operated from a response boat or barge, while on water. HRM cartridges have a very strong bonding attraction for select hydrocarbon compounds and will eliminate PCBs to below detectable limits (BDL).

SMIs portable, diesel-powered, In- Viro-Drum vacuum recovery system is engineered to provide increased pumping capability, thereby allowing the operator to randomly separate and accumulate PCB wastes into designated waste streams either for transportation, treatment storage or transferring from the field. The unit can operate and/or support recovery and process equipment. It reduces handling, clean-up and reclamation costs for PCB as well as non-PCB contaminated oil, water, sludge and soil. The vacuum unit can also be idled down to lift oil from water or used at higher RPM to move debris through a combination of vacuum and airflow.

Contact: Mr. C. Holland, Spill Management Incorporated.



Activated carbon powder injection to eliminate dioxins

Sanki Engineering Co. Ltd., Japan, offers absorption removal technique with activated carbon injection for the effective destruction of dioxins. Conventional control systems by fuzzy and second combustion technology, as a dioxins elimination process, are not adequate to reduce dioxins concentration at B.F outlet to levels less than 0.1 ng-TEQ/m3N.

The new system is based on the tenet that dioxins at gas-side are also adsorbed by activated carbon, scattered in the solid deposit layer at the surface of B.F filtering cloth, removed and recovered as collected dust. Existing or new incinerators can realize this system by setting up the injecting point of activated carbon in front of the B.F. Space required for the injecting equipment is about 4 3 4 m. The dioxins concentration at B.F outlet can be reduced by 0.1ng-TEQ/m with 150-200 mg/m3N injection volume. Some potential application areas for the system include municipal/industrial waste incineration systems, melting furnaces, etc.

Contact: Sanki Engineering Co. Ltd., 1-4-1, Yurakucho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100 8484, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3502 7849; Fax: +81 (3) 3506 8546



Asbestos abatement/disposal by plasma arc technology

In the United States, joint research by the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) and the Georgia Institute of Technology investigated plasma arc destruction process and potential applicability to the Army. Studies were performed under the Construction Productivity Advancement Research programme as a cost-shared venture between the partners. The ultimate goal was to develop a mobile 15 t/d Plasma Asbestos Pyrolysis System (PAPS) and a heavier duty, transportable Plasma Energy Pyrolysis System (PEPS).

PAPS and PEPS will provide Army installations and the construction industry with the option of on-site asbestos destruction vs. transportation and disposal in a hazardous waste landfill. The cost to treat 7 t/d of asbestos utilizing PAPS is estimated at US$163/t. In addition to destroying asbestos, plasma arc technology has the potential to be applied in municipal and hazardous waste disposal sites. It can provide a high-intensity heat source for the gasification, vitrification and environmentally safe destruction of several hazardous wastes.

Contact: Construction Research Centre (CRC), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332
0159, United States of America; Or Dr. Louie J. Circeo, Georgia Tech POC, United States of America. Tel: +1 (404) 8942 070; Fax: +1 (404) 8947 989.


Bacteria eliminate pesticide residues

Researchers at Tianjin University of Science and Technology, China, have developed a bacteria-based biological repairing technique to break down pesticides made up of organic chlorine. The project was a diligent endeavour to improve the ecological environment of herb plantations. Results from trials undertaken at a ginseng field have shown that the new technique can remove DDT by 37.3-68.65 per cent and BHC by 36.45-62.55 per cent. Notable traits of the highly economical technique include simple operation, low-cost and even lowered attacks from pests while raising quality of the produce.


Reducing hydro-carbon contaminants

Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have led to multiple releases of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) and also light extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (LEPHs) to the soil and water table in Canada. Oxygen Release Compound (ORC), a novel in situ technology, has been successfully applied at a former service station/car dealership in the greater Vancouver area. Use of this safe and easy-to-handle powder has reduced the high concentrations of VPH, LEPH and naphthalene since its injection in October 2003.

Following completion of a detailed site investigation, soil contamination was found within and adjacent to the former petrol UST basin. Based on the results from multiple borehole samples, the area of concern was delineated to comprise the former petrol USTs and the pump island. A total of 1,300 m3 area was identified as contaminated soil and 1,350 m3 was estimated as having tainted groundwater. Soil and groundwater pollution included VPHs (13,000 g/l), LEPHs (2,600 g/l) and, to a lesser extent, naphthalene (240 g/l).

Contact: Mr. Phillip Lowery, Next Environmental Inc., Canada.



Aqueous system for PCB extraction

The United States-based Integrated Chemistries Inc. is offering a solvent system (CAPSUR) for cleaning up PCBs from solid surfaces, such as asphalt, concrete, metals, glass and pre-tested painted surfaces, etc. Typically, PCB concentrations of 100 g\100 cm2 or less require one application, 1,000 g\100 cm2 or less need two cycles and 3,000 g\100 cm2 or less need three cycles. One filling of the Model T Foamer will cover 450 ft2. Conservative figures indicate that approximately 6,000-7,000 ft2/d can be covered.

CAPSUR, a foam-applied, aqueous-based solvent process incorporating emulsifiers, can effectively remediate to a depth of half an inch in porous surfaces such as concrete. This system features high PCB affinity and emulsification properties, which suspend PCBs, facilitating easy cleanup in water with vacuum equipment. Chemically, CAPSUR interacts with PCB molecules, allowing extraction of PCBs from surfaces and then suspends PCBs in water enabling easy removal.

Contact: Integrated Chemistries Inc., 1970 Oakcrest Avenue, Suite 215, St. Paul, MN 55113, United States of America. Tel: +1 (651) 6362 380; Fax: +1 (651) 6363 106.


Carbonizing thermal destruction unit

In Japan, Suido Kiko Kaisha Ltd. is offering a system for the treatment of solid comustible waste. The process combines additive and carbonization processes to prevent dioxins formation. Key features include:
  • By using carbonization process for incineration of solid wastes, waste is broken down into carbonaceous material and gas. The carbonaceous material can be reused as marketable raw material while the gaseous product can be utilized for thermal energy. This system can provide economical waste treatment with a high rate of recycling; and
  • The formation of toxic dioxins is prevented by the application of a dechlorinating component in the carbonization procedure, and any dioxins present are detoxified.

The entire system consists of a pretreatment system, a carbonization unit, a gas incineration system and an effluent gas treatment system. Additional features can be added, such as heated water production system and back-up system for power outages.

Contact: Suido Kiko Kaisha Ltd., 48-16, Sakuragaoka 5-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156 0054, Japan. Tel/Fax: +81 (3) 3426 4801/3427 3388.



Treating refinery wastewater

Researchers at Tianjin University, China, have studied the efficiency of treating refinery wastewater in a gas-liquid-solid three-phase flow airlift loop bioreactor. Aerobic treatment of refinery wastewater was carried out in a 200 dm3 bioreactor, in which a biological membrane replaced the activated sludge. The effect of temperature, pH, gas-liquid ratio and hydraulic residence time on reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4-N were also examined. It was concluded that optimum conditions were achieved by maintaining the following parameters temperature around 25-35C, 7-8 pH value, gas-liquid ratio of 50 and hydraulic residence time of 4 h. Radial and axial positions had little influence on local profiles of COD and NH4-N. Under optimal operating conditions, effluent COD and NH4-N were less than 100 mg dm-3 and 15 mg dm-3, respectively for more than 40 days.


Photocatalytic wastewater treatment

In the United States, researchers at Louisiana State University have developed and constructed a photocatalytic reactor for water treatment by investigating the photocatalytic degradation of o-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and phenanthrene (PHE). The photocatalytic reactor employs a ceramic multi-channel monolith as support for TiO2 and bare quartz fibres inserted inside the monolithic channels as both a light-transmitting conductor and a support for TiO2. This configuration allows a higher surface area for catalyst coating per unit reactor volume, compared with the continuous annular reactor and optical fibre reactor.

Optimum thickness of TiO2 layer on the optical fibre was found to be approximately 0.4 m. The kinetics of DCB and PHE degradation were pseudo-first order. Studies on the effect of water flow velocity showed that the operation was in the mass transfer control regime.
Greater apparent quantum efficiency was observed for the optical fibre monolithic reactor compared to that of the continuous annular reactor.

Contact: Mr. Gordon A/Ms. Mary Cain, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, United States of America.



Anaerobic membrane treatment process

In Taiwan, researchers at the Centre for Environmental, Safety and Health Technology Development are offering an innovative anaerobic membrane process for wastewater treatment. Developed to counter membrane scaling problems in conventional anaerobic biological treatment processes, the new system comprises an anaerobic reactor, an aerobic reactor and a membrane separation tank. In studies, anaerobic sludge from a full-scale UASB reactor unit treating wastewater from food plants was inoculated to anaerobic and aerobic reactor to purify synthetic wastewater consisting of glucose and sodium acetate. The anaerobic reactor was operated in sludge bed type without three-phase separator. The aerobic reactor could eliminate residual organics from the anaerobic reactor effluent utilizing facultative microbes. A hollow fibre ultrafiltration module had been submerged in the separation tank to facilitate solid-liquid separation.

Results indicate that the anaerobic membrane procedure combined methanogenic and aerobic COD reduction, assuring system stability. No fatal scaling was observed after two months of operation even without chemical cleaning of the membrane. It was even found that inorganic precipitates formed in the aerobic reactor were reduced because of CO2 stripping in the aerobic reactor.

Contact: Mr. H.S. You, Centre for Environmental, Safety and Health Technology Development, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu City, 300, Taiwan.



Process for treating wastewater from semiconductor plants

Sharp Corp., Japan, has developed an innovative method to treat wastewater from semiconductor facilities. Combining its proprietary micro-organism treatment technique with a micro-nano bubble technology, the new method can eliminate over 90 per cent of nitrogen in the effluent stream without dilution. Moreover, no sludge is produced.


New wastewater recycling system

Sanyo Electric, Japan, reports to have developed a highly efficient recycling system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater. Using proprietary wastewater treatment technologies designed for manufacturing semiconductors, the new system can efficiently raise the quality of treated water, irrespective of fluorite level in the wastewater while recovering high-purity fluorite. The system is suitable for treating hydrofluoric acid wastewaters from semiconductor plants as well as in fluorinated gas treatment facilities.



Composite flue gas treatment process

Sumitomo Heavy Industries Limited, Japan, is offering a dry type desulphurization process capable of removing all forms of hazardous substances, consisting primarily of SOx, in a single stroke. The new composite flue gas treatment reactor segregates toxic substances from flue gases, exhibiting high removal efficiency, particularly SO2, dust, heavy metal and dioxins. Furthermore, as there is no drop in flue gas temperature during treatment, the need for after-heating is eliminated. Also, fine grains in the flue gas are removed efficiently and as such flue gas emissions are totally invisible. The volume of water utilized and discharged is very little, without any generation of solid waste. SO2 gas removed by this equipment can be recovered as high-purity sulphuric acid or sulphur, by-products with high commercial value.

In the flue gas treatment process, a vertically moving seam of granular activated char is generated. As flue gas comes in contact with char in a cross flow, the flue gas is cleaned. SO2, halogenides, heavy metals and dioxins are absorbed by the char. NOx reacts with NH3 injected into the entering flue gas stream and decomposes to N2 and H2O. At this time, activated char functions as a NOx removal catalyst. Fine grains of dust, fumes, etc. are removed as a result of the filtering effect of char.

Potential fields of application for the system include coal or crude oil-fired power generating boilers, sinter plants, waste incinerators, etc.

Contact: Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., 9-11, Kitashinagawa, 5-chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 8686, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 5488 8000; Fax: +81 (3) 5488 8056.


Wet desulphurization plant designed

Ishii Iron Works Co. Ltd. of Japan offers a wet desulphurization plant designed to recover hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as solid sulphur from coke oven gas, sludge digestion gas and other fuel gases. On combustion, H2S in fuel gas gives off harmful sulphur dioxide (SO2). In Takahaxs process, H2S is absorbed in alkaline solution and recovered as solid sulphur by catalytic oxidation. In the case of sludge digestion gas, which contains rich carbon dioxide, H2S can be eliminated selectively.

Alkali materials, caustic soda and sodium carbonate can also be used. However, for the treatment of heavy volume gas such as coal gas or coke oven gas, ammonia (NH4OH) found in the fuel gas itself works as alkali materials in the Ammonia Takahax procedure. More than 99 per cent desulphurization efficiency can be achieved by Soda or the Ammonia Takahax process.

Contact: Ishii Iron Works Co. Ltd., 4-2-11, Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104 0061, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3562 3211; Fax: +81 (3) 3562 1938



Catalytic SOx control

Grace Davison, the United States, has devised DESOX SOx additive that offers refiners with proven ability to reduce FCCU SOx emissions in compliance with environmental laws. DESOX incorporates a patented magnesium aluminate spinel, which has proven to be the most effective means of reducing SOx emissions. DESOX decreases the FCCU SOx emissions by transferring sulphur, in stable form, from the regenerator to the reactor, where it is released as H2S for downstream recovery.

DESOX also offers the significant advantage of SOx control without the capital investment for feed hydro-desulphurization or gas scrubbing. It can also be used for backup SOx control during FCC feed hydro-treater shutdowns, to provide flexibility in processing sour feeds, balance refinery-wide SOx emissions (bubble limit) and for particulate emissions control. Commercial tests at many different refineries are reported to have found DESOX the most cost-effective SOx additive available today.

Contact: Grace Davison, 7500, Grace Drive, Columbia, MD 21044, United States of America. Tel: +1 (410) 5314 000; Fax: +1 (410) 5314 367.


Low-temperature unit for NOx removal from diesel exhaust

Researchers in the United States are investigating a new strategy to achieve high NOx removal rates at low temperatures in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. This approach uses a coupled system an ethylene glycol (EG) reforming unit to convert a mixture of EG and water into carbon monoxide and hydrogen (H2), followed by a H2-deNOx unit. The team studied the performance of modified platinum (Pt) supported catalyst for gas-phase EG reforming at 230C. Prior to testing, samples were calcined in air followed by reduction in H2 at 250C. Modification of Pt-supported catalysts using sodium produces a two-fold effect an increase in the reforming activity and also stability of the catalyst.

At a low EG concentration of 420 ppm, results have shown complete conversion of EG into H2 mainly through decomposition. At higher EG concentrations (2.15 per cent EG in the feed), oxidative reforming produced 1.4 H2/EG. Researchers intend to couple this EG reforming unit to a de-NOx system. Based on calculations, 0.551 kg of reforming catalyst would be needed to deliver the amount of H2 required for total NOx removal. Under realistic engine operating conditions, the amount of EG required for 100 per cent NOx removal is 1.8 l/h, which suggests that such a coupled system would be feasible for practical application.

Contact: Mr. Hiu Ying Law, Dept. of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, # 2145
Sheridan Road E136, Evanston, IL 60208, United States of America.


SOx reduction process

Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. of Japan offers atmospheric fluidized bed combustion boiler system for lowering SOx. Coarse crushed coal fed continuously into the fluidization medium, which is heated in the air heating furnace to reach the ignition temperature of coal, starts to burn spontaneously. The furnace is turned off at this point.

While coal keeps burning, coal supply volume is controlled to keep the temperature of the fluidized bed at 760-860C. For heat recovery, the fluidized bed combustion boiler has heat exchanger tubes in its fluidized bed and convection section. The use of limestone as fluidization medium allows for in-furnace desulphurization. Flue gas from the fluidized bed combustion boiler will contain many unburned ingredients, which are collected by a mechanical precipitator and burned in the after-burner furnace to improve combustion efficiency.

Contact: Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Japan.



Catalytic NOx removal system

Kawasaki Heavy Industries Limited, Japan, offers a selective catalytic NOx reduction system wherein NOx in the flue gas is decomposed into nitrogen and water by ammonia, as the flue gas is passing through the catalyst layer. The grid honeycomb catalyst is available with suitable content and geometry for versatile applications. Key features of the catalyst include:
  • High NOx and dioxins removal efficiency
  • Thermal stability
  • No secondary pollutants
  • High resistance to SOx, erosion and contaminants and
  • Safe treatment of spent catalyst.

Contact: Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Japan.



New system for NOx removal

In the United States, Synterprise LLC and ECOMB AB are offering a new system for NOx reduction and combustion improvement. Ecotube system consists of two or more retractable lance tubes, located in the boiler furnace above the primary burner zone, for the introduction of high-pressure air as well as urea or ammonia. Aggressive mixing action created by the Ecotube results in turbulent flow, more fuel/air mixture residence time, mitigated effects of reducing atmosphere corrosion, a uniform gas flow pattern entering the convection passes and lower mass volume solid particle carry-over into the convection passes. The water-cooled Ecotubes are automatically retracted from the boiler on a regular basis and cleaned to remove layers of soot and other depositions.

Up to 60-80 per cent NOx reduction is feasible, depending on equipment and site conditions. In addition, boiler efficiency is raised by 1-4 per cent. Ecotube can be combined with an SCR system and set up in 3-4 days.

Contact: Synterprise LLC., 1110, Market Street, Suite 525, Chattanooga, TN 37402, United States of America. Tel: +1 (423) 2675 363; Fax: +1 (423) 2652 350



Regenerative thermal oxidizers

Chugai Ro Co., Japan, offers three types of regenerable thermal oxidizers (RTOs) to remove pollutants and deodorize waste gas streams. The RTOs make use of heat reproduction with a ceramic heat storage material that is alternatively heated up and cooled down. All three RTOs offered single-tower, twin-tower and rotary have a heat efficiency ratio of 95 per cent. The rotary RTO can economically process medium or low concentration waste gases, which are approximately 1,000 ppm or less in density (toluene method).

Contact: Chugai Ro Co. Ltd., 2-4-7, Kyomachibori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-003, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 6449 3700; Fax: +81 (6) 6445 7845.



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