VATIS Update Waste Management . Sep-Oct 2006

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Waste Management Sep-Oct 2007

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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China to spend heavily on waste treatment, recycling

China plans to invest up to US$37.5 billion in urban sewage treatment and recycling during the 11th five-year plan (2006-2010) period. According to Mr. Zhang Yue, deputy head of the Ministry of Constructions urban construction department, China will raise the necessary funds by further opening its water sector to foreign and private capital. Mr. Zhang said that, togther with the National Development and Reform Commission and the State Environmental Protection Administration, the Ministry has drafted a plan for urban sewage treatment and recycling between 2006 and 2010. The plan is expected to be approved soon by the State Council. The plan stipulates that all major cities must have 80 per cent of their sewage treated by 2010. For medium and small cities, the rate would be 60-70 per cent.

Over the past five years, sewage treatment facilities in China have grown and the countrys sewage processing capacity has tripled since 2001. However, only 60 per cent of the capacity is currently used, owing to a sub-standard sewage collecting network. Mr. Zhang stated that expansion of the sewage collecting network would be a major task in the future. The government will step up efforts to make sewage treatment and recycling more profitable and sustainable and the policy of charging polluters for sewage treatment will be adopted in more cities. Veolia, a French giant in the water industry, has already invested in 18 water projects in 16 Chinese cities.


E-waste disposal facility for end-users

Wipro,a leading IT company in India, will soon be offering e-waste disposal services to its customers. Wipro will be among the pioneers to offer such a service, which customers can avail of free-of-cost by paying nominal freight charges.

On the issue of disposal of scrapped devices by owners and users of computers and electronic goods, raised by Greenpeace, Wipro stated that it has set up an environment management team to lead its initiatives on this front. Over the last year, Wipro has defined the process, identified suitable disposal mechanisms, set up service points across the country, identified technically competent disposal agencies and set up a process for disposal of e-wastes. In addition, it is voluntarily driving efforts to maximize the use of Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) compliant components. According to Mr. Ashutosh Vaidya, VP of personal computing division of Wipro, The current outlook of supply-side dynamics makes us believe that we can offer RoHS-compliant electronic components in our PCs by the middle of next year.


Thailand puts onus on firms to handle rising e-waste

In Thailand, a handful of socially responsible brands have volunteered to adopt a take-back policy in an effort to find a solution to the rapidly growing mounds of discarded electronic gadgets such as computers and mobile phones in the country. According to a Greenpeace Southeast Asia survey, Nokia, Dell and Hewlett-Packard have subscribed to the aforesaid policy, while other international brands like Acer, IBM, Apple, Toshiba and Sony are yet to make any such commitments. Over the past two decades, the volume of e-waste has increased by leaps and bounds, from less than half a million units annually in the mid-1980s to over five million in the early 2000s. Authorities estimate that e-waste has reached 58,000 t and is growing at the rate of 12 per cent a year.

According to the Pollution Control Department (PCD), huge amounts of e-waste are dumped improperly. Some go into municipal garbages and get treated as non-toxic waste, leading to water and soil pollution. Illegal dumping of toxic parts of e-waste is yet another problem. In one decade from 1992-2002, consumption of six major electronic and electrical equipment units jumped from 2.41 million to 5.03 million, according to the latest PCD survey. Apart from computers and mobile phones, other e-waste comes from used appliances like refrigerators, TVs and air-conditioners.


Viet Nam readies master plan on waste

The Natural Resources and Environment Department (NRED) of HCM City, Viet Nam, will soon reveal the details of a master plan on treating and managing waste in HCM city. According to NRED vice-director Mr. Nguyen Van Chien, We are trying to meet the urgent demand for waste control and environmental protection in HCM City. The master plan will also address the need for more international investment in the sector. It calls for three waste treatment complexes with a total area of 2,832 ha. Along with the master plan, the governments new Environment Law (which came into effect on this 1 July) is expected to hasten the decision-making process on this issue.

About 1,600 tonnes of solid industrial wastes are produced each day by 800 factories, 23,000 industrial enterprises and small mills, and 459 hospitals and health clinics. Of this, 10 per cent is hazardous waste. In addition, only 20 per cent of hazardous waste gets treated, and that too by 11 companies that are not operating at 100 per cent capacity because many generators of waste refuse to treat their waste!

Mr. Ngo Thanh Duc, vice manager of NREDs solid waste management bureau feels that the fees for waste treatment are a major reason that companies avoid waste treatment. There are other significant problems as well, including the collection of waste by treatment companies that are not legally registered to treat waste. Most of them do not treat the waste properly and often just dump it elsewhere. Mr. Duc attributes the waste disposal crisis to two major factors non-compliance with state environmental regulations and a small NRED staff that lacks professional skills. NRED predicts that by 2010, the amount of industrial solid waste would increase from its current 580,000 t/y to 846,000 t/y, and by 2020 to 1,692,000 t/y.


Green management initiative in Korea

Since the early 1990s, Samsung, a well-known brand in electronics, has been working together with its suppliers and sub-contractors under a green management initiative. The company has certified 3,931 firms in the Republic of Korea and other parts of the world as Eco-Partners. According to Mr. Lee Ki-hack, general manager of Samsungs product environment team, the company has provided manuals and trained employees of all its major suppliers on environmental issues. There are 640 in-house auditors who regularly inspect the suppliers in order to urge them to meet the global standard in environmental regulations. Since most of Samsungs production facilities comply with global standards, the company is now paying full at-tention to the directive on Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). In order to facilitate the production of environmentally friendly products, Samsung has been screening not only the end products it produces, but also the parts and raw materials it purchases from vendors. According to Mr. Lee, the number of items tested at Samsungs lab exceeds 330,000 already. The standard of our in-house test is about 20 per cent stricter than that of the RoHS, he added.

Last year, the company announced that all of its products are halogen-free. It also devised a voluntary plan to lower the emission of greenhouse gases by 30 per cent between 2001 and 2010. In 2004, it achieved a reduction of 11 per cent.


E-waste disposal programme in the Philippines

In the Philippines,the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is looking into a possible e-waste management project that hopes to minimize the improper disposal of electronic waste materials, especially with the rise of highly replaceable computer parts and equipment.
One possible method to discourage dumping of such equipment is to have these collected and melted to recover trace amounts of metals like gold, silver and copper. DOST is willing to provide both technical and financial assistance in the form of its Technology Incubation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM), an incubation programme for commercially promising technological ideas. There is no extensive e-waste study conducted in the Philippines as yet. The only such study, done by Prof. Genandrialine Peralta at the University of the Philippines, pointed out that the Philippines might need 57 ha of landfill for 60 million units of disposed electronic devices in the next 25 years. However, the study only covered home appliances and consumer electronics.


Infotrek Syscom-RecycleNet joint venture in India

Introduction of the European Union Directives for Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) has set in motion a new standard that has had a ripple effect worldwide, creating a substantial increase in the awareness and activity in international trade of electronic scrap. Infotrek Syscom, India, has entered into a joint venture with RecycleNet Corporation, the United States, to provide its software for an Indian electronic exchange. The joint venture, E-Exchange India, will focus on the trade of e-waste. E-Exchange India will facilitate both domestic and international trade in recycled electronics for a booming Indian economy. E-Exchange India will become a building block in RecycleNets BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) strategy.


New strategy in China to eliminate POPs

China has plans to spend at least US$4.3 billion to phase out persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 10 years. This is only a preliminary calculation and does not include the funds needed to treat the places contaminated by POPs, according to Mr. Zhuang Guotai, Deputy Director of the Office for Stockholm Con-vention Implementation under the State Environmental Protection Administration.

A plan has been drafted to phase out the worlds most toxic chemicals, as required by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. According to the plan, China will stop production and use of chlordane, mirex and DDT used in anti-dirt paint by 2010, and safely dispose of electric appliances containing POPs by 2015. The country will end the production and use of POPs in pesticides by 2015. Funding to control POPs will come from the central government, local governments and domestic companies as well as international organizations and foreign governments. The fifth meeting to discuss the countrys implementation of the Stockholm Convention was held recently and was attended by more than 100 government officials and representatives from China, Japan, European countries, Norway and Finland, and United Nations organizations .


Vietnamese get advice on clean forms of industry

Improving waste management in Vietnamese hospitals
ETLog Health EnviroTech and Logistics GmbH of Germany will extend its existing waste management project in Viet Nam on behalf of EPOS Health Consultants GmbH. The overall project is financed by the KfW Bank group. Since mid-2005, ETLog has been working successfully for EPOS Health Consultants GmbH in Viet Nam. Together with Vietnamese clinical employees, ETLog has developed and implemented decisive improvements to the situation in select facilities of the health service. Noticeable successes of these measures convinced EPOS to extend the contract with ETLog and the project will now cover five more hospitals. Synergy effects will arise from the use of recently collected data and the experience gathered.

Contact: Mr. A. Schuster, ETLog Health EnviroTech and Logistics GmbH, Linienstr. 72, Berlin 10119, Germany. Tel: +49 (30) 443 187-40




Indian achievements in air pollution control

In India, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has adopted a policy for the abatement of pollution, which provides multi-pronged strategies in the form of regulations, legislation, agreements, fiscal incentives and other such measures to prevent and abate pollution. The Union Territory of Delhi has seen a significant decrease in air pollution levels. This change in scenario is the result of various integrated approaches embraced by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of MoEF for air pollution control. These include the use of clean fuel like CNG for transportation vehicles, unleaded petrol, low sulphur fuel, low benzene petrol and beneficiated coal in thermal power plants as well as installation of air pollution control in the small-scale industries sector.

Moef commissioned 313 air quality monitoring stations and 1,000 water quality monitoring stations throughout the country. MoEF has started monitoring fine particulate matter (PM10) in a large number of stations and also initiated monitoring of sub-micron particles (PM2.5), which has a significant impact on the health of inhabitants in Delhi, Kolkata, Agra, etc. Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Stations have been established in Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Agra, Bangalore, Lucknow, etc. Another 12 continuous monitoring stations are scheduled to be set up in the near future at Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi and Lucknow.

Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection recommendations are being implemented in 17 categories of highly polluting industries. Significant reduction of air and water pollution has been achieved in the following industrial sectors: cement, iron and steel, large pulp and paper, chlor alkali, aluminium and non-ferrous metallurgical industries. Bharat Stage II and Bharat State III norms (akin to EURO II and EURO III norms) has also been enforced for new vehicles in 11 cities.



Recovery of carbon fibres from epoxy resin composites

Researchers from the University of Nottingham and the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, have developed a process for the chemical recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using supercritical fluids as the reactive extraction media. Carbon fibre reinforced materials have gained importance in the aerospace, automotive and construction sectors as they have an excellent combination of properties such as, for example, durability, low weight, strength and corrosion resistance. During fabrication, around 40 per cent of long carbon fibre pre-impregnated material is wasted as off-cuts. This, along with the high added value of the fibres, represent an important potential for recycling.

The new process has high efficiency in recovering clean and undamaged carbon fibres. It allows for the integral recovery of the composite material, obtaining both the fibres and different compounds from the resins. Tests were coducted in batch mode, using water, propanol and ethanol as reagent-solvents at temperatures at 300 to 400C, and pressures up to 30 MPa. Fibres thus produced are fully resin-free. Mechanical properties of the recovered fibres and virgin untreated fibres are comparable and meet the requisite standards. Furthermore, a range of resin decomposition products is obtained. These compounds may be potentially reused as chemical feedstock for resin manufacturing.


ESPs help reclaim plastics/metals

Bunting Magnetics Co., the United States, offers new plastics-series and metal-series electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that facilitate the recovery of difficult-to-reclaim, small particles from recycled material. The dry process EKS and KWS series separators use differences in static electricity to separate materials, and can be integrated into an existing recycling operation or built anew.

EKS series ESPs allow for sorting plastic production waste, separating contaminants in plastics, as well as production of new products from valuable raw material. For those who regularly work with plastic-plastic mixtures, cable scrap, plastic production waste, PET beverage bottles, bottle caps and other plastic mixtures, these user-friendly and energy saving ESPs provide the effective separation necessary for recycling and other applications. The machines can be custom-made.

The KWS series plants facilitate recovery of fine copper threads from cable wastes, extraction of aluminium flakes from ground PET bottles and separation of precious metal from pulverized electronic scrap. These ESPs can separate very fine metal particles from materials like cable scrap, electronic scrap or bonding materials. The dry separation process eliminates chemicals, water, emissions and drying time. High separation efficiency even with the smallest metal particles ensures product purity. The equipment are fully automatic, easy to operate and allow for problem-free transition when changing materials.

Contact: Mr. Michael Wilks, Bunting Magnetics Co., # 500 S. Spencer Avenue, P.O. Box 468, Newton, KS 67114 0468, Kasas, United States of America. Tel: +1 (316) 2842 020;



Machine for PET recycling

Shundee Machinery Industrial Group of China offers equipment for crushing PET bottles/materials into flakes. These flakes can later be processed by chemical application, soaking, grind washing, clean water rinsing and continuous spin drying. The end products are used in fibre production, bottle making and sheet extrusion. The machine has a simple and efficient design.

Contact: Shundee Machinery Industrial Group, 9-501, Wenyuan Road, Guangzhou, Guang dong 510730, China. Tel: +86 (20) 3346 8988; Fax: +86 (20) 8167 6169;



Extracting more from plastic waste

Two-stage crushing enables plastic processing companies to economically process machine purgings, sprue, rejects, foils, cables, pipes, etc. Weima Maschinenbau GmbH, Germany, offers universal grinders and re-grinders for this purpose. In Weimas two-stage crushing, first coarse crushing to a grain size of approximately 15 mm is carried out on a WLK series single-shaft universal grinder, which can be used for almost any material ranging from foil up to full solid block. The material is then crushed to a grain size of around 3-10 mm, which is suitable for re-granulating in a NZ series regrinder. The two grinding units are arranged behind each other or one atop the other. The regrinder, which works according to the cutting mill principle, is specially designed for pre-crushed charging material and is therefore designed considerably smaller in comparison to conventional cutting mills.

Two-stage crushing is suitable for materials, which single-stage crushing cannot or can only partially process. These include:
  • Solid material chunks or blocks e.g. machine purgings;
  • Bulky deep drawing and injection moulding parts e.g. the inner liner of refrigerators, lorry bumpers;
  • Thick-walled mould parts e.g. pallets, plates, tubes, spools;
  • Tough materials e.g. foils (particularly pressed or on rolls), carpet remnants;
  • Metalliferous composite materials e.g. cables, circuit boards; and
  • Polluted materials or materials containing unwanted substances e.g. rejects.

Contact: Mr. Harald Hofmann, Sales Director (Exports), Weima Mas-chinenbau GmbH, Gewerbegebiet Bustadt, D-74360 Ilsfeld, Germany. Tel: +49 (7062) 95700; Fax: +49 (7062) 957092



To recycle or to degrade?

At Sintef in Norway, two research teams are working side by side on totally different solutions for handling plastic wastes. While one team is trying to come up with the best possible recycling process for used plastic, the other is working to make the plastic disappear without any form of recycling!

Ms. Line Telje Hydal, a senior adviser and representative of the team working on recycling, says that unless a large quantity of energy is employed in the recycling process, it is always environmentally better to recycle plastic wastes than use any other form of processing. Her team has assisted companies with sorting and identifying different types of plastics, and has carried out quality controls as well as mechanical and ageing tests.

The other team is led by Mr. Fredrik Mannle who co-developed a method for degrading plastics. Addition of Nor-X degradable, a plastic additive marketed by Nor-X, during the production process makes the plastic material decompose in a short time when exposed to sun, air and humidity. For instance, in five weeks, only traces will remain of a plastic carrier bag treated this way.


Innovative plant for recycling plastic waste

EOS System Co. Ltd., the Republic of Korea, is offering an innovative chemical plant for recycling plastic wastes. This pyrolysis plant, which works in low temperature and normal pressure, is reported to have solved all main problems related to plastic recycling very economically. Key features of the plant include:
  • Capable of producing high-value products one line of the plant can treat 20 t of plastic waste to yield 10 t of oil, 4 t of gas and 6 t of char;
  • Eliminates pre-sorting and pre-cleaning steps.
  • All kinds of plastic waste can be recycled;
  • No catalyst is used;
  • Low operation costs;
  • With an electricity consumption of 85 kW/h, the system reuses gas produced from plastic waste. Moreover, a gas turbine can be installed for power generation (36 MWe);
  • The oil obtained can be sold as boiler oil, which is of high quality with over 40,000 J/g caloric value;
  • No secondary pollution; and
  • Continuous operation.

Contact: Mr. Young Kim, EOS System Company Ltd., #5, Yanshan lu, Shenzhen, China. Tel: +86 (755) 2685 9222; Fax: +86 (755) 2689 2765.


Large-scale recycling of scrap tyres and rubber products

In the United States, researchers at Adherent Technologies Inc. and Titan Technologies Inc. have developed a continuous tertiary process (processing of waste plastics back to valuable chemicals or fuels for reuse) for recycling scrap tyres and other rubber-based materials. A plant of standard size processes up to 100 t/d of scrap tyres into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black. The hydrocarbons can be utilized as high-quality fuels, the steel fraction re-smelted and carbon black reused for reinforcing rubbers and plastics, abd in other applications such as filters, inks, toners and paints.
As reasonable value is obtained from all components of scrap tyres, the process is highly profitable and is claimed to produce an attractive rate of return on investment while solving the waste tyre disposal problem.

Contact: Adherent Technologies Inc., 11208 Cochiti SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico, NM 87123, United states of America. Tel: +1 (505) 346 1688; Fax: +1 (505) 1687;




Self-disassembing cell phone!

Nokia reports to have created a prototype cell phone that disassemble itself in two seconds. The Nokia Research Centre working with a student group from Finlands Helsinki University of Technology, the Finnish School of Watchmaking and the University of Art and Design has developed a process for heat disassembly of portable devices. The idea is to disassemble a mobile phone through a heat-activated mechanism without any contact. By using a centralized heat source, like laser heating, the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is activated and the mobile phone covers are opened. The battery, display, printed wiring board (PWB) and mechanical parts are separated, which can then be recycled in their material specific recycling processes. The required temperature for disassembly is 60-150C.

At present, used mobile phones are shredded in the recycling process. First, the battery is removed manually, then the device is shredded, and ferrous metals, aluminium and plastics separated. While the metals are recycled, plastics are utilized mainly as a source of energy. PWBs are handled in a metallurgical process. On the other hand, the heat-activated mechanism is a fast and low-cost method, which takes an average of two minutes and costs about US$0.3-US$0.8 per phone. In the project, the heat-activated disassembly took only two seconds and the only cost is the investment made in a disassembly line. However, the method still needs to be developed further.


CRT recycling plant

Bruce Electronics Recycling, the United Kingdom, has invested US$ 446,000 in a television and monitor recycling plant to meet WEEE and hazardous waste regulations. In the new CRT recycling facility, whole TV/monitor units are taken into a stripping room where the casing and all metal bearing components are recovered and recycled.
The CRT tubes are then fixed to a laser driven splitting system that has two diamond cutting blades, which cut through the frit or glue joint. The two types of glass obtained are collected separately. Then, phosphor powders on the panel glass are captured by air suction using a bag filter. The clean lead and barium glass is then bagged and sent back to the original tube manufacturers for reuse.


Green and efficient route for recycling CD-DVD wastes

In Spain, researchers at the University of Valladolid have investigated an alkali-catalysed depolymerization process for recycling polycarbonate (PC), used extensively in the manufacture of CDs and DVDs. This method can handle a large variety of plastic materials utilized in the automotive and electronic sectors.

The efficient process is based on alcoholysis in supercritical or near-critical conditions. The team succeeded in obtaining the essential monomer bisphenol A and dimethyl carbonate as a co-product. In the study, methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol were used as clean solvents/reagents and CO2 as a swelling agent. Alkali and acid catalysts NaOH, KOH, HCl were also investigated in order to enhance the kinetics and optimize the process at lower temperatures. Influence of operating conditions pressure, temperature alcohol/CO2 ratio and catalyst concentration on yield, selectivity and reaction rate were also scrutinized.


Innovative recycling of electronic wastes

Tornado GeneratorTM, developed by GreenShift Corporation in the United States, has received the 2006 Product Innovation Award from Frost & Sullivan. Based on the principle of the tornado, this system can drastically reduce the volume of waste (segregated stream of metals and plastics) by about 90 per cent by pulverizing it into micrometre-sized particles.

Operation of the Tornado Generator is simple yet elegant. It employs a stream of compressed air that is accelerated to high supersonic speeds in a closed cyclonic chamber to gen-erate a powerful tornado that grinds materials to micron-sized particles. Moreover, this generator has the ability to dehydrate and atomize both solid as well as liquid wastes. It is robust in operation and has the potential to allow for cost-effective processing of a variety of wastes.



Mould used for degrading dioxins

Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering a compost product capable of degrading dioxins accumulated in soil into harmless substances. The technology, which is patented in the United States, for production of this compost incorporates lignin-degradable fungi for accomplishing dioxin removal.

For production of compost, lignin-containing and plant-derived organic materials wood bark, bamboo, corn stems, pulp, pulp wastes, etc. are used in the form of sawdust, milled powders, pulverized chips or chopped pieces. The material is fermented in an ordinary compost fermenter. A fermentation promoter such as animal faeces, activated sludge wastes, stock farm wastes and fisheries wastes, or synthetic fertilizers like ammonium sulphate or urea is added at the beginning stages of fermentation to speed up the compost production process.

Following the thermal fermentation stage, the material is inoculated with fungi capable of degrading lignin at a temperature not exceeding 65C. Fungi of the genera Chaetomium, Penicillium and Schizophyllum can be added directly to the compost material or the culture may be cut into pieces or ground or centrifuged or sieved to separate the cells or spores or their mixtures from the culture and the thus-processed culture may be added to the compost.
The inoculated plant-derived organic material is fermented at a temperature between 10C and 50C. This fermentation may be effected in the same field where the material has been thermally fermented in the previous stage. Alternatively, the material inoculated with the fungi may be embedded in soil or piled up for fermenting it. The compost thus obtained has a cell concentration of 103 to 1010 cfu/g of its dry weight, and contains manure ingredients highly helpful to the growth of plants. When this compost is applied to soil, the fungi act to release lignin from the compost and thus-released lignin induces an enzyme that degrades dioxins present in soil into harmless substances.

Contact: Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., No.1-1, Marunouchi 3-Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-8321, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3213 3142;Fax: +81 (3) 3213 9415.


Thermal-chemical decomposition of halohydrocarbons

Nukem GmbH, Germany, has developed a chemical-thermal technology for destroying halogenated hydrocarbons. In this economical and eco-friendly process, halohydrocarbons are reacted with calcium oxide and/or calcium hydroxide and iron oxide or iron oxide-containing materials. The reactions occur at about 600-800C.

The process can be implemented problem-free by having the calcium oxide (hydroxide) present in at least double the stoichiometric excess based on the halogen to be bound and by having 2-30 wt.percentage iron oxide in the composition. Since the reaction of highly halogenated hydrocarbons with calcium oxide to form calcium chloride is exothermic with correspondingly higher dosage rates of the reactants, it might be necessary to remove heat. Cooling of the reactor jacket can be avoided and heat eliminated by conventional methods such as radiation and heat conduction if the calcium oxide of the reaction mixture is partially replaced by calcium hydroxide.

As an additional possibility for the economical design of the process, the iron oxide can be replaced by a cheaper material containing iron oxide. The use of fly-ash has proven particularly advantageous in this regard. Fly-ash is produced in large amounts while burning hard coal and lignite in power plants and must likewise be removed so that in employing fly-ash no additional cost is incurred. The typical content of iron oxide in fly-ash is 5-18 wt. percentage. Furthermore, fly-ash also has a significant amount of calcium oxide, which helps reduce the addition of calcium oxide. The gaseous reactants formed are halogen-free.


Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

In the Philippines, researchers at De La Salle University have studied the use of biofilms for biodegrading polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The biofilm used was developed on modified cement particles using mixed microbial culture isolated from PCB-contaminated soil. The biofilm formed was first acclimatized to the PCBs by feeding the reactor alternately with biphenyl and PCBs. The acclimatized biofilm was tested on simulated PCB-contaminated water containing Aroclor 1260 by using a fluidized bed reactor in batch mode.

The initial batch run achieved 80 2.38 per cent PCB removal from the medium in one day and 91 1.34 per cent in five days. The percentage of PCB removal gradually increased in succeeding runs, reaching 92 2.48 per cent in a day and a steady state value of 952.01 per cent in five days from batch eight onwards. PCB removal from the medium was highest during the first day, reaching 80-92 per cent. The sudden fall in PCB concentration was attributed to an initial adsorption of PCBs on the biofilm and gradual degrading of the compound. Yellow intermediates were observed as the pH of the medium decreased. These intermediates were further metabolized as indicated by the disappearance of the yellow substance. Contact: Mr. Borja JQ, Asian Regional Research Program on Environmental Technology (ARRPET), National Research Institute on Industrial and Hazardous Wastes, De La Salle University, College of Engineering, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004, The Philippines.


Bio-anaerobic treatability study for PCB-contaminated oil

The bio-treatability of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied at the University of Hawaii, the United States, for the development of design and operational parameters for a bioreactor. Input of external carbon and nutrient source in the aqueous phase was found to be essential for the treatment of PCBs-contaminated oil. Addition of surfactant was investigated for the emulsification of oil to reduce interference of contact with micro-organisms and PCBs. The oil-to-surfactant ratio was empirically optimized to 1:1. Higher PCB removal efficiency was obtained at 30 days of hydraulic retention time in the semi-batch reactor study without cell recycling. The removal efficiency measured in mixed liquor was maintained at over 85 per cent (average) at 32 2C and 30 per cent at 22 2C. Over 0.2 g/l/d of the organic loading rate was suggested to be maintained for various PCB loading rates (0.02-0.6 mg-PCB/l/d).

For high biomass retention and easy collection of the treated oil, the researchers investigated an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor. Removal of more than 50 per cent of Aroclor was observed in the oil phase, with three days reaction time, and about 40 per cent in overall phases, i.e. oil, liquid and biomass phases at 22 2C.

Contact: Mr. Ahn SY, Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, United States of America.




Liquid abatement system for metal electroplating

BOC Edwards, a leading supplier of vacuum and abatement equipment based in the United Kingdom, has introduced a new electroplated metals abatement system. EPMATM offers simplified liquid waste treatment and lower cost of ownership than conventional equipment. It combines a fluidized bed ion exchange system and a multiple stage nano-filtration unit to reduce the volumes of waste by factors of 1,000 to 1 or more, and metals in the concentrated waste exceed 20,000 ppm.

EPMA produces an easy-to-handle, highly concentrated liquid waste, unlike traditional methods that involve either transporting large volumes of material for off-site processing or running multiple precipitation-based processes and the solid waste that they create. This system removes metals from both CMP and plating rinse streams, discharging a final effluent with very low metals concentration and producing a highly concentrated metal-bearing waste. The first system has been installed and is operational in a major electronics manufacturing facility.

Contact: BOC Edwards, Headquarters, Manor Royal, Crawley, West Sussex RH10 9LW, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1293) 528 844; Fax: +44 (1293) 533 453.


Biological wastewater treatment technology

ECOfluid Systems Inc., Canada, has developed an advanced biological wastewater treatment technology called USBFTM. Plants based on this process address the constant demand to output high-quality effluents. The single-sludge denitrification process incorporates all the processes required for biological treatment in a single reactor and circulation loop, using very little energy and no chemicals. This latest innovation won the company the Frost and Sullivan Award for Technology Leadership.

While conventional processes like SBR and extended aeration rely on the slow and inefficient sedimentation process, the USBF technology utilizes a fluidized bed or counter-current movement. This is a dynamic method that continually removes pollutants. In this process, the sewage that enters an anoxic compartment gets drawn by gravity into an aeration compartment and then to the bottom of the upflow sludge blanket filtration clarifier, from where it overflows. The remainder is then re-cycled from the bottom using airlift pumps, which do not require power as a result of the internal loop configuration. The mixture is exposed to anoxic aeration 3-4 times a day, achieving superior biological nutrient removal without the use of any chemical. Another cost-free benefit is phosphorous removal through a process known as biological luxury uptake.

Contact: ECOfluid Systems Inc., #101-334 East Kent Avenue South, Vancouver, BC V5X 4N6, Canada. Tel: +1 (604) 662 4544; Fax: +1 (604) 662 4564




New technology for wastewater treatment

Global Engineering Solutions has introduced moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), a new technology for wastewater treatment. The Oman-based subsidiary of Global Engineering Systems FZC, the United Arab Emirates, has the exclusive licence for technologies from AnoxKaldnes AS, a leading Norwegian-Swedish group in the wastewater treatment field. MBBR technology, developed by AnoxKaldnes, has become the favourite choice of design engineers the world over, as it occupies only a fourth of the area when compared with conventional plants. MBBR is also the most cost-effective technology available in the world market today for capacity augmentation of existing plants, with minimum or no civil works. The wide flexibility of the plants in handling various capacities and shock loads is yet another advantage.

Micro-organisms grown as a biofilm are more resilient to process disturbances than other types of biological treatment devices. In MBBR technology, the biofilm is protected within engineered plastic carriers, which are carefully designed with high internal surface area. These biofilm carriers are suspended and thoroughly mixed throughout the water phase. With this technology, it is possible to handle extremely high loading conditions without any problems of clogging and treat industrial and municipal wastewater on a relatively small footprint.


New solution to tackle industrial waste

The Ahmedabad Textile Industrys Research Association (ATIRA) in India reports to have developed a cost-effective solution to treat waste water from industries handling dyes and textiles, insecticides, synthetic polymers. The treatment is based on a process called Catalytic Ionizing Diffusion and has been tested for about a year.

This technology replaces thermal energy with electricity to instantaneously convert the effluents water content into vapour through a process called diffusional evaporation. This works on roughly the same principle as a home cooling device, but at a highly enhanced level. Dissolved solids, about 1-2 per cent of the total weight of effluent, are left behind in powder form, as opposed to 25-30 per cent that is left behind as moisture-rich sludge in conventional methods like reverse osmosis. As such, this would also drastically reduce solid waste handling costs. Laboratory and pilot scale trials by ATIRA have shown that the treatment costs about US$0.54-US$0.87 for 1,000 l of effluent.


Innovative point-of-use copper abatement system

Metron Technology Inc., the United States, has brought out the semiconductor industrys first point-of-use (POU) solution for abating copper from a chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) systems effluent stream. AquareusTM was developed jointly by Applied Materials and BOC Edwards. The systems simplified treatment process enables chipmakers to comply with the most stringent liquid discharge limits at a lower cost and with less risk than complex back-pad methods. Providing greater than 99 per cent removal efficiency and over 3,000 h mean time between failure (MTBF), Aquareus can save up to US$0.15 per wafer, or up to 30 per cent in treatment cost compared with centralized back-pad systems.

Aquareus uses a highly selective, fluidized bed, ion exchange resin technology that handles high flows from a broad range of CMP chemical slurries, with minimal service or maintenance. Two-year intense testing with copper CMP slurry has demonstrated exceptional reliability and efficiency. A typical CMP tool running in production generates effluent containing about 100 kg/y of copper.

Aquareus concentrates copper by a factor of 200:1 for better efficiency and cost-effectiveness than back-pad copper abatement methods. The systems POU design allows process flexibility and incremental growth capability as semiconductor fab operations expand.

Contact: Metron Corporate Headquarters, 655 River Oaks Parkway, San Jose, CA 95134-1907, United States of America. Tel: +1 (408) 719 4600; Fax: +1 (408) 719 0452.


Improving the cleanliness of plating solution

The Republic of Koreas Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology is offering technology and apparatus for removing sludge in plating solutions and electrolytes. Sludge in plating solutions as well as ions that produce sludge can be effectively removed by applying co-precipitation-acidification method. Potential applications for the method include plants using electrolytes, electroplating facilities and chemical manufacturing centres. Benefits of this technology include sludge re- duction to 1/10th that of conventional technology, which in turn improves productivity and prevents product defects.

Contact: Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, San 32 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu Pohang 790-600, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (54) 279 6333; Fax: +82 (54) 279 6099




Decolourization of effluent from pulp mill bleach plant

In the United States, two field trials at pulp mills have shown that the Fe-tetraamido macrocyclic ligand TAML) catalyst is effective for both in-process and post-process (end-of-pipe) treatment of coloured wastewater, compared with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alone. In the presence of pulp fibre in a caustic extraction stage tower, Fe-TAML/H2O2 removed more than 30 per cent colour without affecting pulp quality. In a sewer system carrying caustic extraction filtrate, Fe-TAML/H2O2 removed approximately 50 per cent colour.

The Fe-TAML technology is competitive with other technologies for pulp mill wastewater treatment, offering many important advantages, including: the catalyst is non-toxic, used in very small amounts, does not generate sludge and can work with as little as five minutes contact time; implementation is easy, with simple delivery mechanisms; and minimal capital cost.



Remediation biotechnology

Canada-based Adventus Groups patented bioremediation process has found application in cleaning mineral oil (TPH) and petroleum volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) in the Netherlands. The proprietary EHC-OTM technology was selected by a consortium of Dutch remediation engineering and consulting companies for use at two industrial sites for cleaning up PVOC and TPH contamination caused by underground storage tanks leaking into soil and groundwater. The remedial action at these sites involved in situ bioremediation facilitated by the use of EHC-O, an oxygen-releasing compound that accelerates the aerobic biodegradation of certain organic constituents.

EHC-O is an integrated source of slow-release oxygen, major-, minor- and micro-nutrients, and a pH buffering agent. This unique combination of materials facilitates aerobic bioremediation of groundwater, sediment or soil environments impacted by various organic/inorganic compounds. For organic constituents amenable to aerobic biodegradation processes (for example, petroleum hydrocarbons, certain pesticides/herbicides), EHC-O significantly stimulates the catabolic activity of the indigenous microflora, thereby accelerating the removal rate of con- taminant. It is supplied in 77.175 kg pails as a powder that can be mixed with soil or slurried in water.

Installation techniques vary widely, depending on the application. For example, the powder can be mixed with soil and placed at the bottom of an excavated pit. A slurry can be made and the mixture injected into the subsurface using techniques like direct injection through Geoprobe rods or hydraulic fracturing. The powder is fine enough to allow injection of the slurry through well screens.


Aerobic bioremediation for PAH-laden soil

Researchers at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in the Republic of Korea have studied the applicability of a combined process of solubilization and biodegradation using soil-packed column. In the solubilization step, 50 pore volumes of 150 mg/l biosurfactants solution was injected. The removal of phenanthrene was 17.3 per cent and 9.5 per cent from soil with pH 5 and 7, respectively. The highest solubility was detected at pH 5 and this result confirmed that adjusting the pH of the biosurfactants solution injected could help enhance the solubility of phenanthrene.
Following this, soil samples were completely transferred to batches and incubated for 10 weeks to monitor phenanthrene degradation. It was found that the phenanthrene concentration in all samples reduced significantly during the biodegradation step, except for the one that was flushed with biosurfactants solution at pH 4. This indicated that the degradation of contaminants by specific species might not be affected by the residual biosurfactants after application of the solubilization process. These results also suggested the possibility that the biosurfactant-enhanced flushing process could be developed as a useful technology without any negative effect on subsurface environments and could be combined with the biodegradation process to increase removal efficiency.

Contact: Mr. Shin K.H, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology 1, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500 712, Republic of Korea.


Harnessing bacteria to combat pollution

Researchers at the NRC Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI), Canada, report to have found a solution for cleaning up the millions of tonnes of cancer-causing chlorinated solvents that have been dumped, poured, buried or leaked into soil and water over the past few decades. NRCs answer is simple: turn it into harmless carbon dioxide and water. The NRC-BRI process uses a proprietary two-in-one bioremediation technique that almost completely removes chlorinated solvents from the contaminated water. Presently, the bioremediation techniques available on the market use either aerobic or anaerobic bacteria, alone or consecutively. The NRC-BRI technology capitalizes on the insight that these bacteria can work together synergistically under just the right conditions.

Dr. Serge Guiot, Head of the NRC-BRI Environmental Bioengineering Group, said that the new method is based on the fact that aerobic and strict anaerobic micro-organisms can grow together in a single natural habitat such as, for instance, the biogranules. Biogranules are naturally occurring microscopic aggregations of bacteria that provide a natural tag-team environment for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria live on the oxygen-rich surface of the granule, while anaerobic ones live in the oxygen-less core. This means that for bioremediation, the biogranules deliver a one-two punch and is the basis of this technology, notes Dr. Guiot.

Anaerobic bacteria begin the breakdown of chlorinated solvents while aerobic bacteria conclude the job, digesting the by-products of their cousins work. Carbon dioxide, water and harmless chloride salts are the only by-products of this tag-team digestion. The patented NRC tech-nology stimulates and accelerates this natural biodegradation by using electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen to fuel the various bacteria. Anaerobic methanogenic bacteria use hydrogen to dechlorinate the solvents and produce methane. In turn, methane and oxygen energize the aerobic digestion of the end- products of anaerobic breakdown.


Treatment of sewage discharges

At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Dr. Tony Taylor has developed a technology for the purification of sewage and wastewater. The revolutionary membrane bioreactor cleanses the effluent streams to such an extent that the end product can be used for potable purposes. Dr. Taylor describes his invention as a simple arrangement of gills that uses bacteria to operate as a lung and a stomach. The system literally eats waste matter and breathes air, and so is self-perpetuating. The inexpensive nano-particulate membrane bioreactor (NMB) can be made in different sizes for houses, complexes or municipal treatment plants.

The secret of this technology is in the bioreactors unique membrane. On one side of the membrane, cells are grown in direct contact with air and on the other side, the sewage and wastewater flows, but at the same time feeds the cells through the extremely porous material, says Dr. Taylor. Compared with other membrane surface culture technologies, this process enables 50 times more biomass growth. At about US$1/m2, this technology is cheaper than current membranes which can cost up to US$500/m2, he said. There are many other uses to this invention, including antibiotic production, mining, bioremediation and aquaculture.

Contact: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 9717 3111; Fax: +61 (2) 95 43 5097



Cleaning up soil pollutants

Biosaint Co. Ltd., the Republic of Korea, is offering a process for the rapid and highly efficient degradation of various soil pollutants. This process combines two technologies washing to dissolve pollutants and bioremediation, in which selected micro-organisms are applied to the soil media. Important features of the process include:
  • Remediation to depths of 3-6 m possible;
  • Saturated soil or pollution under groundwater table can also be effectively treated; and
  • Land heavily polluted with hard-to-biodegrade pollutants can be ef-efectively cleaned through the use of Biosaints agent.

Contact: Biosaint Co. Ltd., 104-1, Sangdo-5 dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-746, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (31) 4785 271; Fax: +82 (31) 47 85 270



Removal of PAHs

Researchers at the National University of Singapore have developed a technology for the rapid clean-up of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil. The new method is based on a combination of non-ionic surfactant soil washing, followed by PAH removal from the wash water in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the white rot fungus.

Experiments have shown that soil washing is able to remove over 90 per cent of PAH from the soil to the aqueous phase using only a low concentration of 0.5 per cent (w/v) Tween 80 surfactant with a soil/water ratio of 1:10 (w/v). Subsequent treatment of the PAH-contaminated wash water in the RBC reactor resulted in more than 90 per cent removal for any of nine PAHs.

The treatment has particular applications for: the rapid abiological remediation of soil for compliance with international environmental soil quality standards; and using white rot fungi to oxidize PAH in soil wash water for compliance with aqueous discharge guidelines.

Contact: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The National University of Singapore, #4 Engineering Drive, Singapore 117576. Tel: +65 6874 2186; Fax: +65 6779 1936.



Activated coke helps remove trace toxic substances

Kubota Corporation in Japan has developed a method that employs activated coke to remove trace toxic substances as well as NOx from the exhaust streams of waste incinerators. At present, efficient removal of toxic substances like HCl, SOx, heavy metals, dioxins, etc. needs low-temperature conditions while, NOx removal using a catalyser requires a temperature above 200C. As such, in order to remove these contaminants in a well-balanced manner, operation has been restricted to a limited temperature range, thereby making it inevitable for both to sacrifice operating efficiency to a certain extent. Kubotas technology overcomes this key drawback.

As an absorbent, activated coke has characteristics that place it between activated carbon and coke. It has the capacity to absorb trace toxic substances like mercury and dioxin, and to conduct reducing denitration as a catalyser in a comparatively low-temperature range (110-200C). Following are the results obtained in trials conducted at a pilot plant:
  • Denitration effect: Higher the temperature, higher is the denitration ratio. However, a denitration ratio of 59 per cent was obtained at a considerably low temperature of 120C.
  • Removal effect of dioxins: Since almost all dioxins can be removed by a bag filter, the concentration at inlet is low (20-80 mg/m3N). However, a removal ratio over 50 per cent was obtained at temperatures up to 150 C. In combination with a bag filter the removal rate was 97 per cent.
  • Removal of mercury: Regardless of the temperature range, mercury was removed by absorption up to a level below the threshold value under every condition. Although almost all the heavy metals contained in the exhaust gas can be removed (more than 99 per cent) by the bag filter, complete elimination of mercury alone was a bit difficult.

The pilot-scale test results proved that activated coke has sufficient denitration ability in a low temperature range (120-180C), as well as a performance capability to remove by absorption dioxins and mercury.

Contact: Kubota Corporation, 1-3, Nihonbashi-muromachi 3-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 8310, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3245 3336; Fax: +81 (3) 3245 3358



Patent for pollution reducing converter

Mr. Srinivasan Gopalakrishnan, the Managing Director of Hydrodrive Systems and Controls, India, has obtained patent rights in India and the United Kingdom for a unique fuel-saving and pollution-reducing electronic catalytic converter. The pre-engine device is a fuel synthesiser, capable of controlling exhaust emissions of all four-stroke internal combustion engines. The 12 in 1 in (length diameter) device weighs about 1 kg and costs about US$145. It can be fitted without any modifications to the engine within a few hours. Any engine fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, petrol, ethanol-blended petrol, ethanol and kerosene can use the fuel synthesiser.

Mitsubishi Motors, Philippines Corp. and Isuzu Motors Philippines have tested the device and certified their efficacy, Mr. Gopalakrishnan stated. The fuel synthesiser is now commercially produced and exported to the Philippines, Bangladesh, China, Ecuador and the Netherlands.


Functional agents for purifying exhaust emissions

In Japan, a group of scientists from the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and NGK Insulators have developed a platino-alumina agent that can oxygenate and purify harmful and volatile organic compounds contained in exhaust emissions. This new agent can reduce the reaction temperature by about 100C compared with conventional ones, while it increases heat resistance by 200C. The group is hopeful of commercializing the platino-alumina agent, as it is produced in a cost-efficient and simple freeze-dry process, using inexpensive aluminium hydroxide as the raw material.


Two new processes to cut emissions from power plants

In the United States, several new methods to reduce sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury and other such pollutants from coal-fired power plants are being scrutinized. In one approach, Powerspan Corporation is investigating a photochemical oxidation process developed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy. The process uses ultraviolet (UV) light to oxidize mercury. The mercuric oxide can then be removed from flue gas by a baghouse, an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a wet ESP.

Chem-Mod has tested a sorbent-based technology to reduce mercury, sulphur dioxide, heavy metal, light metal, chlorides and fluorides from emissions at PPLs Corette plant. The process uses liquid and powder sorbents that can be applied before, during or after combustion. The emissions are captured in the fly-ash and can be sold to cement manufacturers. At Corette, which burns PRB coal, the process reduced mercury by 86 per cent (88-98 per cent reported in other testings) and sulphur by 48 per cent (44-97 per cent have been reported in other testing). It has also cut down slagging on boiler tubing and used 4.08 per cent less fuel to produce the same amount of megawatts.


New technology cuts NOx and costs in coal-fired cyclone boiler

In the United States, a new technology developed by the Department of Energy was evaluated on a type of coal-fired boiler known for generating NOx. Results have shown that the process, called Advanced Layered Technology Approach or ALTA, successfully reduced formation of NOx by 90 per cent, and that too at just about half the cost of conventional technologies. The technology was field-tested at AmerenUEs Sioux Unit 1 Station using a blend of Powder River Basin and Illinois coals in a 500 MW cyclone boiler. Ameren is now evaluating full-scale implementation in both 500 MW units at the Sioux power plant.

ALTA uses a strategic combination of overfire air, rich reagent injection and selective non-catalytic reduction processes in the boiler to reduce NOx formation and ammonia slip. It also shares equipment like tanks, pumps and injection components between the rich reagent injection systems and selective non-catalytic reduction systems to bring down the capital costs for installation and operation.

Contact: Mr. David Anna, DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15 236-0940, United States of America. Tel: +1 (412) 386 4646; Fax: +1 (412) 386 4604



Multi-stage wet scrubber

CS Clean Systems Inc., the United States, is offering CleanSpray multi-stage wet scrubber for the removal of unused process gases, wet chemical treatment, etc. This system is:
  • Optimized for Si Epitaxy and high-flow applications;
  • Carefully designed to prevent clogging;
  • Process-tested, minimum maintenance requirement; and
  • Suitable for hook-up to a downstream dry bed absorber.

The CleanSpray wet absorber is a complementary product line to the CleanSorb range of dry bed absorbers. It is specially designed for use on high flow applications to remove both water-soluble gases and particulate matter. Silicon Epitaxy is one such typical application. High flow rates of hydrogen chloride and dichlorosilane can be removed efficiently and cost-effectively using water as an absorbing medium.

Contact: CS Clean Systems, Suite 100, 710, Lakeway Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94085, United States of America. Tel: +1 (408) 7393 300; Fax: +1 (408) 7393 329



Operational phase of mercury control test commenced

The first full-scale test of the patented ToxeconTM pollution control process in the United States has begun at the We Energies Presque Isle power plant. We Energies is designing, installing, operating and evaluating the ToxeconTM process as an integrated system to control emissions of mercury, particulate matter, SO2 and NOx.
In the Toxecon process, sorbents are injected into a power plants exhaust stream to soak up pollutants so that they can be captured and prevented from being released into the atmosphere. Toxecon has resulted from research by the Department of Eneregy, the Electric Power Research Institute and nine other project partners.

Contact: Mr. David Anna, DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15 236-0940, United States of America. Tel: +1 (412) 386 4646; Fax: +1 (412) 386 4604



Cost-effective reactive mercury scrubber

Tri-Mer Corp., the United States, has introduced a technology that provides up to 99.9 per cent reduction in mercury (Hg) emissions. The new Tri-Mer scrubber design incorporates a simple wet-chemistry process to provide a cost-effective means of reducing all forms of Hg in exhaust streams. The novel scrubber technology transforms Hg into HgS, a stable and manageable form that is a non-hazardous waste. The superior efficiency of Tri-Mer scrubber is the result of a patent-pending oxidation monitoring method, which optimizes the system chemistry.

Contact: Tri-Mer Corp., 1400 Monroe Street, P.O. Box 730, Owosso, MI 48867, United States of America. Fax: +1 (989) 7237 844




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