VATIS Update Waste Management . Sep-Oct 2010

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Waste Management Sep-Oct 2010

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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ISO specifications for safer ship recycling

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published two new specifications on ship recycling management that will help increase workers’ safety and environmental protection. Though ship recycling contributes to sustainable development and is the most environmentally friendly way of disposing of ships, many reports have targeted bad working practices and negative environmental impacts.

The ISO documents that will contribute to improved practices and lower environmental impacts are the publicly available specifications (PAS) ISO/PAS 30006:2010, Ship recycling management systems – Diagrams to show the location of hazardous materials on-board ships and ISO/PAS 30007:2010, Ships and marine technology – Measures to prevent asbestos emission and exposure during ship recycling. Both PASs answer market expectations related to environment, safety, health and welfare matters in the ship recycling industry. Mr. Yoshida, Chairman of ISO/TC 8/SC2, Marine Environment Protection, points out that the PASs will help ship recyclers to fulfil the requirements of the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009. Under the Hong Kong Convention, ships to be sent for recycling are required to carry an inventory of hazardous materials. ISO/PAS 30006:2010 specifies the requirements for diagrams that locate the hazardous materials on board. ISO/PAS 30007:2010 provides effective ways to reducing both the release of asbestos into the environment and worker exposure to asbestos.

China pushes for recycling of used appliances

A new mandate concerning the disposal of used home appliances and electronic products will be effective starting from 1 January 2011, indicating that environmental sustainability remains a top priority in China. TVs, refrigerators, air-conditioners, washing machines and computers are among the first batch of used electronic products included in a recycling catalogue drafted jointly by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The catalogue provides details for the implementation of the Regulations on the Administration of Recycling of Abandoned Home Appliances and Electronic Products of August 2008.

In the past, because of the lack of a recycling infrastructure, household appliances were purchased by scrap traders, resulting in the waste of resources such as iron, steel and plastics, not to mention serious pollution. Abandoned appliances will be collected through various channels and treated together to fully utilize the resources. Companies involved in the recycling and disposal sectors will receive government subsidies, according to an NDRC official. Solutions to issues like re-cycling charges and payment methods have still not been disclosed.

India planning to ban import of e-waste

The Government of India is considering a ban on the import of used computers and other such electronic waste primarily from developed nations – such as Australia, Canada, the United States and some parts of Europe – following several cases of e-waste smuggling being exposed. The e-waste issue assumed significance after some containers with large quantities of such waste was seized by the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI). The imports were made despite a prohibition order in this regard. The seized containers carried hundreds of tonnes of outdated computers and other e-waste sourced from Australia, Canada, the Republic of Korea and Brunei Darussalam in violation of norms. E-waste from some other countries is being dumped in India using loopholes in domestic rules that allow non-government organizations and educational institutions to import such gadgets freely.

The government, through a public notice on 13 May 2010, had prohibited educational and other institutions from importing used computer equipment and peripherals: a step just short of a complete ban on such imports. Environmental agencies worldwide estimate dumping of e-waste in India is likely to go up by 500 per cent in the next 10 years. They estimate that India generates nearly 400,000 t/y of e-waste and that this figure is likely to double in the next few years. The country, however, lacks effective disposal mechanisms.

Bangladesh bans coastline lease for ship-breaking yards

In Bangladesh, a High Court has banned the lease of coastal land to ship-breaking yards. The Court has ruled that the government and local authorities cannot issue leases on beaches or coastal land for commercial purposes. The Court also revoked leases of five new yards set up on forest department land in 2009. The government will now have to designate specific areas of coastline for ship-breaking.

Dismantling old ships is a major industry in Bangladesh, yielding more than two-thirds of domestic steel and creating tens of thousands of jobs. About one-third of the world’s condemned ships are dismantled at about 100 sprawling shipyards along the south-eastern coastline on beaches leased from local authorities. The High Court verdict follows a recent Supreme Court ruling that said all ships scrapped in Bangladesh must be certified toxic-free by the selling nation’s environmental authorities. The government tried to impose the standards in January 2010 but was forced to back down after lengthy strikes by shipyards. Iron prices shot up 20 per cent when the breaking yards shut down.

Growth outlook for Malaysia’s medical waste management

Medical waste management is a healthy industry in Malaysia, with an outlook for strong growth over the coming years, a recent Frost & Sullivan report has revealed. In 2009, the sector took some US$200 million in revenue, while managing, processing and disposing of about 16,000 tonnes of discarded medical devices, equipment and bio-waste.

Often perceived as a low-growth industry, Malaysia’s medial waste management sector is based on the ‘cradle-to-grave’ concept, where the country’s three hospital waste concessionaires are responsible for every step in the life cycle of medical waste, including the supply of consumables. Onus for the initial segregation and storage of the waste is on the health-care providers.

Based on a recent survey, Frost & Sullivan estimates that the total quantity of hospital waste produced in Malaysia could reach 33,000 t/y by 2020. This is more than double the current 16,000 t/y and considerably more than the 18,000 t/y capacity of the current infrastructure for incineration. Besides highlighting the need for additional incinerator capacity, the report suggests that there is also scope to improve the process of waste management from hospital to incinerator. Innovative products that decrease waste handling risk factors, waste compacting technologies and automated waste delivery systems are expected to be widely adopted by Malaysian hospitals.

Indonesia holds firms responsible for product life cycles

Companies operating in Indonesia will be held responsible for the life cycle of their products as well as its packaging. Following two years of deliberation, the plan outlined in a draft government regulation is intended to control waste that either cannot decompose or takes a long time to deteriorate. The draft regulation promotes “extended producer responsibility” (EPR) that requires producers to take back their waste products for recycling. “The main EPR targets are food and beverage companies and producers of consumer goods. Many of them still make no effort to recollect the huge amount of waste that they produce,” says Mr. Ujang Solihin Sidik, acting head of the Environment Ministry’s waste management unit.

The EPR system is needed to deal with the increasing amount of plastic litter. Noodle companies produce over 11 billion plastic pieces each year, most of which go into either landfills or rivers. Under EPR, companies are required to make eco-products from degradable materials. The draft stipulates that producers should manage their packaging and/or products that do not decompose by natural processes. It instructs that company waste reduction efforts should follow the EPR route, and also makes it mandatory for producers, companies, importers and distributors to use easily degradable raw materials and support recycling methods that do not pose threats to human health. Data from the Central Statistic Agency shows the country generated 51 million tonnes of waste in 2008, close to 60 per cent of which was dumped in landfills and the remaining was burned in the open or dumped in rivers. The draft requires producers to put labels on products informing consumers if the products used recyclable materials. Under the draft, the government will also promote incentives such as tax and import duty reductions for companies that make efforts to reduce waste. The Environment Ministry will publicly announce the names of companies that fail to abide by the regulation.

Alliance for e-waste recycling unit

Cerebra Integrated Technologies, a leading total IT Solutions provider in India, has announced a strategic alliance with Cimelia Resource Recovery Pte. Ltd., a subsidiary arm of Enviro-Hub Holdings Ltd., Singapore, to establish India’s largest e-waste recycling unit. The strategic alliance will enable Cerebra to acquire global expertise and technology support of Cimelia, a leader in e-waste management solutions, to set up the proposed unit on 10 acres of land in Bangalore. Cimelia will be setting up the plant and machinery, and will jointly manage the proposed unit together with Cerebra. The alliance will help Cerebra double its e-waste management capacity to 60,000 t/y. Through the new plant and alliance, Cerebra will be better equipped to recycle e-waste and will get an entry in international market, through Cimelia’s global clientele. Cerebra will be investing US$11.25 million for the proposed unit. It aims to achieve a turnover of US$57.55 million in FY 2013, with a profit of 25 per cent.

China surpasses pollution reduction targets for 2010

China is beating its own targets for reducing major air and water pollution for 2010, Environmental Protection Minister Mr. Zhou Shengxian stated at an international forum on environment and development. On the strength of that success, China will include two more pollutants into its compulsory emission control programme during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) period. Mr. Zhou said that China had dramatically raised its pollution prevention capacity and was set to meet the emission reductions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 2005 and 2010. By the end of 2009, the SO2 emission levels had fallen 9.6 per cent from 2005 levels, while COD had fallen 13.1 per cent during the same period. That put China on the road to hit its goal of reducing both by 10 per cent from 2005 levels by the end of 2010.

New goals for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4N) will be included in the pollution control programme for the next five years. However, detailed reduction targets are yet to be worked out. Coal-fired power plants are major sources for NOx, contributing 45.5 per cent to total emissions, according to Mr. Yang Jintian, Deputy Chief Engineer of the Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning. Official figures from the Ministry of Environmental Protection show that the country’s total NOx emissions reached 20 million tonnes in 2008, the largest in the world. NH4N is discharged from chemical plants, agricultural chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides, as well as domestic sewage in urban areas. In 2009, 1.23 million tonnes of NH4N was discharged, with 78 per cent of it from domestic sewage, according to the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

‘Green gold’ from plastic junk

Taiwan Province of China is breathing new life into its plastic waste, creating a booming new business at the same time as it aims to go green. The island nation started recycling plastic more than a decade back amid growing environmental concerns. Today, it boasts of 73 per cent recycling rates, according to the Environmental Protection Administration of the Cabinet. In 2009, nearly 180,000 t of plastic waste was collected and turned into raw materials worth US$140 million, cutting down garbage disposal costs and carbon dioxide emissions.

Taiwan took pride in the so-called “eco-fabric” that was used by local companies to make the jerseys for nine teams competing in the recent football World Cup in South Africa. Each jersey, made from eight plastic bottles melted and processed into polyester, is 13 per cent lighter than traditional fabric and can absorb and disperse sweat quickly, reports Taiwan Textile Research Institute. The production process is also environmentally friendly, as it takes less water and energy to dye the shirts when the material is taken from coloured bottles, said Mr. Alex Lo, Managing Director, Super Textile Corp., a leading Taiwan-based maker of eco-fabric. Super Textile has started exporting the fabric to the United States and Japan.

Tzu Chi Foundation, one of Taiwan’s largest charity groups, runs 4,500 recycling stations across the nation with the help of about 70,000 volunteers who collected 12,000 t of used bottles in 2009. Since 2007, the Foundation has distributed more than 300,000 blankets made from plastic bottles for relief operations. In the near future, perhaps, houses built from recycled plastic bottles could mushroom across the island after “Eco Ark”, the world’s first such building, get unveiled in November 2010. Eco Ark – a three-storey 24 m high exhibition hall at the Taipei International Floral Expo – is being constructed with bricks processed from 1.5 million recycled plastic bottles. The bricks that can resist fire, wind and earthquakes, and provide the building with natural lighting to save electricity, said the architect of Eco Ark, Mr. Arthur Huang. As the ‘polli-bricks’ cost less than conventional materials like wood and glass, the construction cost is lower.


GRP waste powers cement production

Denmark-based pultrusion processor Fiberline has struck a deal with the waste-to-fuels company Zajons Logistik Entsorgungsgesellschaft (ZLE), Germany, to supply surplus glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) for thermal recycling in cement production. Fiberline sends its GRP waste to ZLE, where it is shredded and other recycled waste added to achieve a defined calorific value exceeding that of the polyester resin alone. The modified waste is then sent to Holcim, ZLE’s parent company, where the waste is fed into its cement kilns to provide process heat, with the glass fibre content substituting for sand.

Fiberline says that recycling 1,000 t of its GRP profile waste in cement production saves around 450 t of coal, 200 t of chalk, 200 t of sand and 150 t of aluminium oxide. It also eliminates Fiberline’s GRP waste disposal problem. Prior to adopting this thermal recycling route, recycling of GRP was limited to grinding it into fine and coarse fractions to partially substitute mineral filler and glass fibre reinforcement in new GRP formulations, such as sheet/bulk moulding compound.

Recyclable alternative for composite car parts

At Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (FICT) in Germany, researchers have developed a new method for producing thermoplastic fibre composite materials designed for large-scale vehicle construction. Once these materials have reached end of life, they can be shredded, melted down and reused to produce further high-quality parts. The materials are also claimed to perform significantly better in crashes than current materials: the thermoplastic components reinforced with textile structures absorb the forces generated in a collision through viscoelastic deformation of the matrix material without splintering.

FICT engineers have developed a process that makes it possible to manufacture around 100,000 parts per year. In the “thermoplastic resin transfer moulding” (T-RTM) process, the composite is formed in a single step. To improve the crash behaviour of a vehicle’s overall structure, FICT engineers have ascertained the optimum fibre placement. The cost of thermoplastic matrix material and the cost of T-RTM process are both up to 50 per cent less than the equivalent costs for thermoset structures, FICT claims.

Novel polyurethanes with recycled PET

In the Islamic Republic of Iran, researchers at Amirkabir University of Technology and New Technology Research Centre report to have recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste into polyurethanes. In this research, waste PET fibres were depolymerized through aminolysis using excess amount of ethanolamine in the presence of sodium acetate as catalyst. The scientists characterized the product of the aminolysis, bis(2-hydroxy ethylene) terephthalamide (BHETA), and synthesized polyurethanes based on BHETA using pre-polymer method. They investigated the mechanical and thermal properties of this synthesized polyurethane and studied the effect of BHETA as a chain extender on various properties of the polyurethanes.

Results show that BHETA has an important role in strengthening of polyurethane by increasing hydrogen bonding between polyurethane chains effectively. The tensile tests indicate that increasing of BHETA content leads to an increase in the polymer’s strength and stiffness. The chemical resistance of polyurethane, however, decreases with increasing BHETA. This phenomenon was attributed to the fact that the aromatic rings increases the distance between the chains. Hence, chemicals can penetrate in polymer matrix easily and the polyurethane decomposes rapidly.

Process to combine different plastics

Green Polymer Technologies Inc., the United States, is marketing its proprietary technology – which uses a chemical process to combine different types of plastics – to those producing large amounts of mixed plastic waste. Repelletizing and reusing mixed plastic scrap through Green Polymer’s technology is an economically viable approach, says Mr. Donald Sullivan, the company’s founder and President, because “you don’t have to have any sorting to use our technology”. Sorting the scrap plastic always has been the big economic roadblock in many recycling operations. Because hand sorting is not financially viable, any standard plastic recycling operation needs to have more capital investment. Mr. Sullivan estimates that a recycling plant using Green Polymer’s technology could be built and installed for about US$4 million. By using the firm’s technology, mixed plastic scrap can be repelletized and used in products ranging from sound barriers to mouldings, trim and decking extrusions.

Pyrolysis of waste plastic and tyres

The increasing use of pyrolysis of waste plastic and tyres has made pyrolysis plants commercially viable. Development of more efficient catalysts that reduce the reaction time and reaction temperature, shift from batch type process to continuous type, advanced heat exchange systems, and the development of electrical generators that can be fired on pyrolysis gas have added to the profitability of pyrolysis technology. Pyrolysis plants generate quality fuel (pyrolysis oil and hydrocarbon gas) and carbon black from polymer waste.

Pyrocrat Systems, India, is one of the companies that supply turnkey plyrolysis plants for waste plastic and tyres. Pyrocrat plants recover energy and value from waste in the form of fuel and charcoal in an eco-friendly and commercially viable recycling process. The pyrolysis oil produced can be used as a direct substitute for light diesel oil/furnace oil.

The pyrolysis plant operates under the following process conditions:

  • Reaction temperature of 350° to 450°C; l Pyrolysis in absence of oxygen;
  • Continuous feed and removal of input and output products; and
  • Scrubbing of pyrolysis oil and hydrocarbon gases and flue gases to prevent pollution.

The pyrolysis plant comprise several machinery and equipment such as: sorter, shredder, conveyors, feeder units, reactor, airlock carbon black removal systems, condensation and scrubbing systems, filtration and dewaxing systems, and storage systems for oil/gas. For 1,000 kg of plastic waste, the plant yields: 450-500 litres of pyrolysis oil; 100- 120 kg of hydrocarbon gas; and 300-350 gg of carbon black. For 1,000 kg of radial tyre scrap, it provides: 400-450 litres of pyrolysis oil; 80-100 kg of hydrocarbon gas, 275-325 kg of carbon black; and 80-100 kg of mild steel wire scrap. Contact: Pyrocrat Systems Ltd., C-209, CBD Belapur Railway Station Commercial Complex, Sec-1A, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai, 400 614, India. Tel: +91 (22) 2756 3816, 3299 0790; Fax: +91 (22) 2757 2832,/ 2757 4535; E-mail:

Recycling of heterogenous plastics waste

Plastic recycling systems from the Italian company Longinotti are able to transform heterogeneous flexible and rigid plastic wastes, generally without either particular sorting or washing, into quality end products. These end products are resistant to shock, breakage and wear, and can advantageously replace wood, concrete and even steel since they are sterile, rotproof, resists mildew, waterproof, resistant to chemicals and unvarying. They can be sawed, planed, machined, nailed, welded, glued, coloured and painted.

The waste material, baled or loose, is loaded on preparation lines where they are shredded and conveyed to a granulator or densifier, depending on whether it is rigid of flexible, and stored in stocking silos. From these silos it is sent to the mixing silos, and the blend is introduced into a special extruder to produce a homogeneous paste without any degradation of the material.

The extruder feeds to a set of low-pressure, water-cooled moulds according to their size assembled in different arrangement like revolving drum, revolving table or horizontal line. After the cooling phase, the end product is ejected. The system has a production capacity of 300 to 900 kg/h, according to the extruder. Higher capacities are available on request. The moulds, made from a special aluminium alloy, are simple, interchangeable and, thanks to the low working pressure, relatively inexpensive. Longinotti’s plastic recycling plants need very few workers for its operation. Contact: Longinotti Group S.r.l., Via Provinciale Lucchese, 201, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy. Tel: +39 (55) 302321; Fax: +39 (55) 341120; E-mail:

Producing fuel from plastic waste

Samki Teck, India, offers a novel and cost-effective technology to extract fuel from waste plastics and rubber. This process involves pyrolysis, the thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen. Plastic or rubber waste is treated in a cylindrical chamber at a temperature of 370°- 420°C. The polymer is gently cracked by adding catalyst and the pyrolysis gases are condensed in a series of condensers to yield a distillate with low sulphur content. Input materials include mixed plastic scrap in any form, carry bags (even less than 20 microns), mono/multilayer pouches and sachets, rigid plastic materials, disposable cups, woven sacks, tyre scrap, carpets, cable sheath, etc. The process outputs furnace oil (40-60 per cent) and carbon black (10-20 per cent) – both products that have wide markets. Contact: Samki Teck Resources, 12-2-709/c/207, Padmanabha Nagar Colony, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad 500 028, India. Tel: +91 (40) 30525157; Fax: +91 (40) 30788637; E-mail: samki


Recycling process for precious metals

CURRENTA – a joint venture of the Germany-based companies Bayer AG and Lanxess AG, and operator of Europe’s largest chemical park – has developed sustainable solutions for hazardous waste. The company’s solutions include a new electronic scrap (e-waste) recycling method that is said to be highly efficient in recovering over 90 per cent of precious metals. This novel recycling method involves thermally treating e-waste containing metals such as gold, silver and copper.

The process came about while the company was reviewing its infrastructure assets to identify greater service opportunities in its chemical parks. The rotary kilns associated with the existing incineration plants used to process hazardous waste were identified as being under-utilized. This led the company to hold trials on processing e-waste at very high temperatures. With its waste handling expertise and infrastructure, CURRENTA is able to incinerate all the non-metal materials and manage the off-gases to a standard that meets tight regulatory standards. The remaining inorganic residue contains precious metal generated by this method and can be processed through electrochemical refining. CURRENTA has applied for patenting the process. Contact: Dr. Walter Leidinger, CURRENTA, 51368 Leverkusen, Germany. E-mail:

New process for prospecting for gold from electronic waste

Ecomation, Finland, manufactures and supplies a range of crushers, conveyors, dust-extraction systems, screens and total recycling lines. For customers with an existing facility, the company can boost their operational and cost efficiency to bring them closer to the industry-leading standards.

Ecomation’s scrap-processing lines are among the most efficient and cost-effective on the market presently when it comes to processing electrical and electronic scrap – such as obsolete or discarded computers, telecommunications equipment, household appliances, circuit boards and cables – as well as plastic and construction waste. The company’s lines are capable of processing at speeds of 250 to 5,000 kg/h, and can generate excellent revenue flows, even from electrical and electronic scrap that usually conventional processing systems are not able to deal with. Dedicated solutions are available for cathode ray tube scrap (television sets and monitors) and batteries.

The Ecomation separation process is dry, clean and fully automated. It is designed to keep very effective control over dust and odour. As no effluent is generated in the process, it is ideal for electrical and electronic waste. A typical system features three to five energy-optimized reduction stages, each followed by a separation cycle – all in compact footprint. Ecomation’s basic ESSE separator consists of a multizone vibrating table with ionization and blower stages. The ESSE XL also includes a drum screen and a feed-in conveyor. ESSE units separate non-metallic materials (like plastic) and light metals/alloys (such as aluminium) from metals like copper, as well as ceramic materials and glass from scrap streams rich in metallic content. Magnetic separators for removing ferrous materials feature high-performance, state-of-the-art permanent magnets. The end product of a line can be further processed via smelting to ensure that gold and other precious metals are recovered.

Environment-friendly refrigerator recycling process

The Impact and Catalyst (IC) Process from BHS-Sonthofen GmbH, Germany, is an economical, environmentally friendly way to recycle refrigerator equipment containing chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerant. The IC process uses BHS Rotoshredder for impact crushing, and catalytic hydrolysis for the low-cost processing of refrigerants and foam agents. The process has a high throughput rate of 150 units per hour and a low wear cost of about US$0.11 per unit. Operating costs is half that of cryocondensation. The process doesn’t generate any hazardous residue and meets all statutory regulations set by the European Union. Contact: BHS-Sonthofen GmbH, An der Ei-senschmelze 4, 87527 Sonthofen, Germany. Tel: +49 (8321) 60990; Fax: +49 (8321) 6099220; E-mail:


Treatment systems for industrial effluent

Meitler Consulting Inc. (MCI), the United States, provides treatment systems and components for almost all industrial needs. Modular treatment systems of different sizes with a variety of options are available, including smaller skid-mounted systems and custom-built systems with various degrees of automation.

For waste stream volumes of 190 to 45,425 litres/day, the company’s self-contained band filter treatment system is a suitable choice. These powerful and proven packages that need only a small footprint can be fitted with state-of-the-art automation. Treatment tank, de-watering and holding tank are all provided in a single package. Fitted with PLC control, pH monitoring, chemical feed and advanced programming, the performance of these systems exceed most larger scale modular systems. Contact: Meitler Consulting Inc., 11935 Kaw Drive, Kansas City, Kansas 66111, United States of America.

Water filtration system for near-total removal of hydrocarbons

Environmental management firm Procon Environmental Technologies, South Africa, has developed a technology that allows water contaminated from heavy industries to be safely and more quickly discharged into the environment. The MyCelx water filtration system can remove 99.9 per cent of the hydrocarbons. The MyCelx filtration system enables companies in the mining, manufacturing, energy, as well as oil and gas industries to remove hydrocarbons, ranging from benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX), crude oil and sheen to chlorinated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organically bound metals from their wastewaters quickly and effectively. This process can be achieved by combining MyCelx with another Procon solution, the Ultraspin oily water separation solution.

Ultraspin hydrocyclone technology is able to remove 95 per cent of 10-15 µm oil droplets from the water. The MyCelx is then installed after the Ultraspin process to filter out the remaining hydrocarbons. As a product with Lloyds of London certificate for the removal of type C oil emulsions, the MyCelx system can be used in industry applications that range from diesel depots to oil terminals and fuel storage depots. On contact with MyCelx, oily pollutants in the air and water bond and are permanently attached to the filter media. With the use of either MyCelx engineered oil and hydrocarbon removal filters or filtration process solutions, the air and water are free of oil and hydrocarbons: 99.9 per cent of hydrocarbon contaminants are removed in a single pass. The system is environment friendly and does not release any hydrocarbon chain. It permanently binds slightly soluble organic compounds as well as colloidal metals, and its viscoelastic nature will not allow release of pollutants.

Biochemical process halves water purification cost

A new biochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) water purification process from Krebs & Sisler, the United States, halves the cost of turning effluent and salt water into potable water. Krebs & Sisler’s method combines photosynthesis with photocatalysis. The method involves water purification through a rapid growth in biomass that can also be harvested and used for human or animal consumption. The treatment method is expected to produce potable water for half the cost of reverse osmosis in large continuous flow volumes.

As the storehouse for atmospheric oxygen, CO2 is the resource for recycling both oxygen and carbon. With the new process, CO2 can be separated through photosynthesis at a high rate. As CO2 is separated, the carbon grows biomass and the oxygen is released to enrich the air. The process is good for salt water, sewage and industrial wastewater. The biomass – from algae species such as Spirulina – is produced by the concurrent use of photosynthesis and photocatalysis. The biomass growth rate in deep well-lit enclosed cells is expected to be 100 times the natural rate because all factors related to culturing the algae can be optimized in the continuous hydroponic process.

Algae biomass absorbs minerals dissolved in water and minerals contained in organic and inorganic compounds released by the photochemical action of photocatalysis. Photosynthesis purifies the water by mineral absorption. The resulting biomass is 50 per cent carbon and may be dried for fuel, or a farm animal feed supplement or human nutrient because of its high values of protein (60 per cent and carbohydrate (20 per cent) plus the presence of vitamins A, B and E. When released, the oxygen bound in CO2 can be released to fortify the atmosphere or for fuel combustion.

Successful sludge-to-power research

At the University of Nevada, Reno, the United States, researchers are attempting to transform wastewater sludge to electrical power. The process that they are developing at the Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility is expected to, ultimately, supply the electrical power that the plant requires. According to Dr. Chuck Coronella, the principal investigator of the research project, the researchers are pleased with the results of the demonstration testing. The process to dry the sludge to make it burnable for a gasification process that would finally yield electricity has been working well. This important step in the research processes about 9 kg/h of sludge in a continuous feed system to produce about 1.4 kg/h of dried sludge powder.

The processing machine that the research team custom-built uses a process with relatively low temperatures in a fluidized bed of sand and salts to economically produce the biomass fuel from the sludge. The new patent-pending, energy-efficient, low-cost technology is an experimental carbon-neutral system. The solid fuel it produces will be analysed for its suitability to be used for fuel through gasification, and the refrigerator-size demonstration unit will help researchers determine the optimum conditions for commercial-scale operation. The demonstration project is a collaboration with the cities of Reno and Sparks, operators of the wastewater plant. The two city councils signed an interlocal agreement to allow the research to integrate into their operation, providing the space and other resources to help make the project a success.

Pickle spoilage bacteria may help environment

Spoilage bacteria that cause red colouration on pickles’ skin during fermentation might help clean up dyes in wastewater from the textile industry, according to a study by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Some species of Lactobacilli food related micro-organisms can cause red colouring when combined with tartrazine, a yellow food colouring agent used in the manufacture of dill pickles. ARS microbiologist Ms. Ilenys Perez-Diaz and colleagues have found that these Lactobacilli may also have environmental benefits.

Researchers from the ARS Food Science Research Unit noted that several Lactobacilli modify azo dyes used in the textile industry and may wind up in wastewater if untreated. These azo dyes impart vivid and warm colours such as red, orange and yellow to fabric. While many azo dyes are non-toxic, some are mutagenic. According to Ms. Perez-Diaz, considerable effort has been made to identify micro-organisms capable of degrading azo dyes in wastewater. If food-grade Lactobacilli are found to be capable of degrading a range of azo dyes, they might become organisms of choice for wastewater treatment applications. Seven treatments were tested to find a preventive measure for red-coloured spoilage. Ms. Perez-Diaz found that adding sodium benzoate prevented bacterial growth and the development of red-coloured spoilage in dill pickles.

Removal of selenium from wastewater

Kroff Facilities Services (KFS), the United States, offers a consistent, cost-effective way to remove selenium from industrial wastewater. The company’s solution is at work at a world-class refinery that has a throughput capacity of more than 160,000 barrels/day of crude oil. The refinery’s product line includes petroleum, diesel, jet fuel, residual fuels and petrochemical feedstock. The refinery has a large wastewater treatment system that can treat up to 17,000 litres/minute of general wastewater. This situation presented a two-fold need – to consistently meet the selenium level concentration of 12 ppb, and that too using a process that would reduce costs of operating the wastewater treatment system.

KFS’ research uncovered a unique technology that uses an absorption process to remove selenium, and possibly eliminate or at least significantly reduce the use of treatment chemicals, thereby reducing operating costs. The technology demonstration programme was conducted in three phases – Phase 1 involved a laboratory bench test, Phase 2 comprised an on-site pilot study to determine the effectiveness of the treatment under refinery operating conditions, and Phase 3 pertained to Rapid Small Scale Column Test (RSCCT) to determine the life expectancy of the media. The Phase 1 bench test results indicated that selenium removal was adequate and on-site pilot testing would be appropriate. The Phase 2 test demonstrated that selenium removal was very effective to concentrations well below the discharge requirements and well below that achieved by the current method. The refinery laboratory conducted the analytical testing to avoid any conflict in testing methods. RSSCT too showed that selenium removal was quite effective with the sorbing media. Following these three successful phases of testing, KFS constructed a cost-effective operating package to ensure selenium concentrations in discharged water met acceptable EPA levels.

Integrated ozone-UV advanced oxidation system

In the United States, Spartan Environmental Technologies, introduced an integrated ozone-ultra violet (UV) advanced oxidation system for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The Ultrazone process is a fully self-contained skid-mounted advanced oxidation system that includes an oxygen generation system, ozone generator, ozone/water mixing system, programmable logic control system and a high-efficiency UV reactor supplied by UV Sciences. The integrated skid is placed on a pad and the user connects the water lines and power connections.

Advanced oxidation processes produce hydroxyl radicals capable of removing virtually all organic compounds from water. In the Ultrazone process, UV light converts ozone into hydroxyl radicals without the need to add any additional chemicals. Electricity is used to make both ozone (from air) and UV light. No by-products are formed since ozone and hydroxyl radical breakdown to oxygen and water after use. The Ultrazone process can be used to reduce total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and also to destroy specific organic compounds that cannot be treated by conventional methods. Specific applications include recycling of process water, treatment of industrial wastewater and production of high-purity water from various water sources.

Treatment system for fluctuating waste loads

Baswood Corporation, the United States, has introduced BioViper™ pilot system, a mobile unit used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Baswood technology on effluent from food and beverage plants. The BioViper features significantly lower lifecycle costs in a smaller footprint than competing technologies. The system requires 40 per cent less energy, produces minimal easy-to-handle solids, and is virtually odour free. It is claimed to offer the optimum combination of effectiveness, cost, size and simplicity to provide efficient pre-treatment while eliminating many limitations associated with other biological wastewater treatment systems. The BioViper, based on Baswood’s Aerobic/Anaerobic Integrated Microbial Succession (AIMS) technology and Dry Cycle process, reduces biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) in wastewater from the food and beverage industry. The pilot system has a hydraulic capacity of up to 75 litres/minute of high-strength wastewater. The compact system is housed in a self-contained, customized, 40-ft shipping container providing minimal set-up. The pilot unit features on-line water quality monitoring, influent and effluent pumping systems, composite sampling, and effluent clarification. The unit is fitted out with instrumentation that allows for remote, online monitoring as well as operation. The mobile system is currently is in test operation at a bottling plant. Contact: Baswood Corporation, 109 East De La Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, United States of America.


Soy microemulsion for groundwater remediation

Two United States-based companies – JRW Bioremediation LLC and Archer Daniels Midland Co. – were awarded a patent for their LactOil™ soy microemulsion. This renewable product enables environmental professionals to cost-effectively clean up soil and groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents, metals, nitrates and perchlorates. LactOil is a soy-based product containing five functional ingredients designed to stimulate bacteria already residing in the environment to degrade and remove toxic pollutants from groundwater, thus restoring these valuable resources. Biodegradable LactOil is derived from corn (maize) and soybeans.

Environmental professionals have successfully used LactOil at more than 40 North American locations that vary in scale from small dry-cleaner sites to large federal projects. Professionals using LactOil have lauded the product’s ease of handling, excellent sub-surface distribution, multi-year longevity and the competitive cost advantage. Contact: JRW Bioremediation, 14321, W. 96th Terrace, Lenexa, KS 66215, United States of America. Tel: +1 (913) 438 5544; Fax: +1 (913) 438 5554; E-mail:; Website:

A bacterial nemesis for oil spills

Tel Aviv University (TAU), Israel, has a solution that may help the Gulf of Mexico oil spill “bioremediate” the remaining problems. Prof. Eugene Rosenberg and Prof. Eliora Ron of the TAU Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology are using natural oil-munching bacteria, grown at the TAU lab, to clean the hard-to-reach oil pockets that occur when oil mixes with sand and organic matter on beaches to form a thin layer on the Gulf’s precious waterways.

The scientists identified a naturally occurring variety of sea-borne bacteria that digests oil. By studying the bacteria’s genetic background, developing methods of growing the bacteria and increasing their capacity to ingest the oil, the researchers have developed a solution that could clean up the residual oil that cannot be removed by mechanical means. Prof. Ron states that sucking up the surface oil pools and containing the oil are important and necessary first steps. The new solution removes the smaller amounts of oil left behind – which is not easily removed from sand and water. It is this small quantity of oil that sits under rocks and forms a thin film on the water’s surface.

Bioremediation of polluted raw water

Researchers at the School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, China, report using submerged biofilm process and different artificial media for the in situ bioremediation of polluted raw water for tap water supply. Dissolved organic matters in organic-polluted raw water and their potential to form disinfection by-products during drinking water treatment raise great challenges to the traditional water treatment process. Although many pre-treatment and post-treatment methods have been widely studied to improve the water quality of potable tap water, these methods are more or less constrained by the lack of public finance or non-availability of land area.

In situ bioremediation of polluted raw water based on the biological degradation function of enriched microbes on artificial media is a low-cost technique and has the unique advantage of not needing land area. The researchers focused on the performance of two different artificial media used for bioremediation and the effect of light on the performance was especially investigated. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was separated using ultrafiltration into four fractions of defined molecular sizes: 100 kilodalton (kDa), 10-100 kDa, 1-10 kDa and <1 kDa.

Sunlight was found to have negative effect on the performance of assembly medium but has little effect on the performance of elastic medium in terms of removal of permanganate index and DOC. The removal of organic matters with aromatic structures was not affected by sunlight. The assembly medium is conducive to the reduction of DOC with high molecular size (>1 kDa) while the elastic medium facilitates the decrease of DOC with low molecular size (<10 kDa). Further, this pattern was not affected by sunlight. With respect to the decrease of disinfection by-products formation potential, the assembly medium performed better than the elastic medium. In addition, sunlight seemed to be able to enhance the removal of disinfection by-products formation potential, especially for the haloacetic acid formation potential.

New oil-degrading microbe found

Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) of the United States Department of Energy have found that microbes degraded oil in deep water much faster than anticipated, and that without a significant level of oxygen depletion. The discovery is among the most positive findings following the massive oil spill from BP PLC’s Macondo well off Louisiana in 5,000 ft of water. LBNL scientists found the presence of various hydrocarbon degraders, adding that the dominant microbe in the dispersed Macondo oil was a new, unclassified species.

Mr. Terry Hazen, a microbial ecologist, said the findings “suggest that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep sea.” The oil influx altered the microbial community profoundly by stimulating psychrophilic (cold temperature) gamma-proteobacteria closely related to known petroleum-degrading microbes. Psychrophilic petroleum degraders contributed to the rapid decline of the Macondo oil. Analysis of changes in the crude oil composition indicated faster-than-expected biodegradation rates with the half-life of the oil’s alkanes ranging from 1.2 to 6.1 days.

DNA microarray

At the University of Oklahoma, the United States, researchers have developed GeoChip, a DNA microarray that can detect thousands of bacteria and micro-organisms and determine their function, whether in soil, water or other parts of the environment. GeoChip was recently used to study samples from an oil plume about 10 miles from the BP spill in the Gulf of Mexico. About 200 samples taken at a depth between 3,600 ft and 4,000 ft were sent to the university for analysis. GeoChip’s function in this case was to determine whether the necessary bacteria were present, in the right quantities, to break down oil. The research team’s early work gives a nod to Mother Nature: it showed that micro-organisms have degraded the oil in that area to undetectable levels.

GeoChip can analyse many parts of the environment– soil, sediment, wastewater and even food contaminants, Dr. Jizhong Zhou points out. Dr. Zhou’s goal is to continue developing it – his team is working with the fourth generation of GeoChip, and the fifth version could be available in another year. “We want to make sure GeoChip represents the most current knowledge in the field,” Dr. Zhou said. GeoChip is the only technology that can identify a micro-organism and explain its function. That capability is important because it gives researchers better insight into the reparable skills of Nature when a contaminant is present.

Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation

Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation is the practice of adding hydrogen (an electron donor) to groundwater and/or soil to increase the number and vitality of the micro-organisms present in performing anaerobic bioremediation (reductive dechlorination) on an anaerobically degradable compound or chlorinated contaminant. The most commonly targeted chlorinated groundwater contaminants are primarily used in industry as degreasing agents and include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Other such anaerobically degradable compounds include methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, certain pesticides/herbicides, nitrate, perchlorate, nitroaromatic explosives, dyes and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

Regenesis, the United Sates, produces controlled-release, injectable substrates for enhanced reductive dechlorination. Regenesis’ 3DMe™ is a revolutionary new product that offer the most advanced hydrogen releasing technology available. The product is designed specifically for the low cost in situ treatment of chlorinated solvent-based contaminants. It incorporates the proven Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC®) technology besides an entirely new and unique molecule that is specifically designed to time-release a combination of highly efficient electron donors. 3DMe was designed with a relatively high hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB), allowing dilute suspensions to be well distributed across contaminant plumes without the high injection costs. Immediately on application to the sub-surface, 3DMe begins to produce hydrogen and distribute hydrogen-generating compounds to the sub-surface via a series of hydration and fermentation reactions. This process provides for a time-release supply of hydrogen to fuel the anaerobic reductive dechlorination process. Typical longevity for 3DMe is up to two years on a single injection and up to four years under optimal conditions.

HRC is designed specifically for on-site treatment of contamination by a chlorinated solvent-based compound or any anaerobically degradable substance. The viscous HRC is typically pressure-injected into contaminated groundwater or soil. Upon contact with water, it slowly hydrolyses and is gradually broken down by microbial action. During this process, lactic acid released is fermented by microbes to produce optimal amounts of hydrogen and anaerobic conditions. The hydrogen is then used in reductive dechlorination. This naturally driven process biodegrades and converts detrimental contaminants into innocuous end products like ethene and ethane. Contact: Regenesis, 1011 Calle Sombra, San Clemente, CA 92673, United States of America. Tel: +1 (949) 3668 000; Fax: +1 (949) 3668 090.


Plastic from industrial waste gas

The New Zealand-based clean tech company LanzaTech has announced a successful run of its technology for reclaiming industrial waste gases to produce 2,3-butanediol (BD), a foundational chemical from which spring a variety of products including fuels and even plastics. LanzaTech’s process reclaims an industrial by-product that would go to waste otherwise.

The chemical 2,3-BD can be converted through simple processes into butenes, butadiene and methyl ethyl ketone. These substances, in turn, are the building blocks for producing synthetic rubbers, plastics, textiles and other products. In 2009, LanzaTech announced the development of a proprietary microbe that can digest carbon monoxide in the waste gas from steel mills, converting it to pure ethanol. The process is based on fermentation, and waste gas from steel mills is an ideal medium because it has a high concentration of carbon monoxide, with little or no hydrogen.

Added NOx reduction

Nalco Mobotec Inc., a United States-based global leader in air pollution control technology, has signed a contract with Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative Inc. to provide the latter two ROTAMIX® selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems. The SCNR systems are for nitrogen oxide (NOx) control at the Frank E. Ratts Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant with two 125 MW boilers, originally built in 1970. Nalco Mobotec will begin work immediately with both units scheduled for continuous operation of the new system.

Nalco Mobotec’s patented ROTAMIX technology reduces NOx emissions from utility and industrial boilers. The technology will build on previous significant NOx reduction provided by Nalco Mobotec’s patented Rotating Opposed Fired Air (ROFA®) technology to contain and reduce NOx emissions. Contact: Nalco Company, 1601 W. Diehl Road, Naperville, IL 60563-1198, United States of America. Tel: +1 (630) 305 1000; Fax: +1 (630) 305 2900.

Decreasing odour, pollution levels

The Wyoming Refining Co. in the United States is hooking up the last of the new pollution and odour control measures that would help the Newcastle refinery to meet the Petroleum Refinery Initiative standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). When the final pieces of US$32 million in improvements are operational in November 2010, odour issues are expected to improve dramatically. A wet gas scrubber is designed to reduce air pollution from the plant by more than 100 t/y, as it washes particles, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from plant emissions with water and a caustic solution.

A new sour water stripper is designed to annually remove about 400 t of hydrogen sulphide together with 200 t of ammonia from the plant’s wastewater output. It will transform more than 140 million litres of wastewater into about 138.5 million litres of “clean” water each year. When the refinery is operational again in November, it will include:

  • A Dynawave wet gas scrubber, which would annually decrease sulphur dioxide emissions by 35.5 t, and remove 49 t of particulate and 21.5 t of nitrogen oxide from the air;
  • A sour water stripper expected to significantly improve wastewater odour problems;
  • An amine fuel gas treater to remove 1,800 t/y of hydrogen sulphide;
  • A sour water ammonia to ammonium thiosulphate unit, which combines waste by-products from the sour water stripper and the amine fuel gas treater to create an agricultural fertilizer; and
  • A new flare tower that will rise 170 ft into the air will replace the current 50 ft tall flare (flaring devices allow refineries to burn excess product when necessary to prevent explosions).


NOx removal system

Babcock-Hitachi KK, Japan, had first developed a pellet type catalyst for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from power plants. Based on this original catalyst, Babcock-Hitachi has now developed a low-pressure drop plate type catalyst. The NOx removal system is configured so that flue gas is flown to a reactor filled with the new catalyst. Ammonia required for NOx removal reaction is injected into the flue gas through a nozzle mounted upstream of the catalyst. If the flue gas contains dusts, the flow is led straight downwards to prevent dust build-up and plugging.

The new DENOx catalyst – a high-quality, high-performance and very competitive product – is the result of four decades of experience and continuous development. The NOx removal system is used in a wide range of applications from utility boilers, fluidized bed combustion boilers, gas turbines, diesel engines and industrial boilers to garbage incinerators. It has been field proven with various fuels such as coal, oil and gas. Contact: Babcock-Hitachi KK, Akihabara UDX Building, 14-1, Sotokanda 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0021, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 5209 7000; Fax: +81 (3) 5209 7761.

New technology for NOx control

Reaction Engineering International, the United States, has on offer a new nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that provides coal-fired generating units with a cost-effective means of complying with NOx regulations. The Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) process reduces formation of NOx by injecting amine-based compounds into the fuel-rich regions of furnaces. RRI, developed originally for coal-fired cyclone boilers, works well in the fuel-rich lower furnace created by operating cyclone boilers with overfire air. Combined overfire air and RRI technologies have been shown to reduce cyclone NOx levels by more than 80 per cent. The RRI process is also applicable to other pulverized coal-fired units and industrial boilers. Contact: Reaction Engineering International, 77 West 200 South, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101, United States of America.

From diesel engines to power stations

In 2002, Mitsui Babcock, the United Kingdom-based energy services company, demonstrated a new post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal system at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston 9 power plant in the United States. The demonstration system, NOxStar, was developed initially for diesel engines and later made the leap to power sector. The NOxStar process is, in essence, a post-combustion process that continuously injects controlled quantities of an ammonia-based reagent with relatively minute amounts of hydrocarbon (typically either natural gas or propane) into the superheater/reheater pass of an operating boiler. The injection grid comprises a permanent array of feed lances attached to the adjacent heat transfer assemblies in the upper furnace pass. This set-up optimizes reagent distribution throughout the relatively high-temperature NOx-bearing flue gas mass. At these existing elevated temperatures, the hydrocarbon auto-ignites to form a plasma of free radicals that autocatalyses the reaction of ammonia and NOx to form harmless nitrogen and water vapour.

The NOxStar injection grid consisted of 22 lances subdivided into nine control zones in each of the superheater and reheater passes. These zones allowed NOx reduction and ammonia slip to be optimized on a zone-by-zone basis to account for variability in the flue gas temperature and flow profiles at the reagent injection plane. Each water-cooled lance was fed with reagent, steam and propane in a controlled stream to satisfy the flue gas conditions at the time. Reagent rates were controlled to keep ammonia slip below 5 ppm.

Test results have shown that NOx levels can be reduced by 68 per cent from the baseline level while maintaining an ammonia slip of 4.2 ppm or less, as measured at the economizer outlet using wet chemistry techniques. Air staging in the combustion zone had contributed to this overall reduction. Alone, the NOxStar system reduced NOx level by 53 per cent. As part of an SCR system, NoxStar can achieve the NOx reduction levels required by many generators.

Portable dust and fume collector

Zephyr® III from Air Pollution Control, the United States, is a pulse-controlled portable dust and fume collector for capturing dry dusts, welding fumes, grinding dusts, soldering fumes and other airborne particles. The unit has an exterior adjustable arm and a cartridge-type collector that is easy to fit and remove. The 700 cfm hood on the arm allows easy 360° positioning. The unit has a three-stage filtration, and the dust collected can be easily removed from the roll-out drawer, using manually activated, Venturi-assisted pulse cleaning. Large size wheels with swivels and brakes make moving and positioning easy. The unit has powder-coated surface finish on both inside and outside. Contact: Air Pollution Control, P.O. Box 1277, League City, Texas, TX 77574, United States of America. Tel: +1 (281) 332 7935; Fax: +1 (281) 332 7936; E-mail:

SCR system for power generating equipment

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst systems are highly effective at cutting nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from power-generating equipment, including gas turbines, utility/industrial boilers and reciprocating engines. BASF Catalysts, with its headquarters in the United States, is a provider of innovative catalysts for use in these systems. SCR systems use catalysts to promote a reaction between flue gas NOx and a reagent (typically ammonia) that is injected into the flue gas stream. BASF Catalysts’ SCR catalysts selectively convert NOx into nitrogen and water, thereby reducing NOx emissions by up to 97 per cent. The products consist of porous ceramic, honeycomb substrates that have been coated with either a vanadium-titanium (VNX™) or zeolite (ETZ™) catalyst.

The catalysts are specially formulated to withstand high operating temperatures, and the ceramic substrates can withstand thermal shock associated with rapid start-ups, shutdowns and turbine trips. This means that there are no restrictions on how fast a turbine can be brought up to full-load operation. VNX and ETZ catalysts are part of BASF Catalysts’ line of NOXCat™ products for SCR systems. Contact: BASF Catalysts, 25 Middlesex/Essex Turnpike, Iselin, NJ 08830-0770, United States of America. Tel: +1 (732) 205 5000; E-mail:

Industrial fume scrubbers

Shivas Reinplast Company of India offers industrial scrubbers for the safe capture of hazardous fumes. Counter flow fume scrubbers are designed for contaminants that are difficult to absorb. The counter flow design offers advantages in the efficient and effective use of scrubbing solutions, besides higher separator efficiency, especially for deep beds of packing. High removal efficiency is advantageous where the contaminants are highly offensive or have recovery value. In this design, mist and separating solutions carry-over at high gas velocity is minimized by the use of dry packed bed mist eliminators. Counter flow separators are available with a variety of tower internals; each designed to achieve a maximum in efficiency at a minimum of cost. The separators are available with packed beds in height ranging from 1.2 m to 6.0 m. Standard fume separators are packed with 50 mm plastic tower fill such as tellerettes, which give a higher target efficiency in mist and light dust conditions.

The cross flow design offers added advantages as to low water requirements, low-pressure drop and low fan cost. In this design, elimination and scrubbing solution carry-over is minimized using back of the packed bed, which is operated dry. Efficiency of this design of internal corrugated walls prevents the gas and scrubbing solution from by-passing the packed beds. All scrubbers have corrosion resistant construction with sheets of polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polyvinyldene, polyethylene, and fibreglass-reinforced plastic. Contact: Shivas Reinplast Company of India, C-71/8, Bulandsahar Road, Industrial Area, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201 009, India. Tel: +91 (120) 2866985, 6459985; Fax: +91 (120) 2866987; E-mail:

Nanometal catalyst lowers petrol exhaust system cost

Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) will likely adopt particulate matter (PM) filters for petrol engines by 2014, with a 15 per cent penetration by 2016. With the increasing penetration of direct injection in petrol engines, there will be a greater need for PM filters. New analysis from Frost & Sullivan finds that the future trend is clearly the tri-metal catalyst, a calculated ratio of precious metals to be used along with rhodium, which is most suitable for expelling nitrogen oxide (NOx). NOx concerns arising from lean combustion petrol direct injection (PDI), downsizing and turbo charging will drive demand for exhaust gas recirculations (EGRs) and PM count in PDI engines, thus catalysing the growth of PM filters. Greater sales volume of small-segment vehicles will boost demand for catalysts such as tri-metal catalysts.

However, the exhaust temperature of petrol engines is higher than that of diesel engines. Therefore, materials used in petrol engine exhaust after-treatment systems should be more temperature-resistant, resulting in higher costs. There will be a growing need for high-temperature-resistant materials with downsizing and turbo charging of petrol engines. Market participants should develop and fit nanometal catalyst in catalytic converters to reduce cost. Applications based on nanotechnology can bring down the price of exhaust system by about 70 per cent. This will help manufacturers optimize the extra cost associated with PM filters.


Remediation and Management of Contaminated Sites

This book presents a complete account of what needs to be done for contaminated sites, from analysing a site’s potential economic value and contamination issues to site testing and analysis. It explores the selection of appropriate remediation methods, the determination of ongoing risks and limitations of a remediated site, site reclamation, new uses for remediated sites and reporting documentation. The book also covers volatile organic compounds, radiochemicals (radon), biologicals and other groundwater and soil contaminants. Case studies feature examples from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.

Contact: CRC Press, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1235) 400 524; Fax: +44 (1235) 400 525; E-mail:

Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control

This publication covers the proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control held in September, 2009, at Delft. Prompted by both economical and public pressure, waste gas treatment has gradually been integrated into process designs. Industries are becoming self-sufficient and recover compounds from waste streams for use as raw material. This book provides an overview of innovative biotechnology-based processes for treatment of waste gasses. It discusses various innovative research aspects of environmental chemistry, environmental engineering and bioprocess technology.

Contact: CRC Press, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1235) 400 524; Fax: +44 (1235) 400 525; E-mail:

Hazardous Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

This publication provides an excellent introduction to mastering hazardous waste materials management and preventing the contamination of the environment. It also contains information on the legal and regulatory aspects of pollution, in-plant handling of hazardous waste materials, reducing the amount of hazardous waste produced, and ways to save money through preventing personal injury and preventing or limiting the effects of accidental pollution.

Contact: IDC Technologies, P.O. Box 1093, West Perth WA 6872, Australia. Tel: +61 (08) 9321 1702; Fax: +61 (08) 9321 2891.


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